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Now, suppose we have gone in detail through the Orthoëpy and Etymology of these three lines, and have come to

3. Syntax. Etymology has given the possible forms: Syntax in the first place selects the forms used, then arranges them, then assigns a proper regimen to each. So we must decide, for instance, whether hæc is in the nominative, singular, feminine, or in the accusative, plural, neuter, or somewhere else, for either of the two mentioned will make sense, our parenthetical Jupiter being omitted ; or whether Terræ is in the same case as arces or Teucris; or whether novæ modifies arces or Carthaginis. The Latin language is a well-defined structure, admitting none of our English amphiboliæ; we must settle this last point beyond question.

Because this extract is poetry, we may expect and allow a little license in the arrangement. Some words, however, come under the usual rules, as why Maia and fati precede the words on which they depend, but let this matter pass gently.

The regimen has reference both to the special construction of words and the general dependence of clauses, although the grammars inexcusably muddle the last by confounding parsing with analysis. In special construction, we are to inquire why Maia depending on genitum is in the ablative, when its equivalent Maiæ filium requires the genitive; how pateant comes to be reckoned with “sum and several other verbs" that take two datives';

how Carthaginis depends on a noun and fati on an adjective; · why finibus does not require a preposition, how it happens to be

classed with ablatives of cause, manner, etc. ; when arceo takes the ablative and when the dative. In general construction, we are to determine why pateant and arceret are in the subjunctive; why pateo might not as well have been an infinitive; whether ne connects arceret to pateant or to demittit; what additional force is gained by the repetition of ut.

These and countless other queries having been propounded and answered, the student is ready with his translation. If he has been trained in the literal school, he may offer :

Jupiter says these things, and sends down from on high the one born from Maia, that the lands and that the new defences of Carthage might lie open for hospitality to the Trojans; lest Dido, ignorant of fate, should probibit them from her boundaries.

If he follows the "pony," as is likely, he will give:

Jupiter said, and from on high sent down Maia's son, that the coasts of Libya and the new towers of Carthage might be open hospitably to receive the Tro

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jans; lest Dido, ignorant of heaven's decrees, should shut them out from her ports.

He may prefer this rendering:

Thus speaks Jupiter, and sends the son of Maia from the heavens, that the realms and the new

citadels of Carthage might be open for kind reception to the Trojans; that Dido, unaware of the decrees of fate, should not exclude them from her domains.

4. Logical expression. Of course if a sentence is worth any thing, it must contain some sense; but our lesson is fortunately so easy that we need not dwell long here. Our ears are daily saluted with collocations of words which our pupils dignify by the name of translation, although they mean absolutely nothing. The lesson being in verse, we can admit the poetic license which makes the lands open in hospitality, instead of the prosaic form which would make Mercury the active agent both in construction and sense.

5. Rhetorical expression. Almost every change from the ordinary phrase has a specific name assigned to it, and thereby we are freed from lumbering periphrases in our analysis of the structure of our sentence. This renders our work so definite that we have no excuse for not accepting the aid so kindly prof. fered, and therefore we proceed to select the examples of metonomy, synecdoche, epizeuxis, synonymia, and prospopæia, which occur in our lesson, as well as to discover what principle of unity the author has followed in his change of subjects. Of course a teacher would be recreant to his duty, who should fail to point out the beauties and defects in every passage. We should therefore show how far Maia genitum surpasses Maiæ filium and the bald Mercurium; also, how far ab alto exceeds a cælo; and the manifest gain in the use of the several tropes.

6. English derivatives. The increase of the student's vocabulary must not be lost sight of, and our text, though not specially suggestive, will yet afford a few examples for practice. Genitum furnishes a stock of English words which we forbear to mention; alto, altitude; Terræ, Mediterranean, subterranean, terrestrial, etc.; novæ, new, novel, innovate, etc.; pateant, pat'-ent, pa'-tent, etc.; hospitio, hospitality, hospital, etc.; fati, fate, fated, infatuate, etc.; arceret, arc, arctic, arch, etc.

7. The Mythology is beyond doubt so profitable that we can not run into excess in considering its minute details.' Maia genitum means Mercury, so we can study his character fully, and have clear proof of his office of messenger, which may lead to an

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exhaustive disquisition of the angelic duties; but as Maia is mentioned we may follow up the trail to the Pleiades, to Atlas, to the Titans, and so further. Teucris leads to Teucer, to Jupiter and the Scamander, and elsewhere. Dido leads all the way to Ethbaal, who was Jezebel's father, therefore an historical character, although Virgil's Dido is a mixed mythological.

8. Carthaginis gives us the fulcrum for the ancient geography of Libya, which we must not be slow to improve ; finibus and terræ will force us to bound Queen Dido's domains.

9. The history of the times is also presented in Carthaginis as well as in Dido or Teucris, and we shall derive great satisfaction in showing the anachronism of the poet in making Dido and Æneas contemporary, and can draw an interesting and instructive lesson from the humble beginnings of great empires. 10. The customs and manners of these remote times may

lead to comment through finibus arceret, but specially through Hospitio, in which we may dilate upon the absence of taverns, and the necessity of the hospitium, as well as the laws and customs which surround it.

11. We shall not delay further to consider the Prosody beyond the remark that the Latin metres are very seldom imitated in English, because of the radical difference in the structure of our idiomatic verse. To master even these few lines, the student must be familiar with many peculiarities which will avail him nothing in the poetry of England and America.

Having thus systematically gone through with these details, we may suppose that we have learned our lesson, and can now profit by it. If any one supposes that we have unnecessarily brought up minutiæ, we assure him that our work is only child's play in comparison with the labors of the German philologists. Some may think that there is little use in the study of some of these particulars, but we reply that they consistently form a part of the study, inasmuch as the student is expected sooner or later to have mastered all this and more.

If any one asks whether we are not paying too much for our whistle, we shall consider him the personification of an impertinent ignoramuş, and decline to answer.

S. A. N.

HE that would eat the kernel must not complain of cracking the nut.

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Happily for coming generations the old notion has passed away, that shelter is the chief element in school architecture. In the memory of our fathers it was thought enough if, externally, the school house had four sides, a floor and a roof; and internally, a fire-place and a row of benches. At best it was an uncouth box, into which children were whipped, and from which their instincts prompted them to run. Neither without nor within was there anything to attract children. There was a general impression that learning was a good thing, and that children must go to school, nolens volens. There was no attempt to make the school such an attractive place that children would find their greatest enjoyment there. Nor was this the result of a hard necessity. The homes from which these children came were made pleasant in various ways. White walls, tidy furniture, carpets, music, and pictures made home a pleasant spot, pleasanter, perhaps, when contrasted with the dreary school room.

Now, however, school architecture studies beauty as well as utility, and there is a general recognition of the truth that beauty has high and essential uses. Had we no needs but clothing and food, there might be some ground of distinction between the beautiful and the useful; but so long as we have an immaterial nature yearning for culture and development, we must use nectar and ambrosia to satisfy the needs of our divine being. In respect to a true manhood, a flower garden may be more truly useful than a potato field, an oil painting than a bank check, a piano than a locomotive.

In human culture, the most potential forces are intangible ones. They proceed from unrecognized sources, and their ministrations are so unconscious that they scarcely seem to have an existence. In the work of school discipline, he governs best who seems not to govern at all. The true disciplinarian is a center from which proceeds forces silent in their operation, and potential in their results, and potential in proportion as they are unobserved. Such a person knows that his school is orderly, but how or why, he can not tell. Neither do pupils themselves know. There is some invisible, intangible force at work upon heart, mind, and muscle, and to this force no resistance can be made, because its very existence is unnoticed and unknown. This "unconscious tuition," as Dr. Huntington calls it, resides in things as well as in persons; and it is to a consideration of this fact that

we wish to direct attention. The very appointments of a school room may invite disorder or prevent it-they may either coöperate with the teacher in securing good discipline, or they may counteract and neutralize his best efforts in this direction.

In this " Plea for Beautiful School Rooms” we have in mind not only the modest school houses by the country road-side, butalso the costly and beautiful buildings in our towns and cities. In all these much has been done in the direction of good taste and beauty at public expense, but opportunity has been wisely left for individual enterprise and taste. Common taxation usually provides a beautiful exterior, as well as light, warmth, white walls and varnished furniture within; but it does not furnish carpets, pictures, flowers, and other ornaments necessary to make the school room a truly beautiful place. It is best that all these things are not provided at public expense. Why is it that school property is so wantonly destroyed? The boy who scratches or cuts his desk at school, would not think of doing such a thing in his mother's parlor. Why is there this difference? Evidently for the reason that in one case there is a feeling of ownership, or a regard for the rights of others, while in the other there is neither of these things. The school building and contents belong to many persons in general, but to no one in particular. Hence any injury done to such property affects a given individual so slightly that it scarcely seems to be a positive violation of right. Before the rights of such property will be respected, there must be in the school room a feeling of personal ownership; and this feeling can be established in no other way so successfully as by a real investment in something bought for the common good. Hence we say, that, in providing ornaments for the school-room, they should be bought by teachers and pupils, and not in such a way as to leave the impression that their ownership is fictitious, and that they can be injured without individual loss.

The first step toward the work under consideration, is to arouše a lively interest among pupils; and this calls for some tact on the part of the teachers. Have pupils pleasant homes? Why are they so pleasant? Why have their parents bought pianos, carpets, elegant furniture, books, and pictures? How much time do they spend in these beautiful parlors? How much in the school room? If so much is done to make a room pleasant in which they spend only a small part of their time, ought not something to be done to beautify the school room in which they pass 80 many hours, week, and terms ? Such conversation will usu

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