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CHOLERA, PLAGUE, SMALLPOX, TYPHUS FEVER, AND YELLOW

FEVER-Continued.

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From medical officers of the Public Health Service, American consuls, and other sources. For reports Tres ved from Dee. 30, 1922, to June 29, 1923, see Public Health Reports for June 29, 1923. The tables of epidernie diseases are terminated semiannually and pew tables begun.

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CHOLERA, PLAGUE, SMALLPOX, TYPHUS FEVER, AND YELLOW

FEVER—Continued.

Reports Received from June 30 to July 20, 1923—Continued.

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Algeria:

Algiers.. Arabia:

Aden.. Bolivia:

La Paz..... Brazil:

Pernambuco.

Rio de Janeiro. British East Africa: Kenya

Mombasa.

Tanganyika.. Canada: Alberta

Calgary..
British Columbia-

Vancouver.
Quebec-

Quebec.....
Ceylon:

Colombo... Chile:

Concepcion...

Valparaiso.
China:

Amoy..
Antung:
Chungking.
Foochow..
Hongkong.
Manchuria-

Dairen.
Harbin,

Mukden.
Nanking:

Shanghai..
Chosen (Korea):

Chemulpo..
Fusan..
Gensan.

Seoul..
Czechoslovakia.
Ecuador:

Guayaquil
Finland.
Great Britain:

Cardiff
Greece:

Patras.

Saloniki..
India....

Bombay.
Calcutta..
Karachi.
Madras.

Rangoon.
Iraq (Mesopotamia):

Bagdad.
Italy:

Turin... Jamaica...

Kingston..
Japan:

Kobe..
Java:
East Java-

Soerabaya.
West Java-

Batavia..
Mexico:

Chihuahua.

Mexico City. Palestine:

Jaffa.

Do. Foreign.

.do.. .do..

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CHOLERA, PLAGUE, SMALLPOX, TYPHUS FEVER, AND YELLOW

FEVER-Continued.
Reports Received from June 30 to July 20, 1923-Continued.

SMALLPOX-Continued.

Place.

Date

Cases.

Deaths.

Remarks.

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Persia:

Tabriz.. Portugal:

Lisbon..

Oporto.
Portuguese West Africa:
Angola

Loanda.
Rhodesia (British Africa):

Northern Rhodesia.

Southern Rhodesia. Siam:

Bangkok. Sierra Leone:

Kaballa..

Pujehun. Spain:

Barcelona..

Valencia.
Switzerland:

Basel.
Berne.
Lucerne.

Zurich..
Syria:

Damascus.. Tunis:

Tunis.. Turkey:

Constantinople. Union of South Africa:

Cape Province.

Orange Free State. On vessel:

8. 8. Kargola.....

In Sembehun district.

1
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25

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At Mombasa, British East Africa;

vessel arrived from Bambay,

Mar. 25, 1923.
Two cases, in quarantine (re-

ported es alastrim). Vessel
fert Victoria, B. C. Apr. 28,
1923. Touched at Honolulu.

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CHOLERA, PLAGUE, SMALLPOX, TYPHUS FEVER, AND YELLOW

FEVER-Continued.

Reports Received from June 30 to July 20, 1923—Continued.

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1. TOXICITY OF INSULIN FOR WHITE RATS AS INFLUENCED BY

TEMPERATURE OF ROOM IN WHICH ANIMALS ARE KEPT. By CAEL VOEGTLIN, Professor of Pharmacology, and EDITH R. DUNN, Scientific Assistant, Division of

Pharmacology, Hygienic Laboratory, United States Public Health Service. One of the most difficult problems presented since the introduction of insulin for the treatment of diabetes has been the development of a satisfactory and relatively simple method for the determination of the therapeutic potency of this drug. It is, of course, very important that the physician should receive a product of uniform activity and free from any toxic impurities, and which will permit him to administer the proper dosage to his patients. As a result of the efforts of the Toronto investigators, a method of bio-assay has been worked out which is based on the determination of the dose of insulin which will reduce the blood sugar of fasting (24 hours) rabbits to a level where convulsions will occur. In practice it has been found that rabbits exhibit a great individual variation in susceptibility to insulin, and this has necessitated, according to information furnished by Doctor Clowes, of the Eli Lilly Co., the use of from 100 to 500 rabbits for the bio-assay of each lot of the drug. It is obvious that this means a very considerable expense in money and time. For this reason we have undertaken some work in order to secure, if possible, a simplification of the method.

Experience with the biological standardization of arsphenamine and its substitutes has suggested the use of a standard strain of albino rats in place of rabbits, as previous experience has shown us that the standardization of the animals used in the bio-assay of drugs is of the greatest importance. It is almost impossible to secure a sufficient supply of standard rabbits. The idea occurred to us that the determination of the minimum lethal dose (M. L. D.) of insulin in rats might serve as a pretty good index of the potency of such preparations. This method has, of course, one chief disadvantage, owing to the possibility of the disturbing interference of toxic impurities. However, the process of manufacture of insulin 55082-23—1

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