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through Federal taxation that would raise the money), than they would receive, in turn, in the distribution.

The CHAIRMAN. I thought you said you took in all the county superintendents and rural superintendents, as well as State?

Mr. SHANKLAND. Yes, sir; they are entitled to membership, but they are so seldom able to go to the convention itself. The convention is conducted by the superintendents of the larger cities. They pay their dues and wait for us to send them the final report of what happened.

The CHAIRMAN. How large a proportion of the membership was represented at this convention, would you say?

Mr. SHANKLAND. There were, of the department of superintendence itself, 2,200 superintendents of schools. In the other departments, I am not in a position to state precisely, except this, that we issued' 11,000 railroad identification certificates and no doubt a very considerable part of those certificates was used for attendance.

The CHAIRMAN. Are there any other questions?

Mr. SHANKLAND. I will be glad to file, Mr. Chairman, a printed copy of the resolutions of the committee.

The CHAIRMAN. If there is no objection, that may be incorporated in the record.

Mr. SHANKLAND. I have marked the part that refers to the bill.

Mr. TUCKER. What is the membership of the National Education Association?

Mr. SHANKLAND. The membership, as of January 1, in a printed report, was about 133,000. I can not give it to you precisely. That is correct within a thousand or so, in the printed report.

Mr. TUCKER. And they are practically all school teachers ?

Mr. SHANKLAND. Yes, sir; or superintendents or principals. We count ourselves all as teachers, though.

Mr. TUCKER. Yes. Is it not true that every member of that association would be benefited by this bill?

Mr. SHANKLAND. No; I think not. I think, as far as the direct benefit goes, that it would benefit a very few of them, because the greater part of the membership comes from the larger cities; for instance, Chicago, Cleveland, New York, where the benefit would be very slight.

Mr. TUCKER. Would be very slight?
Mr. SHANKLAND. Yes, if any at all.
Mr. LOWREY. You mean the financial benefit?
Mr. SHANKLAND. Yes; the financial benefit.

Miss WILLIAMS. Mr. Chairman, may I file the resolutions of the National Education Association and of this department of superintendence, which include the resolution which Mr. Shankland has set forth?

Also, I should like to file, if I may, the statements of 15 superintendents of city school systems, indorsing this bill.

Also the statements of six of the officers of the National Education Association; 15 college and normal school people of prominence; 3 county superintendents, and of 26 State superintendents.

I call particular attention to the indorsement of these 26 State superintendents, and I should like to read the indorsement of Commissioner Payson Smith, of Massachusetts:

reasons:

MY DEAR Miss WILLIAMS: It is my opinion that it is desirable to have created a strong department of education at Washington for the following

1. That there may be a proper and adequate coordination of present Federal activities in education.

2. That there may be an agency responsible to the Nation as a whole for adequate investigation and research in the field of education. At the present time chief reliance in these matters has to be placed upon foundations supported by private funds. A.condition of this sort should not permanently continue in an activity which is almost solely supported from public taxation and conducted by public officers.

3. To secure adequate educational results in any of those fields in which the Nation as a whole has an interest.

It is my opinion that all the good results which will naturally come from an adequately supported and properly coordinated department of education can be secured without undue or improper Federal interference with or control of education within the States. Very truly yours,

Payson Smith,

Commissioner of Education. (The resolutions and statements filed by Miss Williams, as above noted, are as follows:)

ASSOCIATION

EXCERPT FROM THE RESOLUTIONS OF THE NATIONAL EDUCATION

PRESENTED AT PITTSBURGH, PA., 1918

The association favors the establishment of a national university and the creation of a national department of education under the direction of a secretary of education.

RESOLUTION OF THE NATIONAL EDUCATION ASSOCIATION, MILWAUKEE, WIS., 1919

This association has urged for years that education should be given just recognition by the Federal Government, and that a department of education should be established. The war has so emphasized the importance of education from a national standpoint that the necessity of the immediate consideration of this question is universally recognized.

Moreover, a commission on the emergency in education, appointed by this association one year ago, acting under the instruction of the association, prepared a bill creating a department of education with a secretary in the President's Cabinet, and authorizing the appropriation of $100,000,000 to encourage the States in the promotion of education, particularly in the removal of illiteracy, the Americanization of immigrants, physical and health education, teacher preparation, and the equalizing of educational opportunities.

The association, through its commission and with the cooperation of other great national organizations, secured the introduction of this bill in the Sixtyfifth Congress, and more recently its introduction in the Sixty-sixth Congress in a carefully revised and perfected form, known as the Smith-Towner bill (H. R. 7 and S. 1017); therefore, this association gives its hearty and unqualified indorsement to the Smith-Towner bill (H. R. 7 and S. 1017) now before the Sixty-sixth Congress, and instructs the official staff of this association to use all honorable means to secure its passage.

RESOLUTION OF THE NATIONAL EDUCATION ASSOCIATION, SALT LAKE CITY, UTAH,

1920

We are convinced that adequate preparation of teachers and the elevation of standards of selection can be achieved only through an acceptance of the principle that the wealth of the Nation as a whole can legitimately and may justifiably be drawn upon to equalize opportunities for the education of all the Nation's children. We reaffirm our faith in this principle, and urge the immediate passage of the Smith-Towner bill by which Federal participation in the support of public education is provided and which at the same time preserves the autonomy of the State in the management of its schools. We condemn the efforts of the enemies

of the public schools to defeat this measure, particularly by stigmatizing it as a measure which involves national control of education. Such control is not only clearly unconstitutional but it is out of harmony with the spirit of American institutions. This association pledges itself as unreservedly to do its utmost to thwart any movement or proposal that would centralize control of the public schools as it does to its support of the measure.

We call attention once more to the singularly valuable features of the SmithTowner bill; to the program that it sets for the reduction of adult illiteracy, for the Americanization of the immigrant population, for the vast extension of health education, for the adequate preparation of teachers, and for the creation of a department of education under a secretary who shall have a seat in the President's Cabinet. We reiterate the fact that each item of this program strikes at an outstanding weakness of American education which the experience of the war set in high relief. We call the people's attention to the fact that these emphasized problems are still with us, and that unaided State and local action has failed in any appreciable measure even to begin their solution on a Nation-wide basis. The Smith-Towner bill is the only measure that has been proposed to cope with all of these problems. That measure now languishes in Congress, primarily because of the opposition of a minority of the people whose leaders are traditionally opposed to public education. We seriously and earnestly commend to the American people the program proposed in the Smith-Towner bill, framed with the interests of America's children and America's free schools solely in mind.

RESOLUTION OF THE NATIONAL EDUCATION ASSOCIATION, DES MOINES, IOWA, 1924

We renew our unqualified indorsement of a department of education with a secretary in the President's Cabinet, and Federal aid to encourage the States in the removal of illiteracy, the Americanization of the foreign born, the development of a program of physical education and health service, the training of teachers, and the equalization of educational opportunity as embodied in the TownerSterling bill now pending in the Sixty-seventh Congress. We are gratified to note the development of a nation-wide sentiment in support of the principles embodied in this bill. We unite with the friends of public education throughout our country in urging that Congress give prompt recognition to the primary importanc of education in relation to the Nation's welfare. We earnestly protest against the submerging of education in any other department of the Government or the subordination of education to any other national interest.

RESOLUTION OF THE BOSTON MEETING, JULY, 1922

We reaffirm our sincere, devoted, and unqualified support of Federal aid and Federal recognition of public education-without Federal interference in any way with State and local control-as they are embodied in the Towner-Sterling bill now pending in the Sixty-seventh Congress.

The question of adequate school revenues is one of the most pressing and important problems facing the country at this time. The wealth of the Nation is sufficient for all its educational needs. We ask that Congress and the State legislatures recognize the supreme importance of public education and that they set themselves to the task of providing adequate funds for its support. We believe, in order that there may be equality of educational opportunity for all children, that the State should assume a much larger responsibility for the adequate financial support of schools and that at least one half of the school revenues should be derived from State income.

RESOLUTION PASSED JULY, 1923, NATIONAL EDUCATION ASSOCIATION We reaffirm our sincere, devoted, and unqualified support of Federal aid and Federal recognition for public education without Federal interference in any way with State and local control as embodied in the Towner-Sterling bill. We believe that national leadership in education and the efficient administration of the educational activities of the Federal Government demand the creation of a department of education with a secretary in the Cabinet of the President. We know that the aid furnished to the States and Territories of the Federal Government has been a most important feature in the development of their school systems. The deficiencies now existing in our system of public education will be most effectively and rapidly removed by providing Federal aid for the removal of illiteracy, for the Americanization of the foreign born, for the development of a more adequate program of health service, for the training of teachers, and for the equalization of educational opportunity as provided in the Towner-Sterling bill.

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DEPARTMENT OF SUPERINTENDENTS, CLEVELAND, OHIO,

FEBRUARY 23–28, 1920

We reaffirm our indorsement of a department of education with a secretary of education in the President's Cabinet, and generous appropriations hy Congress to aid and encourage the States in the promotion of education with the express provisions that Federal aid shall not imply Federal control or supervision of education, and that education in all its phases shall be organized, supervised, and administered exclusively by State and local educational authorities, established by State laws, as provided in the Smith-Towner bill, now pending in the Sixtysixth Congress.

RESOLUTION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF SUPERINTENDENCE, ATLANTIC CITY, MARCH

3, 1921

We reindorse the principles of the Smith-Towner education bill which has been reported favorably by both the House and the Senate. We believe administrative procedure requires that many of the educational agencies now uncoordinated in the National Government be organized in a single executive department and we maintain that the dignity of the profession be recognized by placing the head of that department in the Cabinet of the President.

We hold that long established practice of the Federal Government in providing aid to education within the States should be continued, and that the authorization of an appropriation by the Smith-Towner bill for the removal of illiteracy, for the Americanization of the foreign born, and for the equalization of educational opportunities are not only necessary in the present crisis but are also completely in accord with our most securely established American practice. We call especial attention to the fact that the bill expressly provides that the organization, administration and supervision of the schools, aided by the provision of the act, shall be exercised exclusively by the legally constituted State and local educational authorities.

RESOLUTION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF SUPERINTENDENCE, CHICAGO, ILL., MARCH

2, 1922

Believing that the Towner-Sterling bill now before Congress recognizes and embodies the policy of the undivided responsibility and authority of the State in matters of education, we reaffirm our approval of the principles of that bill.

RESOLUTION PASSED FEBRUARY, 1923, DEPARTMENT OF SUPERINTENDENCE OF THE

NATIONAL EDUCATION ASSOCIATION

We recognize that a department of education is necessary in order that the educational activities of our National Government shall be efficiently and economically administered. We believe that national sanction and national leadership can be provided only in the person of a secretary of education in the President's Cabinet. Federal aid for the purpose of stimulating the several States to remove illiteracy, Americanize the foreign born, prepare teachers, develop adequate programs of physical education, and equalize educational opportunities, is in accord with our long established practice, and is demanded by the present crisis in education. We therefore reaffirm our allegiance to the Towner-Sterling bill.

RESOLUTION, DEPARTMENT OF SUPERINTENDENCE, CHICAGO, ILL., FEBRUARY 28,

1924

We have noted with great satisfaction and approval that President Coolidge in his first message to Congress gave expression to his high regard for education and to a belief that education is a fundamental requirement of national activity and is worthy of a department in the National Government and a place in the Cabinet.

The clear and forceful statement of the President in his message has greatly encouraged us in the hope for an early and favorable consideration of the education bill now before Congress.

We affirm our allegiance to the education bill in the language of the resolution adopted last year, as follows:

“We recognize that a department of education is necessary in order that the educational activities of our National Government shall be efficiently and economically administered. We believe that national sanction and national leadership can be provided only in the person of a secretary of education in the President's Cabinet. Federal aid for the purpose of stimulating the several States to remove illiteracy, Americanize the foreign born, prepare teachers, develop adequate programs of physical education, and equalize educational opportunities, is in accord with our long-established practice and is demanded by the present crisis in education."

RESOLUTION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF SUPERINTENDENCE, CHICAGO, ILL., FEB

RUARY 24-MARCH 1, 1919

Declaring that education in a democracy is the most important function of the Government; that it is a National, State, and local responsibility, and that each should contribute to its support, we urge, therefore, the passage by Congress of the Smith-Towner education bill. In order that education may be given proper recognition by the National Government, we ask for the immediate creation of a department of education with a secretary who shall be a member of the President's Cabinet.

SUPERINTENDENTS OF CITY SCHOOL SYSTEMS

ATLANTA, Ga., January 18, 1924. Miss CHARL WILLIAMS,

National Education Association, Washington, D. C.: The Georgia Educational Association, Atlanta Public School Teachers' Association, and the Parent-Teacher Association of Atlanta and of State in general are solidly back of the education bill now pending and on which a hearing will be had Tuesday, January 22. Replies from Congressmen and Senators indicate a large majority favorable to bill. The educators of our State and community ask that you communicate our wishes to the Committee on Education. Cordially yours,

Willis A. SUTTON, Superintendent of Schools, Atlanta, Ga.

JANUARY 18, 1924. Miss Charl O. Williams,

National Education Association, Washington, D. C. MY DEAR Miss WILLIAMS: Your telegram has been received. I agree that all people who are interested in the progress of education in this country should stand firmly back of the education bill before the Senate of the United States.

There is no civilized country which as a nation gives as little dignity and attention from the headquarters of the Nation to the most important subject of public education as the United States. I believe the provisions of the educational bill if enacted into a law would result in a long step forward in public education in America. Yours sincerely,

E. C. BROOME, Superintendent of Schools, Philadelphia, Pa.

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