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Service, leaving 7 cents for all other purposes. It does not ask our leave. This bill asks that Congress be permitted to take a few mills from the remaining 7 cents for the removal of illiteracy. Some of us would even be willing to lop off a cent or so from the military appropriation for this purpose.

However, there is another angle even to this view of the question. In the present'flux of population most of the States have a vital interest in the other States, The younger generation is restless. If it moves intelligently, as educated people are apt to move, it will furnish desirable immigrants wherever they go. The next objection is that this is no time to branch out and spend large sums

And the answer is that we are proposing to spend other sums, but to make a different allocation of some of our budget-to spend some of it for the seed corn, providing good soil and plenty of it, water and sun and fertilizer and judicious cultivation.

We have recently finished the last of the big battleships that can be built under the Pacific treaty until 1932. Some enterprising mathematical genius has figured that 16,000 students can be graduated from Ann Arbor for the cost of one such battleship. At that rate how many children could be led safely past that fifth grade which marks the end of schooling for so mahy of them.

We are on a peace basis and expect to stay there. I am not one of those grudge the money spent at West Point and Annapolis. We have had value received with compound interest for every dollar of it, but I have always regretted that the university which George Washington thought he had provided for never materialized. His idea was that provincialism and sectional feeling might be overcome by gathering together "the youth of every part under such circumstances as will by the freedom of intercourse and collision of sentiment give to their minds the direction of truth, philanthropy, and mutual conciliation.”

Think what “mutual conciliation" would have spared this Nation in blood and tears, which are the worst of all taxes.

And the third objection is that there is no necessity for creating another Cabinet office and officer for this purpose, which is much like telling a women with a large family that she does not need a nursery, much less a spacious and well appointed kitchen, but can get along perfectly well with a trundle bed and a kitchenette. Is there any need to argue that point with women? We all of us know better and we also know men who build barn after barn and who have tractors and implements of the latest fashion, especially those which enable them to sit down at their work, while their wives and daughters get along with old stoves, carry the water, and have no other mixer than a plain iron spoon.

What is even worse, some of those men have been elected to Congress. They can be found at both ends of the Capitol.

The rural population has a special interest in this bill, because the rural schools always sit at the second table, are the last served, and their fare is often scanty and cold. Rural school buildings frequently show no scientific knowledge as to lighting, heating, and ventilation, and the teacher is paid less than the city teacher. In some States she has to experiment on the country child before she can get into the city schools. If there is but one teacher in the school the salary averages $765 as compared to $1,100 and up to close to $2,500 in towns of from 2,500 to 100,000 population. If there are two teachers the average is $714. The average for women teachers is much less.

The rural child learns much from his surroundings, but the country teacher without the various aids at the disposal of her city sister has a far more difficult task. Is it any wonder that the vast majority of teachers are merely trying their prentice hand at this noblest of all occupations on their way to homes of their own or some calling that has a remuneration better commensurate for the time spent in preparation and the heavy demands on mind and spirit?

There is another reason why this is a matter of special moment to rural women. Other women, when trying to get legislation have fallen into the way of reminding legislators of the huge appropriations made for the remedy of rural evils—cattle tick, hog cholera, and so on. The wishes of farmers are supposed to be allpowerful with legislators, especially in the years when a local election is pending, when Congress has an attack of what might be called “hay fever" in its anxiety to placate the rural vote. Having watched their operations for some years I am not so much impressed as if I had only heard about it by radio. I have an ill-natured suspicion that they put up those millions for meat inspection, mainly because the 60 per cent of the population which lives in cities is going to eat most of the meat. But every new Congress, like second marriages, is “a triumph of hope over experience" and we are trusting that the Sixty-eighth will be the best for years.

This educational bill is the first great fundamental change in governmental activities asked by the women since their enfranchisement. They have been paying taxes for a great many years without having anything to say as to their disposition, and they have been studying this situation in all its bearings, close at hand and at long range, and as a result of this study they have brought a concrete proposition to Congress. The men who have given the subject profound study agree with their conclusions.

During a famine in Japan one old man took his portion of rice, yet grew steadily weaker and weaker. By the time for the next planting the old farmer was dead, but at the cost of his own life he had preserved the seed for the next harvest. Shall we grind the seed-corn?

Miss WILLIAMS. I should like to file here short statements of individuals, most of them telegrams, for this bill.

It has been said that the educational forces of this country are divided on this bill-We have held up to us the name of Doctor Lowell, of Harvard, and Doctor Butler, of Columbia, and a few other presidents and professors of privately endowed educational institutions. We are supposed to take our cue from them. We have not done so and never intend to do so.

I will file a list of more than 500 educators, with their official position and location. They represent every phase of American education, State superintendents, county superintendents, normalschool presidents, and, as I said, every phase of American education, who have voluntered to stay by this measure until it is enacted in the law.

The CHAIRMAN. Is this something signed by them?

Miss WILLIAMS. A list of the educational crusaders, and I should think that the committee would be interested in having this list in the record.

The CHAIRMAN. This is simply a list?
Miss WILLIAMS. Yes, sir.

The CHAIRMAN. It is nothing signed by them? It is simply a statement that they are in favor of this bill?

Mr. BLACK. How did you get their approval of this bill?
Miss WILLIAMS. How did we get their approval?
Mr. BLACK. Yes.

I hereby volunteer my services as an educational crusader to speak on behalf of the educational bill on every possible occasion under conditions to be arranged by the organization before which the address is to be made. You may publish my name in the Journal of the National Education Association in this connection.

Miss WILLIAMS. All the literature on the bill was sent to these people. They are members of various teachers' organizations and they have signed this:

Mr. BLACK. Did you get any unfavorable responses?
Miss WILLIAMS. Yes.
Mr. BLACK. Are you filing those?
Miss WILLIAMS. No; they will not be filed.

Here is an article that is very interesting, an excerpt from a little magazine which came in my mail yesterday afternoon. It shows, if I may call to the attention of Mr. Black, who is from New York, the frank confession of the dependence of New York upon the rest of the country. This magazine is published by the Associated Purchasing Agents of New York City, and was sent to me by Miss Neville Chapman of that city. This article begins like this:

New York City is not merely the capital of the State of New York and the largest metropolis in the world, it is in a special and peculiar sense your town. If the shops of New York were dependent only on those who lived within the city, they could not command the genius of the world in the designing of gowns, of hats, of shoes, of furniture, the making of all things exquisite. It is because women all over the United States look to New York as their town, that they are able to serve women everywhere. So, though, of course, you owe a loyalty to your own city and there are many things you can buy to advantage there, you also owe a loyalty to this great town where so many exist only to serve youto bring to your own doorstep, wherever it is, the knowledge and choice of beauty which comes only with the knowledge of and contact with the whole world. So don't forget to turn to the shops of New York, and command their services through your shopper, for they all belong to you.

It is a frank confession of the dependence of the city of New York.

(The papers referred to are as follows:) RESOLUTION PASSED DECEMBER 8, 1923, NationAL SOCIETY FOR VOCATIONAL

EDUCATION Whereas the educational. interests of this country are sufficiently important, unique, and complex to require the best efforts of a national department of education; and

Whereas it does appear to the members of this society that existing conditions in national education would be sufficiently improved by the passage of the proposed welfare department bill which was before the Sixty-seventh Congress of the United States; and

Whereas our distinguished national President has indorsed the welfare department plan in his recent message to Congress: Be it

Resolved, That this society, in convention assembled at Buffalo, N. Y., December 8, 1923, reaffirmed its conviction that the best interests of education can be served only through a national department of education separate and distinct from any other governmental activity.

I hereby volunteer my services as an educational crusader to speak on behalf of the education bill on every possible occasion under conditions to be arranged by the organization before which the address is to be made. You may publish my name in the Journal of the National Education Association in this connection.

(Name)

(Position)

(Address)

NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF EDUCATIONAL CRUSADERS

These men and women have enlisted their services “to speak on behalf of the education bill on every possible occasion under conditions to be arranged by the organization before which the address is to be made.”

NEW ENGLAND

William C. Bagley, Westport, Conn.
Thomas W. Bicknell, author and editor, Providence, R. I.
Herbert D. Casey, superintendent of schools, Springfield, Vt.
W. Linwood Chase, superintendent of schools, Canton, Me.
Merritt D. Chittenden, State supervisor of high schools, Burlington, Vt.
E. H. Clowse, principal high school, Richmond, Vt.
Alberto M. Eldridge, principal Perkins School, Braintree, Mass.
M. T. Goodrich, superintendent of schools, Kennebunk, Me.
A. W. Gordon, secretary Maine Teachers Association, Augusta, Me.
F. U. Landman, superintendent Union No. 64, Wolfeboro, N. H.
Ernst Makechnie, secretary Massachusetts Teachers Federation, Somerville
44, Mass.

Wallace E. Mason, director normal schools, Keene, N. H.
Frederick G. Nochols, associate professor of education, Harvard University.

Thomas P. Packard, superintendent of schools, Houlton, Me.
J. Asbury Pitman, principal State Normal School, Salem, Mass.
C. P. Quimby, principal ninth school district, South Manchester, Conn.

Ballard D. Remy, principal Forest Park Junior High School, Springfield, Mass.

C. R. Rounds, graduate school of education, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.

W. E. Russell, principal State Normal School, Gorham, Me.
Emily D. Stacy, critic teacher, normal school, North Adams, Mass.
Augustus 0. Thomas, commissioner of education, Augusta, Me.

J. W. Twente, head department of education, University of New Hampshire, Durham, N. H.

Frank L. Whipple, principal, eastern Junior High School, Lynn, Mass. Caroline S. Woodruff, principal State Normal Training School, Castleton, Vt. Annie Carleton Woodward, teacher, senior high school, Somerville, Mass.

MIDDLE ATLANTIC

C. F. Adamson, assistant county superintendent of schools, Meadville, Pa.
Thomas Agnew, principal Horace Mann School, Bayonne, N. J.
A. P. Akeley, county superintendent of schools, Coudersport, Pa.

William C. Ash, director vocational teacher training, University of Pennsylvania, West Philadelphia, Pa.

J. George Becht, State superintendent of public instruction, Harrisburg. Pa. C. F. Becker, perintendent of schools, Ellwood City, Pa.

Mabel Carney, professor of rural education, Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, N. Y.

Will Grant Chamber, dean school of education, the Pennsylvania State College, State College, Pa.

Carroll D. Champlin, professor of education, State Normal School, California, Pa.

E. T. Chapman, assistant superintendent of schools, New Kensington, Pa.
Ambrose Cort, principal Public School No. 73, Brooklyn, N. Y.
T. S. Davis, county superintendent of schools, Altoona, Pa.
M. H. Deardorff, superintendent of schools, Warren, Pa.
L. H. Dennis, director vocational education, Harrisburg, Pa.
Fred W. Diehl, county superintendent of schools, Danville, Pa.
H. 0. Dietrich, superintendent of schools, Norristown, Pa.

Chester B. Dissinger, county superintendent of schools, Milford, Pike County, Pa.

Howard R. Driggs, professor education and English of the University of Utah; visiting professor of the New York University, New York, N. Y.

Lee L. Driver, director bureau of rural education, department of public instruction, Harrisburg, Pa.

J. Linwood Eisenberg, president normal school, Slippery Rock, Pa.

N. L. Engelhardt, professor of education, teachers college, Columbia University, New York, N. Y.

Edwin B. Evans, professor of English literature, Thiel College, Greenville, Pa.
George Fowler, Central High School, Syracuse, N. Y.
Clyde C. Green, president State Normal School, Clarion, Pa.

William A. Howe, M. D., State medical inspector of schools, State Education Building, Albany, N. Y.

Olive M. Jones, president National Education Association, Park Avenue Hotel, New York, N. Y.

James Herbert Kelley, editor Pennsylvania School Journal, Harrisburg, Pa. W. A. Kelly, superintendent of schools, Archbald, Pa.

Charles H. Keene, M. D., director health education, State department of public instruction, Harrisburg, Pa.

John A. H. Keith, principal State Normal School, Indiana, Pa.
Q. S. Kinder, Pennsylvania College for Women, Pittsburgh, Pa.
Norman C. Koontz, superintendent of schools, Titusville, Pa.
R. E. Laramy, superintendent of schools, Altoona, Pa.
Albert Leonard, superintendent of schools, New Rochelle, N. Y.
Edward S. Ling, superintendent of schools, Abington, Pa.

William McAndrews, associate superintendent, board of education, New York, N. Y.

Effie MacGregor, 506 West One hundred and twenty-second Street, apartment No. 11, New York, N. Y.

Mr. E. S. H. McCauley, member State council of education, Pennsylvania 1921-1923, Beaver, Pa.

Clarence E. Meleney, associate superintendent New York City schools, New York, N. Y.

Joseph F. Noonan, superintendent of schools, Mahanoy City, Pa.

Ralph Dornfeld Owen, Ph. D., professor and head of department of education, Bryn Mawr College, Bryn Mawr, Pa.

A. C. Perry, jr., district superintendent, 163 Macon Street, New York, N. Y. William Rabenort, principal Junior High School, 55 Bronx, New York, N. Y.

G. H. Reavis, dean School of Education and College of Arts and Sciences, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pa.

Sara L. Rhodes, principal Public School No. 28, 1001 Herkimer Street, Brooklyn, N. Y.

E. N. Roselle, superintendent of schools, Franklin, N. J.
B. Frank Rosenberry, superintendent of schools, Palmerton, Pa.
Ide G. Sargeant, principal Public School No. 10, Paterson, N. J.

Richard A. Searing, secretary New York State Teachers' Association, 617 North Goodman Street, Rochester, N. Y.

T. J. Sickles, superintendent of schools, Millville, N. J.
Charles R. Skinner, legislative librarian, Albany, N. Y.
S. J. Slawson, superintendent of schools, Johnstown, Pa.
Andrew T. Smith, principal State Normal School, West Chester, Pa.
John W. Snoke, county superintendent of schools, Lebanon, Pa.
R. O. Stoops, Ph. D., superintendent of schools, York, Pa.
S. M. Stouffer, superintendent of schools, Hanover, Pa.

George D. Strayer, professor of education, Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, N. Y.

Joseph Swain, president emeritus, Swarthmore College, Swarthmore, Pa. J. J. Unger, county superintendent of schools, Bridgeton, N. J.

EAST NORTH CENTRAL

H. J. Alvis, principal high school, East St. Louis, Ill. George F. Arps, head of department of psychology, dean of the college of education, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio.

Charles Barthelmeh, county superintendent of schools, New Philadelphia, Ohio.

Thomas Brew, superintendent of schools, Amboy, Ill.

Ernest Burnham, director department of rural education, Western State Normal School, Kalamazoo, Mich.

Marion Le Roy Burton, president University of Michigan, Ann Harbor, Mich. L. A. Butler, superintendent of schools, Ann Arbor, Mich.

E. T. Cameron, executive secretary Michigan State Teachers' Association, Lansing, Mich.

0. H. Caspers, county superintendent of schools, Grantsburg, Wis. Elizabeth Cleveland, supervisor girls and women's activities, Detroit public schools, Detroit, Mich.

W. G. Clippinger, president Otterhein College, Westerville, Ohio.
R. J. Condon, superintendent of schools, Cincinnati, Ohio.
F. A. Cotton, president State Normal School, La Crosse, Wis.
C. W. Crandell, superintendent of schools, Cadillac, Mich.
William T. Darling, superintendent of schools, Eau Claire, Wis.

H. A. Davee, director training-school department, State Normal School, River Falls, Wis.

H. A. Davis, superintendent of schools, Port Huron, Mich.
L. C. Dick, county superintendent of schools, London, Ohio.

E. G. Doudna, secretary Wisconsin State Teachers' Association, 611 Beaver Building, Madison, Wis.

Edward C. Elliott, president Purdue University, Lafayette, Ind.
J. O. Engleman, field secretary, National Education Association, Joliet, Ill.
R. W. Fairchild, superintendent of schools, Elgin, Ill.
E. E. Fell, superintendent of schools, Holland, Mich.
David Felmley, president Illinois State Normal University, Normal, Ill.
Nettie S. Ferrell, teacher, St. Joseph city schools, Berrien Springs, Mich.
E. C. Fisher, superintendent of schools, Rock Island, Ill.

Jessie M. Fink, principal Palmer School, 123 Union Avenue NE., Grand Rapids, Mich.

I. J. Good, president Indiana Central College, Indianapolis, Ind.
W. A. Greeson, superintendent of schools, Grand Rapids, Mich.
0. H. Greist, county superintendent of schools, Winchester, Ind.
C. H. Griffey, superintendent of schools, Adrian, Mich.

94041—241----17

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