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12 PREFACE.

The Author of these pages cannot resist the opportunity of alluding to the melancholy event of the other day, the loss of the "Solway " steam-ship, and of recording the noble conduct of Captain Duncan, who in his death has done a heroic service to his country, by an example to all British seamen and soldiers to stand and sink with their vessels, or perish on their posts when duty demands the sacrifice.

Here was a man of the peaceful profession of the commercial seaman, and free from the excitement of battle and its emulations, calmly standing on the deck of his sinking vessel with the water up to his middle, and with active exertions and under the anxiety and responsibility of a brave man hurrying women and children into the boats: and as the water rose upon him, deliberately getting up on a higher stand, and giving his last commands to his sailors to save themselves in the rigging. Perhaps in the annals of danger there is scarcely to be found a picture of more calmness, humanity, and gallantry than exhibited by Captain Duncan, as described by the surviving officers and passengers of his vessel.

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CHAP. VI.

RUSSIA.

Aristocracy restrains despotism from raising a body of serfs to the condition

of free citizens ...... 80

CHAP. VII.

ARISTOCRACY AND DEMOCRACY COMPARED.

The principles of democracy are preservative—The principles of aristocracy

are destructive and spoliatory—Aristocracy is to democracy what a unit

is to a million ...... 8*2

CHAP. VIII.

ARISTOCRACY AND COLONIZATION.

The aristocratic principle displayed in schemes of colonization from Europe

since the fifteenth century—The result has been either barbarism or

revolution in the colonies planted .... 109

CHAP. IX.

THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

The democratic principle of the assignment of public lands is forming a

national character which combines the subtlety of the Jewish and the

energy of the Roman ..... 124

CHAP. X.

THE CONNECTION BETWEEN SEVERE TAXATION AND THE DECLINE OR

REVOLUTION OF NATIONS.

Part I.

Illustrations from general history—The crusades—The dark ages—A few

historical events cited at random .... 127

Part II.

Passages from English history, previous to the revolution of 1688, illustra-

tive of the harsh nature of taxation stimulating the national character 146

CHAP. XL

CONFISCATION OF PROPERTY, AND REFORMATION IN RELIGION.'

Sacerdotal exactions—Regal and aristocratic cupidity—The economic causes

and effects of the Reformation—They formed a great proprietary

revolution ....... 157

CHAP. XII.

APPLICATION OF THE WHOLE ARGUMENT TO THT CONDITION OF THE BRITISH

EMPIRE.

The present state is the result of a long continuance of bad laws, and not

the effect of temporary derangement of trade and finance—The great

question at issue . . ■ . . 176

CHAP. XIII.

THE GREAT REVOLUTION.

The introduction of Christianity into Europe in a com-laden vessel 189

BOOK II.

THK ORIGIN, PROGRESS, AND CONSOLIDATION Of THE BRITISH

ARISTOCRATIC POWER.

CHAP. I.

THE FOOD OF THE PEOPLE FORMS THE BASIS OF THE BRITISH ARISTOCRATIC

POWER.

The state of the case, as illustrated by the provision laws—The argument

does not encroach upon the prerogatives of the sovereign—Nor touch the

principle of the division of the legislative power in the country—His-

torical sketch and comparison of fiscal epochs . 193

CHAP. II.

HISTORICAL SKETCH OF THE BRITISH ARISTOCRATIC POWER, FROM THE
OUTBREAK OF THE CIVIL WAR IN 1642.

The effects of the dynastic changes in Great Britain—Increase of the

aristocratic power therefrom—The climax and consolidation of it under

George the Third—The great war—The grand results are debt, taxation,

and national decrepitude—The monomamasm of the corn-laws . 211

CHAP. III.

THE NATURE OF THE ARISTOCRATIC POWER, AND THE ANALYSIS OF IT.

What persons or parties are responsible for the acts of the last sixty years—

Curious state of the representation of the people down to 1832 —Analysis

—The undue influence of the hereditary legislature on the popular branch

—Consequences—Extraordinary nature of the British aristocratic body—

The law of primogeniture is the great support of it—Effects of this law

on the individual character of aristocrats—Pensions to aristocratic paupers

—The baneful effects of the law on the condition of the people—The

spoliatory principles of it—The division of the aristocratic power into

two rival parties saves the people from heavier burdens—These two

parties disputed in 1842, about the "elements of their power"—The

result ....... 239

CHAP IV.

THE DISTURBING FORCES OF ARISTOCRATIC POWER, IN THE ECONOMY OF

SOCIETY.

Devouring principles—Political economy must 6rst move persons before it

can apply its principles—The political part of the science is necessary

—Disturbing forces in society—Counteracting forces—The political

economy of Smith, M' Culloch, and Chalmers—Principles of taxation

laid down by Smith— Steam power is the expansion or enlargement of

labour—Dr. Chalmers'economics of "limitations"—His opinion adverse

to restrictions on the corn-trade .... 280

CHAP. V.

THE SAME SUBJECT CONTINUED.

The question that extreme misery leads to the early connection between
the sexes, discussed—False and dangerous theories of redundant popula-
tion— Singular contrast in the opinions of William Cobbett and Dr.
Chalmers- Consequences of the exclusive or aristocratic principles on
British legislation—The just views of Dr. Chalmers of the public debt—
The lands are mortgaged as its security—His low opinion of the com-
mercial state—Sketch of commercial people—Great advantages of the

geographical situation of the British islands—Dr. Chalmers condemns

a system of poor-laws—The church establishments of England and

Scotland—Dr. Chalmers reprobates our whole system of taxation, and

recommends a commutation to a general graduated tax on rents and

property ........ 302

CHAP. VI.

ARISTOCRACY, OR MONOPOLISM, WOULD CHECK THE BOUNTY OF NATURE, AND
RESTRAIN THE COMMERCIAL INTERCOURSE OF NATIONS.

Refutation of the doctrine that there is no room at nature's feast for a vast
portion of mankind—Nature not only provides food for the banquet, but
even supplies seats and conveyances—A few facts and arguments taken
at random in favour of unrestricted commerce between countries . 334

CHAP. VII.

ARISTOCRATIC WEALTH AND NATIONAL MISERY—RETRIBUTIVE TAXATION, OR

SOCIAL CONVULSION.

Principles applied to persons—Synopsis of national wealth and income—
Grand result seems wholesome—But when carefully examined, some
fatal error is discovered in the calculations touching the labouring classes
— Inequality of the load, and inferiority of quality, compared with the
wealthy classes—Analysis of the British fiscal system—Balance struck
between rich and poor—Restitution is not confiscation . 343

CHAP. VIII.

ARISTOCRATIC INSOLVENCY, AND THE MIDDLE CLASSES.

Contrast between the very wealthy portion of the aristocracy and the poor
labouring classes—The middle class stands between the living and the
dead in the nation—But it has its own accounts to settle with the embar-
rassed or insolvent part of the aristocratic order—The balance struck
between them—The monstrosity of our system exemplified and illustrated
by the case of Lord Huntingtower . . . 388

CHAP. IX.

THE LEGISLATIVE AND POLITICAL EYE.

The natural eye is placed in front—Motion is the order of nature—Man
individually and socially is always in motion—The idea of finality is
absurd—All great lawgivers have had extraordinary power of foresight—
The modern political eye is turned backwards—Instances of the remark-
able want of foresight in some celebrated men in British history—Living
public men—The mental power and political character of Peel 403

The Conclusion. ...... 415

No. 1. Decennial Periods of British History

2. Beware of Majorities of One

3. A few Sibylline Leaves blown out

4. Testimonials

5. The China War .

6. The Last Word .

421

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