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ing. A definite formula for parsing each part of speech should be given, and insisted on.
No time should be wasted in pumping. The formula should include only those properties with which the class has been'made familiar. In parsing a verb, for instance, the pupil should only give its class (transitive or intransitive), voice, person, number, and agreement or government. It may be profitable to require also the time of the verb--whether past, present or future. The ability to decide at once in which of the three natural division of time the attribute is affirmed, should certainly precede any attempt to master further the subject of tense. The mode and tense of the verb, its classes with reference to the formation of its past tense and past participle, etc., are not important at this stage of the pupil's progress, and, in our judgment, should be omitted. It is a great mistake to thrust the young learner into this swamp of difficulty
If preferred parsing may be introduced earlier, and, to some extent, be made to go hand in hand with synthesis. The definitions of the different parts of speech and the few rules of syntax needed in parsing, may also be taught. A text-bouk may be used for this purpose.
The above is an imperfect outline of a course of instruction, designed to afford practice in sentence-making or composition, and to lead the young learner by this natural, and hence rational, means to a clear idea of the simple sentence. We have not attempted to indicate fully the nature of the oral drills which should prepare the way for the written exercises. We can only add that this instruction should be on the plan of object teaching. The pupils should be led to observe objects around them, and to form sentences embodying the results of their observations with reference to the special point of the lesson. Such a course will remove the difficulty they will otherwise experience in forming the requisite number of sentences.
We have not aimed to exhaust every principle, but, on the contrary, have omitted whatever was not essential to the pupil's progress. We have endeavored to carry out the important principle of one thing at a time, and this at the right time. It is believed that the above course of instruction, faithfully carried out, will afford the pupil an excellent preparation for the study of a text-book on the subject, and, at the same time, will teach him, in a practical manner, “how to speak and write correctly."
THE DISCIPLINARY VALUE OF SCIENCE.
We may be quite sure that the acquirement of those classes of facts which are most useful for regulating conduct, involves a mental exercise best fitted for strengthening the faculties. It would be utterly contrary to the beautiful economy of Nature, if one kind of culture were needed for the gaining of information and another kind were needed as a mental gymnastic.—Herbert Spencer.
The above extract contains the gist of Mr. Spencer's argument in favor of the disciplinary value of science. He claims that the facts of natural science are more useful in life than other kinds of scholastic knowledge, and then from this claimed superior utility, he argues the superiority of science as a means of mental discipline. In other words, the utility of knowledge is made the source of its educational value. On this theory no system of education is possible, since it involves the impossibility of determining, a priori, what knowledge as knowledge the student will actually use in life. Natural philosophy, for illustration, is one of the most useful and practical of the natural sciences, and yet very few of its facts and principles are ever directly or consciously used by the great majority of graduates. Who, standing at the threshhold of this study, can separate the facts which he is to use from those which he is not to use? And how is the one class of these facts to be acquired without the aid of the other? The supposition that the use or non-use of knowledge determines its disciplinary value, also involves the absurdity that each fact is able, by a sort of prophetic power, to look into the future, and, on the ground of its use or non-use, to lend or withhold its strengthening aid to the unfolding mind! On such a theory as this, mental discipline would be unattainable to the student destined to be cut off by death before the termination of his school life. Nor can the absurdity of this theory be avoided by classifying knowledge, and inferring the disciplinary value of a class of facts from the usefulness of a portion of such facts. How are the useful to lend their virtue to the non-useful? Equally futile is the attempt to attach this disciplinary value to the utility of classes of knowledge to students as a class. The moment this is attempted the whole theory has to be abandoned.
The truth is, the attempt to base a system of education on the practical utility of specified knowledge is utterly utopian, whatever may be true respecting the “harmony of nature." The disciplinary value of knowledge depends solely on its relation to the mind. The mental faculties require for their growth and nurture certain kinds of knowledge, and it is through the acquisition of this knowledge by proper methods that the mental faculties are developed and disciplined. When knowledge that is adapted to meet the educational wants of the mind, has the further merit of practical application in the business of life, it is to be preferred to knowledge which lacks such practical utility. But, as we said last month, the highest practical result of school training is thought. Mental power is used constantly in all the duties and relations of life.
Mr. Spencer lays great stress on what he calls the natural exercise of the mind on life's duties. But the study of science has no special merit in this direction, except so far as it trains the judgment in weighing probabilities and the reason in following the guidance of induction. In the process of education science has, it is true, a place and function of the highest importance. It sustains as vital a relation to the complete development of the mind as air or water or food does to the growth of the body. But as food can not take the place of air or water in the nurture of the body, so natural science can not fill the office of language or mathematics in the development and nurture of the mind. All these must be conjoined-and the true' method of this union is the great problem of education.
The number of subscriptions received since our last issue, has been sufficient to exhaust our edition of the July number, and we are obliged to let all new subscriptions begin with the October number. We can still supply the first six numbers (from January to June inclusive) of the current volume, which we send, postpaid, for fifty cents a set. There are single articles in these numbers worth the amount asked for the half-volume. We are happy to add that we shall close the year with the largest circulation the MONTHLY has ever had. We thank all who have assisted in attaining this result.
The demand for the course of instruction in language and oral grammar, concluded in the MONTHLY this month, has induced us to republish the articles in a pamphlet of sixteen pages. We will send a copy by mail, prepaid, for 10 cents; 25 copies for $2.00: 50 copies for $3.00.
IN MEMORIAM.—Hon. William Turner Coggeshall, United States Minister to Ecquador, $. A., died August 2, at Guapala, near Quito, aged 43 years. He left this country in July, 1866, in feeble health, hoping that the climate of Ecuador would prove beneficial. He improved for a time, but the disease from which be was suffering (consumption) had made too much progress to yield to climatic influence. His remains are interred in the new Protestant Cemetery at Quito, which was established through his efforts. His daughter, who accompanied him to Quito, is still there in the family of Ex-President Flores, waiting for an opportunity to return to this country.
Mr. Coggeshall began his varied and successful literary career, when only twenty years of age, as associate editor of the Akron Buzzard. He was subsequently connected with several weekly papers and literary magazines, and finally became editor and proprietor of the Springfield Republic. In 1864 he sold the Republic to accept the post of editor of the Ohio State Journal, from which he retired in November, 1865, to enter on his duties as Private Secretary to Governor. Cox. He was the author of sereral literary works, including “ Home Hits and Hints ”, “ Turner Letters ", and “ Poets and Poetry of the West." He was also author of several Biographical Sketches in the American Cyclopedia, and numerous Essays.
Mr. Coggesball was a zealous and active friend of popular education, and for years regularly attended the meetings of the State Teachers' Association. At the meeting at Newark in 1860, he read a paper on the “Character and Services of Horace Mann," and at Mt. Vernon in 1862, he read another on the “Character and Services of Lorin Andrews.” The tribute he paid to these eminent educators was just, appreciative, and noble. In 1858 Mr. Coggeshall, who was then acting as State Librarian, accepted the editorship of this journal (then called the Ohio Journal of Education), and for two years conducted it with ability and success, His selections were excellent, and many of his own contributions possess permanent value.
In brief, Mr. Coggeshall's life was one of untiring and varied industry, and whatever he attempted was done well. He leaves a devoted wife and five children, and a host of friends, to mourn his loss. Requiescat (pace.
EDUCATIONAL DEPARTMENTS.-The eduoational column of the Tuscarawas Advocate was recently filled with practical thoughts and suggestions for teachers, addressed to them under these pertinent inquiries : “What are your motives ?” “ Are you striving to improve yourself in your calling ?” We take pleasure in making a note of this, since the so-called “ Educational Departments." of papers are too often filled with small criticisms, grammatical notes and queries, arithmetical puzzles, problems, etc.
LANGUAGE CULTURE.-Prof. Ogden, of Nashville, Tenn., writes us that he is training his entire school in a course of instruction in language similar to that we recently mapped out in the Monthly. He is meeting with decided success, as is evinced in a few specimen exercises of the beginning class, kindly sent us. He assures us that they are the results of only three weeks' drill, some of the pupils at the beginning being "utterly incapable of writing a sentence correctly." The exercises are, for 80 young pupils, neatly written, well divided into sentences, and altogether very creditable. Three years of such instruction would produce surprising results. “Language Culture" is henceforth to receive due attention in the Fisk University. Right.
THE EDUCATIONAL PROBLEM.At the late meeting of the Teachers' Association of Minnesota, Prof. Phelps, Principal of the State Normal School, read an able paper on “ Methods and Subjects of Study in a Liberal Education.” He advocated the union of classical and scientific studies, and placed great stress on right methods of instruction, adopting the declaration of Edward Everett, that "in education the method, the method, is everything." He urged that the paramount question is not whether we shall teach the classics, the sciences, or history alone, but how shall we teach all those studies so as to economize both time and power, and thereby secure the ends of a broad and generous culture. We have seen only an abstract of the paper, but, judging from this, we think much good seed was sown.
FREEDMEN'S SCHOOLS.--The semi-annual report of the Freedmen's Schools for the first half of this year is just out, and shows the following figures for the first of July, 1867: Day schools, 1,416 ; night schools, 668: total, 2,084. Teachers, 2,442 ; pupils, 130,735,-being an increase in six months of 908 schools, 784 teachers, and 40,232 pupils. Of the whole number of pupils, 1,348 are whites. The total expenditures by the Freedmen’s Bureau for educational purposes in the six months, were $220,834 ; tuition paid by freedmen, $7,332; number of school buildings. owned by freedmen, 391 ; furnished by the Bureau, 428. About two-fifths of the teachers are negroes. There are 21 Normal Schools, with 188 pupils, and 1,568 Sunday Schools, with 105,707 pupils. The amount of good being accomplished by these schools, sustained largely by the liberality of the people of the North, is beyond estimate.
TEACHERS' INSTITUTES.-In our notices last month of the institutes held in July and August, we omitted the two normal institutes held at Zanesville, conducted respectively by A. T. Wiles and Col. Z. M. Chandler. Both institutes were well attended. They were followed by the regular county institute which we noticed. The institute at Troy was conducted by teachers of the county, and gave good satisfaction. The spirit was excellent.- -The institute at Newark was attended by about sixty teachers. -An institute was held at La Porte, Lorain county, the week beginning Sept. 17th-no report.A successful institute was held at Mt. Gilead, Morrow county, the last week in August. The principal instructor was W. E. Crosby, then of Cincinnati, now superintendent of the Lima schools. He gave special attention to primary instruction which he treated in a very satisfactory manner. assisted by Mr. Grussup and Prof. Griffith.
ORWELL NORMAL INSTITUTE.—This school, located at Orwell, Ashtabula county, O., is specially designed for the training of teachers. Instruction is given in the several branches taught in the common schools, with special reference to the best methods of teaching them, and classes are formed each term in the Theory and Practice of Teaching. Each pupil-teacher is required to conduct several rocitations under the eye of the principal. A new boarding hall will be ready for use at the opening of the Winter term, Nov. 19th. The school is in charge of Mr. H. U. Johnson, an experienced teacher.
WARREN COỤNTY.–A day's session of the teachers' institute was held at Waynesville, October 12. Essays on “ Analytical Grammar," “ Philosophy in our Common Schools,” and “Primary Instruction,” were read respectively by Messrs. P. Sellers, R. H. Holbrook, and Miss A. Starkey, of Morrow. A motion that the title of “Professor" be not applied to any member of the institute, gave rise to a spirited discussion. It was voted down. A two-days' meeting is to be held at Lebanon, Nov. 15 and 16.—Mrs. Wright who succeeded Mr. Kimball as superintendent of the Lebanon schools, is filling the position to the satisfaction of all parties.The Normal School has over 200 students in the different departments.
LOGAN COUNTY.-We are glad to learn that the school examiners of this county have raised the standard of qualification, required of applicants, full 25 per cent. This is one of the good results of the teachers' institutes held in August last. Increased attention is also given to the professional knowledge of applicants, Mr. Joseph Shaw has taken charge of the public schools of Bellefontaine, at a salary of $1,200. He is a ripe scholar and a well-versed and successful teacher,
Wood County.-A letter from this county gives a very encouraging account of the condition of the schools. Their progress is attributed to the teachers' institute held last fall, and the efficiency of the county board of school examiners. The loss of Mr. J. W. Ewing, who resigned the superintendency of the schools of Perrysburg to accept a similar position at Saginaw, Mich., is deeply felt. He had won the confidence and esteem of the teachers throughout the county. The committee propose to hold another institute this fall. Efficient examiners and good institutes are potent educational agencies.
PORTAGE COUNTY.-We find this testimony in the last annual report of the State School Department:
“ The condition of the schools is believed to be better than at any previous period. Evidentes of their improvement are seen in a more general introduction of mental arithmetic, composition, and oral instruction; also in the more thorough and practical preparation of teachers. Teachers' Institutes and the Educational Monthly are valuable and paying agencies in improving our schools. A systematic and efficient superyision is the one thing now lacking to render them what their friends desire them to be.-H. H. STEVENS, Auditor."
Mr. Stevens was formerly principal of the Ravenna High School. Few county auditors are doing as much as he to promote school interests.
FREMONT.--This enterprising to has just completed a new building for the accommodation of the three upper departments of its public schools. The building is a three-story brick structure, 66 by 52 feet, with two towers in front. It is well arranged, and is in every way a first-class building. The cost was only $15,000. Another building, to cost $3,000, is to be built on the east side of the river for the accommodation of an intermediate and a secondary school. The public schools are under the skillful supervision of Mr. Wm. W. Ross, and are making fine progress. The present enrollment is about 900 pupils—an increase of over 100. Mr. Ross is assisted by an excellent corps of teachers.
GALLIPOLIS.-The public schools are under the skillful and zealous direction of Mr. H. J. Caldwell, and are making excellent progress. The high school, organized only one year ago, has sixty-four pupils enrolled.-Mr. George L. Mills, late superintendent of the schools of Elyria, has taken charge of the academy. It can not fail to prosper under his direction.