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of Columbia University, says the public schools are responsible for the lawlessness in America. Everybody knows that that is a lie from foundation to top. Everybody knows that is a lie, and when he says that he realizes, like everybody else, that it is nothing but a lie, because the public schools are not responsible for lawlessness, and when it comes to fanaticism, you will never make anybody believe this Congress will kill this bill because they are afraid of 100,000 population.

I will say this, that the time will come when everybody in American official life will be lined up for the public schools, and it will come in a way that nobody realizes, and when that time comes I would rather be lined up with the public schools than with all the bankers and everybody else in this world. That is where we have got to watch out against that time.

We have just had a good many demonstrations recently. We talk about the hard times. There never has been a time in America when bond issues for public schools carried as they have carried to-day, never anything like it. There has not been a bond issue killed in America unless it was on account of the location of the schoolhouse.

Mr. BLACK. You do not attribute that to the tax exemption feature?

Doctor WINSHIP. I attribute it to the fact or the determination to stand by the public schools.

Mr. BLACK. Irrespective of the buyer probably thinking that he is doing it because he gets a tax-exempt bond?

Doctor WINSHIP. Location has killed many measures in the world. Different cities have voted 20 to 1 for millions of dollars bond issue for public schools, and in Chicago, when all the papers of that city, for the first and only time the News, Tribune, and Hearst's papers were advocating a museum at a cost of $4,500,000, a zoo, museum, zoo park, one little woman suggested that they put up a bond issue for schools at the same time, and the papers said, “No, No, No," and this little woman put up this slogan "Monkeys or kids,” and that bond issue against the monkeys was passed 21 to 1 and the bond issue for schools was carried through 21 to 1, and you will find that all over America.

That is all that I care to say, and I almost beg your pardon for saying that.

Mr. Black. That is a fairly good argument for the State's ability to finance their own school system, the ready sale they have for their bonds.

Miss WILLIAMS. The next organization is the National League of Women Voters, represented by Mrs. John J. O'Connor.

STATEMENT OF MRS. JOHN J. O'CONNOR, REPRESENTING

THE NATIONAL LEAGUE OF WOMEN VOTERS

Mrs. O'CONNOR. Mr. Chairman and members of the committee, I am representing the National League of Women Voters, of which Mrs. Park is president, and I am speaking for Mrs. Walter Brookings, who is national chairman for education of the league. May I say also that she is the mother of four children, and therefore has a personal feeling in connection with this matter; she is interested generally in the problem of education.

The National League of Women Voters in the past four successive annual conventions has indorsed the principles of a Federal department of education, adequate financing of public education, and Federal aid to the States for physical education under the publicschool system. A similar recommendation for the Federal legislative program next year has just been made to the State chairman of education of the league.

We intend this year to lay particular stress on additional sources of income for the public schools of this country, feeling that improvement in the present schools depends on adequate financial support and equalization of educational opportunities. We consider the establishing of the department, and the adequate financing of the department, as a necessary step toward the realization of these standards. We have had ample opportunity to note what assistance the Federal Bureau of Education has been in States where educational deficiencies were acute. We consequently feel that the appropriation for research is a vital one.

Thé 1923–24 plan of work of the education committee of the National League of Women Voters shows how greatly our members desire the principles involved in this bill. You will find a program of the committee on education following my remarks.

A program is sent out early in December to all the State chairmen of education. It is returned to them showing what change, if any, they wish made. It is again sent out to State chairmen in January with these changes incorporated. From then until April it is in the hands of State and local leagues for study, discussion, and recommendation. The chairmen come to a closed committee meeting of the convention having the sentiment of the league of their State and vote a recommendation to the convention which casts the deciding vote. These several principles all included in the idea of a Federal department of education have been passed by four successive conventions.

We have had frequent contact with the Bureau of Education and know first hand how helpful it is in its present limitations and how greatly it has aided some of the sections of our country.

I would be very glad to file this statement, if that is agreeable.

(The statement referred to, the program of the committee on education, National League of Women Voters, is as follows:)

NATIONAL LEAGUE OF WOMEN VOTERS— PROGRAM OF THE COMMITTEE ON

EDUCATION

STANDARDS

Standards particularly recommended for 1923:
State: Qualified persons only, on boards of education.

FOR STUDY

1. School budgets--State and local.
2. Modern administration, school plants, and methods.

Standards recommended, all or any part of which may be made active at any time:

I. FEDERAL

1. Federal department of education.
2. Adequate financing of public education.

3. Federal aid to the States for physical education under the public-school system.

II. STATE

1. Adequate financing of public education.

2. Compulsory education for all children between 6 and 16, nine months yearly.

3. Public school adult extension classes (including classes for aliens).
4. Consolidated rural schools.
5. Trained teachers in all schools.

6. English the basic language in all schools where courses in general education are conducted.

Miss WILLIAMS. I should like to file at this time a statement of Mrs. Maud Wood Park, president of the National League of Women Voters.

(The statement of Mrs. Maud Wood Park, president National League of Women Voters, is as follows:)

At its last annual convention the National League of Women Voters gave formal indorsement to a plan of department of education headed by a secretary who shall sit in the President's Cabinet.

It is the belief of the league that effective cooperation among the States to give every American child its American right, a fair education, can be brought about best and most quickly through the help of such a department.

The league believes, also, that the safety of a democracy rests on the trained intelligence of its citizens, it is the part of justice and wisdom to make education not a minor but a major concern of the Federal Government.

Miss WILLIAMS. I would now like to introduce Miss T. Rose, of the National Council of Jewish Women.

STATEMENT OF MRS. MARK LANSBURG, OF THE NATIONAL

COUNCIL OF JEWISH WOMEN

Mrs. LANSBURG. I am speaking for Mrs. Alexander Wolf, chairman of the committee on education of the National Council of Jewish Women. The National Council of Jewish Women, which is organized in more than 200 sections, is an organization of 30 years' standing all over the country, including 50,000 members. It indorses this legislation as follows:

A local section may act upon local or State legislation, but if it wishes to do anything in regard to national legislation, any section may submit a bill which it has duly considered to the national legislative committee. After discussions, if it is deemed of sufficient interest and importance, each of these bills is referred back to all of the sections for action.

They must give them at least 60 days in which to consider it, and the consideration is done by the body general, and voted upon by them, and the delegates then go to conventions, instructed how to vote on the resolutions which are to be passed.

At the triennial convention in St. Louis, Mo., in November, 1923, the National Council of Jewish Women unanimously indorsed the bill for a department of education, with a secretary in the President's Cabinet, and for Federal aid. I do not know if they indorsed this specific bill. They indorsed the Sterling-Towner bill, and I believe this bill has been considered, although I am not sure that it has been considered in its entirety.

Miss WILLIAMS. The Young Women's Christian Association is represented here to-day by Miss Elizabeth Eastman, member of the national board of the Young Women's Christian Association, who will speak to you for a few minutes.

STATEMENT OF MISS ELIZABETH EASTMAN, MEMBER OF

NATIONAL BOARD YOUNG WOMEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION, WASHINGTON, D. C.

Miss EASTMAN. On recommendation of the committee on education and research, of which President Woolley, of Mount Holyoke College, is chairman, the national board of Young Women's Christian Associations of the United States indorsed the principles of a Federal department of education and Federal aid for the promotion of education within the States. This action was taken at a meeting of the board held October 3, 1923.

The conventions of Young Women's Christian Associations do not indorse bills. They indorse general principles and the principle of education is one of the foundations of our organization. We carried on a great educational work recently in our schools. This measure was studied for four years, nearly four years, before it was indorsed, and it was indorsed at the recommendation of the committee on education and research, of which I am also a member, and I can testify as to the thorough way in which it was studied.

The national board is empowered to indorse bills that are in agreement with the principles that are voted for at conventions. Each local association received copies of the bill and a statement of the argument for and against the bill, and every membeer of the assotion had an opportunity to hear discussions. We had a number of educators on the national board, and I think that there was a good deal of opposition to the bill before it was studied. There was a fear that it would produce a standardization, whatever that is, artificiality, perhaps, in education, but after the bill was studied, all of this opposition was removed, and there has been a great demand for our indorsement from the local association, 600,000 members.

There have been a great many letters and a great many requests for more materials, and it has been the subject for the summer program.

Miss WILLIAMS. I would like to file a statement of Mrs. Robert E. Speer, president national board of the Young Women's Christian Associations, and a statement of Mr. Hugh S. McGill, general secretary International Council of Religious Education as well as the resolutions of the council. This is his statement:

The International Council of Religious Education is the one accredited agency for cooperative, interdemonational work in religious education of 35 Protestant Christian denominations, and also of the organized territorial forces, including the State councils and their auxiliary accounting and local councils of religious education which took the place of the old Sunday school associations.

(The statement of Mrs. Robert E. Speer, president national board of Young Women's Christian Associations, and the resolution adopted by the executive committee of the International Council of Religious Education, February 14, 1924, are as follows :)

Believing that the development of personality is the goal of all education, the association's program is based on education, to the end that young women may be able to adapt themselves to their social environment, to appreciate the world in which they live, and to intelligent and creative citizens in the social order of their day. Therefore, the Young Women's Christian Association is particularly glad to see education come to be considered as one of the major interests of our national life, and to see adequate provision made therefor in our local and national budgets.

94041—241-16

The provision for research in education is one of our greatest needs to-day, and should lead us forth into new ways of enriching the life of our people as well as the lives of others.

As a Nation we are striving to achieve democracy. This may only be done by building on the foundation of an educated citizenry. We can not look with complacency upon the changing forms of our social life so long as their growth and stability are menaced by illiteracy, and the bitterness of soul which comes from lack of opportunity to find one's self in unselfish service. All of these things are problems of education which alone can insure the creation of a sane, intelligent public opinion which shall not become the tool of half-truths nor of propaganda.

Mrs. ROBERT E. SPEER,
President National Board of the Young Women's

Christian Association.

Whereas there is a nation-wide movement for the creation of a department of education with a secretary in the President's Cabinet, promoted by the National Education Association and many other organizations interested in social welfare, and there is now a bill before Congress known as the SterlingReed bill (known in the last Congress as the Towner-Sterling bill) for the creation of a department of education, and for the promotion of education generally; and

Whereas when our general secretary was elected in 1922 it was with the express understanding that he should give so much of his time as in his judgment might be advisable for the promotion of this cause; Therefore

Resolved, That the principles embodied in the education bill now before Congress, known as the Sterling-Reed bill, be indorsed and that the general secretary be authorized to cooperate in the promotion and passage of this measure to such extent as in his judgment may seem advisable and proper.

Miss WILLIAMS. Another statement sent me by Hugh S. McGill, general secretary International Sunday School Council of Religious Education is as follows:

The supreme importance of education to the life of our Nation is conceded by all thoughtful persons, and yet our Federal Government shows a greater interest in many other subjects. Agriculture, commerce, and labor are each represented in the President's Cabinet. No satisfactory reason can be given why education should not be accorded the same recognition. To deny it is to hold that the training of the future citizens of our Republic is of less importance from a national standpoint than the development of the material resources of our country.

The movement for a department of education with a secretary in the President's Cabinet is gaining in the approval of those who are most deeply concerned in the highest welfare of our Nation, and the perpetuity of our free institutions. This movement can not be stopped because it is founded upon right principles and must ultimately win.

At this time I should like to file a statement of Mary Garrett Hay, president Women's City Club, New York City.

(The paper referred to is as follows:)

I favor the Sterling-Reed bill because it provides sufficiently effective means on a national scale for the coordination and sifting of the educational work and experiments throughout the country.

Education is one of the major concerns of daily American life. Our public education system employs' more workers than any given industry, excepting the farmers. It molds the character and outlook of the growing generation as well as of millions of adults, and yet this deep national concern is not now represented by Cabinet office. The new bill provides for it.

But the bill would not merely create a secretary of education in the President's Cabinet, a great administrative department in touch with the 48 State departments of education. It provides for a genuine social exchange of national educational problems by creating a national council of 100 representative educators and laymen, who would coordinate Federal, State, and private interest in education as applied to such outstanding social and civic problems as the removal of illiteracy, the education of the foreign born, and the training of teachers.

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