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followed, to carry into another channel the passions of the British nation. At length terror reigned in France, and chilled to the core all sympathy for her Revolution. What a dreadful blow was struck on the cause of rational liberty by the Revolution in France! The spirit of demons took possession of her public men, and the following answer of the Committee of Public Safety to the inhabitants of Montauban, who were alarmed by the want of provisions, is truly diabolical. "Fear not, France has a sufficiency for twelve millions of inhabitants, all the rest (about 12,300,000) must be put to death, and then there will be no scarcity of bread."*

But after such terrible domestic convulsions, and fierce foreign wars that desolated Europe, has France gained nothing at the end of fifty years? Perhaps the half of her inhabitants who lived at the beginning of the Revolution, were pushed from existence ten or fifteen years earlier than they would have been, had the Revolution not taken place. It is appalling to reflect on such things, and to sum up in the imagination the miseries that ensued. But the victims of the guillotine, of the dungeons, of famine, of war, and of pestilence, are now at rest " after life's fitful fever," and what is the present state of France ?—her population is 34,200,000 of souls, against 24,300,000 fifty years ago— She possesses a representative legislative system that guarantees her liberties—she has established the charter of her freedom, under a constitutional monarch, called

• Report of the " Comite' de Salue Publique," 8 Aug. 1795. Barruel, vol. iv. page 443.

A sentiment approaching in atrocity to this announcement of the French demon, has been perceived, in the discussion by the organs of the dominant faction in England, on the decadence of the manufacturing interest of the country.

to the throne by the voice of the nation—she has abolished a hereditary legislative aristocracy, and attained an equalization of property by a law of inheritance, annulling the right of primogeniture—she has secured equal rights and privileges to all her citizens—she enjoys the inestimable blessings of trial by jury, liberty of the press, liberty of conscience, and religious toleration.

Her agriculture, manufactures, and commerce, have increased, and are now more flourishing than at any former period of her history; her military and naval power are as formidable as they ever were in past ages; her improvements in practical science, applied to roads and other public works, are equal to those of almost any other country, and her influence abroad is powerful enough to insure from other nations, a proper attention to her interests and her dignity.*

• Comparative Statement of the Condition of Great Britain and France :—

Great Britain and Ireland. France.

Superftcie acres, 77.400,000 130,000,000

Land cultivated acres, 46,500,000 66,500,000

Produce of wheat per acre, bushels, 21 M

Population 26,800,000 34,200,000

Inhabitants per square mile 220 165

Gross amount of public revenue, £52,000,000 45,000.000

Average per head ol'the inhabitants, £1 19 0 £1 6 6

Direct Land Tax £1,000,000 10,000,000

Customs £5,000,000

Salt 2,200,000

Taxes on Consump- f Customs, "J .,,, _.„ -,.ft Taxes on wine.

lion \ Excise, / «7,000,000 gpjrjt|| to,,acc0,

and gunpowder, 7,300,000

Inteaest Ok National Debt.

Great Britain. France.

£28,700,000 £10,200,000

Our lands, either from greater fertility or from superior husbandry, give in wheat three bushels for two of the French lands ; and notwithstanding this increase, the price of wheat, flour, or bread, is generally about fifty

per rent dearer in London than Paris. How arises this amazing disparity in price? On the consumption of bread this increase will make yearly about twenty millions of pounds sterling more than if bought in Paris.

The direct land-tax in France is £10,000,000.

The direct land-tax in Great Britain is only £1,000,000

The duties on consumption of food and other articles in Great Britain and Ireland is 37,000,000. In France it is only £14,500,000.

These items explain at a glance the cause of the disparity. The twenty millions extra paid in the price of bread go to increase the rents of the lands.

France has increased in strength since her great Revolution. Great Britain is suffering in her most vital interests in consequence of the debt incurred to arrest that Revolution, and of unjust and impolitic laws imposed since the peace of 1815.

CHAP. V.

SPAIN.

THE SPANISH ARISTOCRATIC POWER HAS ALMOST ROOTED UP THE TREE OF WEALTH, IN ORDER TO SEIZE THE FRUIT.

In the present circumstances of the world, particularly in those of Europe, as affecting the position of Great Britain and Spain, it is of great importance to both these nations to weigh well the question of their mutual interest, and to take a retrospective and prospective view of their relative condition.

The people of this country must remember that Spain in the sixteenth century, and in the beginning of the seventeenth, in the general affairs of the world, held a station and exercised an influence similar to what Great Britain possesses in the present age. Circumstances gave her the lead in colonization, and enabled her to plant settlements, undisturbed by any European power, throughout the West India Islands, North and South America, and in the Indian Ocean. Her ships spread over the globe, carried her commerce from East to West, and to the uttermost bounds of the known earth. Her naval ascendancy was undisputed for a long period; and it was on the shores of Britain, that it first received the shock to its greatness. Allusions have been frequently made in the course of this treatise to the circumstances of Spain as affording examples to this country: and in referring again to that country, it is not the design to dwell with minuteness on any incident in its history.

The northern race that poured itself into Spain, on the downfall of the Roman power, then carried with it the love of liberty and independence which characterized the Celtic and Gothic tribes. Hence the early establishment in that country of legislative representative assemblies, under the title of Cortes.

The Moors threw themselves into Spain, and occupied the greater part of the country. But the Gothic race took refuge in the mountains of the northern provinces, and there maintained themselves for ages; when at length, towards the end of the fifteenth century, the African and Asiatic races were finally destroyed, or driven from the country.

Previous to the expulsion of the Moors, the kings of Spain were politically very weak, and they had to offer liberal rewards of grants of lands and honours to the successful leaders of the expeditions against the infidels. The aristocratic order by these means acquired great power, and became, on occasions, overbearing to the sovereign himself.

The legislative body assembled in one chamber, and the popular influence was gradually overpowered by the aristocratic nature of the majority of the members that voted the laws.* The aristocracy crushed the popular representation,

* It would appear, that since the days of Cervantes, the cultivation of the country, the scene of the adventures of bis hero, has wofully fallen off. This fact I learn from an observation! made by Mr. Nicholas, the barber who attended the late Mr. Inglis, in his rambles to trace the footsteps of Don Quixote. The traveller was remarking on the paucity of windmills on the plain where the celebrated adventure took place, and the explanation given is as follows: "Partly it might be so—said the barber—but I myself recollect when fourteen, in place of four windmills, were to seen there. The neighbouring country was more a corn-country than it is now—for the

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