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architectural monuments of an enlightened zeal,-with far-reaching forethought, they have added to the school, well-endowed Libraries for teachers and pupils; and provided appropriate Apparatus for the better illustration of the various branches of study ; while, added to this, and to render all this available for the accomplishment of the desired good, Teachers of the best qualifications, in mind and character, aro sought and secured, who for earnestness and wisdom are worthy of entire confidence. Thus do they seek to make sure, that, whatever else may transpire, every child in the community shall enjoy, as its birthright, the amplest privileges of a sound education.
The schools of Columbus are thus referred to:
About one hundred and twenty miles from Cincinnati is Columbus, the capital of the State, situated on a slight elevation in the midst of a fertile plain. On either side of the wide and regular streets are beautiful mansions, surrounded by well-kept grounds, and gardens blooming with flowers. The whole place is attractive and tasteful, wearing an aspect of universal prosperity and comfort. But one of the most noticeable facts is the character of the school edifices, not hidden in obscure positions, but placed at the most commanding points, as if the people desired to have them constantly in view; glad to look upon them with an honest pride, and to uphold them with a generous liberality. These buildings, substantial and spacious, designed with architectural taste, reflect honor upon the community. There are seventy teachers and four thousand pupils, seven hundred of whom are Germans. In these schools German as well as English is taught. The whole course of instruction is admirable, and will bear minute scrutiny. No formal introduction was needed,—to say that one was from Massachusetts was enough in itself to secure every courtesy and the heartiest welcome. The West has not cut itself off from the East, neither does it show any wish to do so. The most sacred sympathies unite the two, the same life-blood circulating warmly between them. To the inquiry, "Have you any teachers from New England ?” the reply promptly given was, " There are four in this building, and among the best teachers in all the schools are those from that section of the country.” Such are the ties that bind us, and that will make us forever one.
We have also before us the report of a committee sent to examine the public schools of New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, and Washington. The report contains sixty-four pages, and admirably presents the results of the committee's inquiries and observations. The conclusions to which they were brought by comparing the system of public instruction in the cities visited with the system in Boston, are stated very clearly. They embrace nine important particulars.
HOW TO INTEREST PRIMARY CLASSES.
MR. EDITOR: We know it is generally acknowledged by all good teachers, that one of the great secrets of government in the school-room is to get the scholars well interested in their studies. But the question is, How shall an abiding interest be kept up in the Primary Grades?
This question was put to the superintendent of one of the public graded schools in Indiana by one of his teachers. She had been asking his advice as to the best method of securing self-goverment in her school. He replied : “Get them deeply interested in their studies, and you will find that but little is needed on your part as governess.” "But,” said she, “How shall I get them interested?” He turned, and, laughing, ran from the room, saying, “Don't ask me.” So, Mr. Editor, we thought we would ask you. We have received much good advice through the medium of your journal, and would ask an answer from you, and also from others who feel interested in the question. We feel it to be one of great importance.
PRIMARY TEACHER. It would be much easier to tell “Primary Teacher” how she can keep up an abiding interest in her school than to give general directions which shall be applicable to her case. Her want of satisfactory success may be due to special weaknesses or mistakes which a general statement may not touch. An answer to the question submitted may, however, be suggestive to some of our readers, and we venture to give it:
1. By cherishing an ardent love for your work and maintaining constantly a deep and lively interest in it. If your heart is not in your instruction, you can not expect the hearts of your pupils to be. The stream does not rise higher than the fountain, nor will the interest of your pupils in their studies exceed your own.
2. By making such daily preparation as will enable you to come before your classes not only full of the lesson, but with your knowledge of it fresh and ready. Your instruction must come directly from your own brain, hot and glowing. It will not do to set “cold victuals” before your little ones.
Avoid a slavish use of the text-book. Stand before your classes with a free hand and
a free eye.
3. By adapting your instruction and requirements to the capacity and wants of your pupils. This will involve a knowledge of the principles which underlie primary instruction, and of the methods which best embody these principles.
4. By so arranging and directing the work of your pupils that each may be kept busy without weariness. This will require a frequent change of activity and employment. The little child's power of attention is very limited. His mental powers as well as his muscles soon tire. He must, therefore, change from one kind of exercise to another, and this change is rest. The teacher must meet this necessity of the child's nature in her daily programme. Study and slate-exercises, brain-work and hand-work, thinking and doing, must alternate in quick succession. Keep the child's fingers interested and busy during each alternate twenty minutes of school hours. Thousands of primary schools are dull and stupid simply because the children have too little to do.
EDUCATION IN TENNESSEE.
The failure to secure universal education at the South as an element of reconstruction, was a serious mistake. Enfranchisement without enlightenment is but the remedying of one evil by making another possible—a mere postponement of trouble. If history settles anything, the ballot is not a sure protection for an ignorant and degraded people. Its beneficent power depends on its intelligent use. Education must give it eyes, or it may strike down liberty and crown despotism. There is, therefore, nothing in the present status of reconstruction fuller of encouragement than the remarkable success of the schools for freedmen, scattered throughout the South. These schools are centres of loyalty, and their influence is wide and potent. We are guilty of no exageration when we say that they are the hope of Republic. Had the resources of the benevolent societies of the North been sufficient to carry the primer into every cabin of the South, how easy and safe would now be the work of reconstruction!
But no where in the South have we watched the progress of education with so deep an interest as in Tennessee. She was the first of the seceded States
reclaimed from rebel rule; the first to be re-admitted to a participation in the government of the country; the first to complete the work of emancipation by enfranchisement; and, as a fitting climax, the first to make provision for a free school system for the education of all her youth. From the first every loyal school established in the State has been "a nail driven in a sure place”; the existence of an efficient free-school system would make sure her complete regeneration. But here is the practical difficulty. A school law howsoever perfect in its provisions, is not a school system. To establish the latter requires funds and an active school spirit among the people-essentials in which Tennessee is at present quite poor. Her first state levy under the new law is not yet collected, and when collected will not afford a tithe of the money needed. It will take at best several years of efficient management to put the new system into practical operation except in cities and towns where schools have been heretofore established—a fact which magnifies the educational work carried forward among the freedmen.
The freedinen schools in Tennessee are the most prosperous and promising in the country, and here, as every where in the South, their existence is due to the protection and assistance of the Freedmen's Bureau. These schools include three normal and high schools, located respectively at Nashville, Chattanooga, and Murfreesboro,' and nearly two hundred elementary schools. Over forty of these schools are graded, and several employ from ten to fifteen teachers. About one-fifth of the school buildings are owned by the freedmen; most of the rest have been furnished by the Bureau. Many are government buildings which were used during the war for hospital purposes.
The freedmen schools at Nashville embrace four large graded schools under the patronage of different northern societi and several small "pay” schools under private control. Three of the graded schools occupy clusters of buildinys formerly used for hospital purposes-the buildings occupied by the Fisk School being well arranged and comfortably furnished. The McKee School is the oldest, having been established soon after the occupation of Nashville by
The building was protected for months by a military guard. These schools are all free. The number of pupils enrolled this year is about twenty-five hundred, the proportion of colored youth attending school exceeding that of the white youth. The progress made by the colored pupils is also greater-a fact largely due to their intense desire to obtain an education, and a fact which we lately had the opportunity of verifying. In the Fisk School we heard recitations by classes of all grades, from the primer to analysis and algebra, and the progress evinced was wonderful. We were greatly pleased with a recitation in mental arithmetic conducted by Mrs. Ogden. The pupils specially excel in reading and singing. Quite a number of pupils in the normal department are preparing to be teachers.
The public schools of Nashville occupy three large and commodious buildings. They have been in operation for several years, but were suspended during the war, the buildings being used as hospitals. They are well graded, and, though backward, are making commendable progress. The superintendent and principals are from the North, and among the teachers we met three Ohio ladies, one a former pupil. The instruction in the schools we visited was
the Union army.
Ohio Educational Monthly.
thorough and progressive, and the order in several of the rooms was admirable. We learned that the rules of school-board interdict the singing of such patriotic songs as “Hail Columbia,” “The Star-Spangled Banner,” etc. We are tempted to moralize, but will forbear.
We would like to give our readers a glance at the freedmen schools at Murfreesboro', but a want of space forbids. Suffice it to say that with accommodations much inferior to those enjoyed by the schools at Nashville, they are doing a similar glorious work. The public schools are in a sad condition.
MISCELL A NY.
SUBSCRIPTIONS to the Monthly may now commence with the July number. We can still supply back numbers from January.
Youngstown.—The public schools of this growing city are under the direction of that veteran superintendent, Reuben McMillan, and when we have said this it is unnecessary to add other praise. We felt when passing through them a few weeks since, that we were looking on the work of a master. But the special attraction of Youngstown is the Rayen High School, an institution supported from the income of a large fund (now amounting to over $58,000) devised by the late Col. William Rayen for the education of the children of Youngstown township. The trustees of this fund, instead of organizing a system of schools, have wisely established a first-class High School, and united it with the public schools of the city. The plan of union is simple. The amount of tuition to which the several districts of the township are entitled, is determined by the enumeration. If any district has not a sufficient number of pupils prepared to enter the High School, it is permitted to send pupils to the public schools of the corporation, and the corporation is allowed a proportionate amount of tuition in the High School-an arrangement which is mutually advantageous. The school is in charge of E. B. Gregory, for many years connected with Western Reserve College, and is taking high rank. We reserve other interesting facts, hoping soon to give our readers a fuller history of this excellent institution.
COLUMBUS.—The exercises of the graduating class of the High School were held Thursday evening, June 20. The hall was crowded, and the exercises were exceedingly creditable to all concerned. Seven young men and eleven young ladies received diplomas.—The pupils of the Grammar schools gave two public concerts the week previous. The attendance was large and the singing excellent. The schools have made marked progress in singing during the year just closed.
NASHVILLE, TENN.—The pupils connected with the Fisk School recently gave two public exhibitions to raise funds for the school. The largest public hall in the city was crowded both evenings, and the exercises, which consisted of music, dialogues, tableaux, etc., gave the liveliest satisfaction. The papers of the city vied with each other in the bestowment of praise. The school is under the charge of Prof. John Ogden, who is assisted by an excellent corps of devoted teachers, chiefly from Ohio.
- The city council has passed a law which provides for the education of all colored children between the ages of five and fifteen. An immediate census has been ordered, and the board of education instructed to purchase or rent school buildings, employ teachers, and manage the schools precisely as the schools for white children are managed.
Teachers' INSTITUTES.—The following institutes to be held in the months of July and August, are announced : Lebanon, commencing July 9, and continuing six weeks ; Eaton, July 15, — weeks; Waynesville, Warren county, July 15, four weeks; Batavia, July 29, three weeks ; Cambridge, July 29, fonr weeks; Martinsville, August 6, four weeks ; Zanesville, Aug. 17, one week; and Middleport, Aug. 19, one week. Parties wishing to secure competent institute instructors are referred to Dr. T. Sterling, Cleveland, R. W. Stevenson, Norwalk, Geo. S. Ormsby, Xenia, O.S. Cook, Dayton, L. S. Thompson, Sandusky, and A. L. Barber. Oberlin.
Mr. Union COLLEGE.-C. Aultman and Jacob Miller, of Canton, and Lewis Miller, of Akron, have each donated $25,000 for the endowment of a professorship in Mt.
as well as reapers Union College. They clearly know now to manufacture “chairs and mowers.
South AMERICA.—The paper on a national department of education which we had the honor of presenting to the National Association of School Superintendents, in 1866, has been submitted to the Congress of the Argentine Republic. The paper appears in the Anales de la Educacion Comun, a monthly journal published at Buenos Ayres. We have received the first number of the Ambas Americas, a magazine devoted to education, literature, and agriculture, and published under the auspices of Senor D. F. Sarmiento, Minister of the Argentine Republic to the United States. It contains General Garfield's speech on the establishment of a national department of education, and much information respecting education in this country.
DECKER BROTHEBS' PIANO-FORTE.—The sensation of the month is the appearance in our parlor of a new Decker Brothers' Piano-Forte. Every good judge that has heard it, is enthusiastic in its praise. Its tone is strong, brilliant, pure, and peculiarly sweet and musical, and its action is precise, prompt, and easy. We are more than pleased with it. It “fills the bill” to our admiration. We advise all who may wish to buy as good a piano-forte as is manufactured, to apply to D. H. Baldwin, Cincinnati, O., agent for Decker Brothers' Piano-Fortes. Mr. B. was formerly teacher of music in the public schools of Cincinnati, and is prompt and reliable. See his advertisement in our June issue.
CHASES' School FURNITURE.—We again bring to the notice of our readers the advertisement of W. Chase & Son, manufacturers of Chase's celebrated school furniture. Parties wishing to furnish school-rooms are requested to apply to us for information.
CORPORAL PUNISHMENT.—The new school law of New Jersey, which took effect March 21, 1867, makes it unlawful for a teacher “ to inflict corporal punishment upon any child in any school of the State.”
SUSPENDED.—The Educational Times, started in January last as the successor to the News and Educator, has suspended.
T. W. HARVEY is engaged to give a course of lectures in each of the State Normal Institutes of Indiana.
Bishop Payne, President of Wilberforce University, has gone to England to solicit pecuniary aid for that institution.
Prof. John KENDRICK, of Marietta College, 0., has been appointed a member of the Board of Examiners of West Point for the coming year.
WANTED—A situation as superintendent or teacher by a teacher of five years' experience, who can teach anything in the college course. Satisfactory references guaranteed. Address
Box 266, Oberlin, Ohio.