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and that they need not use the questions in their books in preparing a lesson. Teach them how to study by topics—and require an entire topic to be recited by each scholar, unless its length should warrant a subdivision. Prepare yourself to give some additional new matter, each recitation-taking especial pains to select important as well as interesting information-and be sure that you can give it in an attractive manner, and arrange its facts in logical order. In other words, thoroughly master the lesson yourself before attempting to teach it.
We will suppose, as is probably the case, that your text-books do not contain those general views or outlines which underlie all true geographical knowledge. That deficiency must be supplied by yourself—and it can be best done in connection with mapdrawing
A good teacher of geography should be able to draw, from memory, an accurate map of all the continents, at least. The first thing to be done is to define, accurately, the coast-line, or sea-level. The system recommended by Guyot enables one to do this easily and with great accuracy. Suppose the lesson of today is the continent of North America. Draw the lines representing its approximate form on the black-board -explaining how it is done, and the proportionate distances preserved. Require your pupils to repeat your lines and measurements on their slates, or on half-sheets of foolscap. The coast-line being accurately drawn-a thing easily done by the assistance of the approximate form lines-proceed to fill in this outline. First, locate the mountain ranges or systems, showing how they form so many great water-sheds. Next, determine where water-sheds exist, not connected with mountain ranges, and draw all the large and important rivers. Yon need have no fears that your pupils will ever tire of this work. With a little encouragement or assistance on your part, they will soon be able to draw these impromptu maps as rapidly and accurately as you can.
Proceed now to represent the elevation of the land above the sea-level. This is done by profiles drawn through the continent. One profile is sufficient for North America—that on the latitude of Washington. Draw this on the blackboard-explain how it indicates comparative elevation-describe the effect elevation has upon climate, and, consequently, upon the organic life of a country-and the influence mountains have upon the amount and distribution of rain.
You are now prepared to describe the division of the surface
of the continent into the Atlantic Highlands, the Pacific Highlands, and the Great Central Plain—as well as the three-fold subdivision of the Great Central Plain into the Mississippi Valley, the St. Lawrence Valley, and that portion of the surface whose waters drain off into Hudson's Bay. This being done, call attention to the peculiar features of each division and subdivisionrequiring your oral instruction to be learned as thoroughly as any other lesson.
Now locate the large cities and towns-never forgetting to tell why they are located where they are, by calling attention to the influence of physical features upon the productions of a country, of the productions upon commerce, of commerce on the location of great commercial emporiums.
This general view of the continent is invaluable. All subsequent study of individual portions will be rendered much plainer should it be thoroughly mastered. No one but a live teacher need attempt to give it, however,-for it requires a steady hand and quick eye to draw easily—and a sleepy drone will be sure to fail in giving oral instruction upon a subject so vast as the surface features and phenomena of an entire continent.
There is no trick in the use of the “ topics," as recommended above. They are a list of abbreviated questions, to be used instead of those printed in the text. They are a complete classification of all the particulars necessary for a complete description of a country, and are so arranged that the facts of the day's lesson are necessarily learned in logical order. The preparation of every lesson is a “building up" process--each step being a preparation for the one following. The teacher, also, has a wide field open before him for giving effective oral instruction when and where it is most needed, and can propound questions prepared by himself to test the knowledge of his pupils on the subject studied, instead of being restricted to those which have reference to its minor and less important details.
Further, the pupils are taught to seek information wherever it may be found, and when found to classify it in a philosophical manner. They are constantly being taught how to do two very important things: first, how to search for knowledge, and, secondly, how best to preserve it. The interest which can be aroused in a class by this method, can be appreciated by those only who use it. The old routine method of mere question and answerdry, unattractive, as it is,-will never be employed again by those who intelligently and energetically make trial of this better way."
T. W. H.
NOTES: ORTHOEPICAL, ORTHOGRAPHICAL, ETYMO
LOGICAL, AND SYNTACTICAL.-No. 8.
BY W. D. HENKLE, SALEM, OHIO.
48. During. A learned correspondent, T. E. S., writes: “I would suggest that “during the proceedings' might be defended on the same grounds as during life,' which you allow; originally an absolute construction, the proceedings during, i. e., whilst the proceedings were during or enduring, and the participle has slid into the office or rank of a preposition, which you must concede is very
much needed in that connection." It is with reluctance that I disagree with the distinguished gentleman. It seems to me that he has only removed the difficulty to the word whilst whose meaning is very closely allied to that of during. Webster and Worcester agree in defining whilst or while, "during the time that," " as long as," and " at the same time that.” During as a participle means lasting or continuing to the end of the time referred to. If we substitute these meanings in “whilst the proceedings were during,” we have “during the time the proceedings were continuing to their close," long as the proceedings, etc.," "at the same time that the proceedings, etc."
49. According to. W. R. M. writes: “It strikes me that “according to" should be “ according with.” “According to" is not only correct according to usage, but according to etymology.
50. Notwithstanding. W.R. M. thinks that withstanding would be more accurate than notwithstanding."
Johnson says: “This word, though in conformity to other writers called here a conjunction, is properly a participial adjective, as it is compounded of not and withstanding, and answers to the Latin non obstante ; it is most properly and analogically used in the ablative case absolute with a noun; as, He is rich, notwithstanding his loss."
Webster says: “ Notwithstanding is the participle of withstand, with not prefixed, and signifying not opposing, nevertheless. It retains, in all cases, its participial signification. For example, It is a rainy day, but notwithstanding that the troops must be reviewed; that is, the rainy day not opposing or preventing. That, in this case, is a substitute for the whole first clause of the sentence. It is to that clause what a relative is to an antecedent noun, and which may be used in the place of it; notwithstanding which, that is, the rainy day."
Worcester says: “It obviously has more of the nature of a participle than of a participial adjective; yet it can not properly be called a participle, for there is no verb to notwithstand. In the above example, "He is rich notwithstanding his loss,' notwithstanding may be more properly regarded as a preposition, governing loss in the objective case, than construed as a participle in the case absolute with loss."
These discussions are sufficient to show that W. R. M. is wrong.
50. Hemans. This proper name is often incorrectly pronounced He'-manz. The correct pronunciation is Hěm'-anz. See Webster and Worcester. Longley's Pronouncing Vocabulary gives it, but does not indicate the pronunciation. It is pronounced improperly in Goodrich's New Sixth Reader, Notes p. 536.
. 51. Pestalozzi. Pronounced by Webster, Pěs-tä-lõt'-see (the 7 being less prolonged than in cone), and by Worcester, Pěs-ta-lõt'-se (the a and e unmarked being obscure). The first pronunciation is the correct one, the difference, however, between them is slight.
52. Göthe or Goethe. Pronounced by Webster Gö'-teh, the e being obscure; by Worcester, Gëh-tā. The sound represented by the German ö is not heard in English. Dr. Thomas says :
- The sound is unlike any thing we have in English, but is nearest to that of u in fur, or e in her. If, while the lips are retained in the position proper for forming o long, the speaker tries to utter the sound of e in met (or a in fate), he will produce the sound of ö.” Soden says: “ö has no corresponding sound in English, but the u in but, or the i in bird, correspond most nearly to it; it sounds like the eu in meuble.” Follen says : “ö is like the French eu in peur, which has no corresponding sound in English.” Peissner says: “ö sounds about but not exactly like u in but, nor is the French eu equal to it.” Adler says: “The English word bird
” does not quite answer to the sound of this vowel; it has rather the sound of eu in the French words, feu, coeur, fleur, jeune, peu.” Woodbury says: “ö has no corresponding sound in English. It
: is pretty accurately given by the French eu in peur."
Those who do not understand German will pronounce the word with tolerable accuracy by pronouncing it Gā'-tā, the first a being sounded with the lips puckered. Epes Sargent in his Fifth Reader, Part II, p. 507, pronounces it "gher'-tā.” This is about as near to the correct pronunciation as idear is to 7-dé-a.
53. Corn. This Gothic word is generally applied to wheat in England, oats in Scotland, rye in most parts of Germany, barley
in Sweden and Norway, and maize in the United States. The word is in every instance applied to the particular grain that forms the most important cereal product of the country.
54. Venezuela. The correct Anglicized pronunciation of this word is Věn'-ěz-wê'-lä, the primary accent being on wē. The Spanish pronunciation is, Věn-eth-wā'-lä. If the Venezuelans themselves depart from the pure European Spanish pronunciation as the Mexicans do, the native pronunciation would be Věnes-wā'-lä. I refer to this word because I have seldom visited a school in which both pupils and teachers did not pronounce it Věn-zu-ê'-lä, disregarding the e in the second syllable.
I make the following extract from Irving's Voyages and Discoveries of the Companions of Columbus, p. 28, to show the origin of the word :
“Proceeding along the coast he arrived at a vast deep gulf resembling a tranquil lake; entering which, he beheld on the eastern side a village, the construction of which struck him with surprise. It consisted of twenty large houses, shaped like bells, and built on piles driven into the bottom of the lake, which, in this part, was limpid, and of but little depth. Each house was provided with a drawbridge, and with canoes by which the communication was
From these resemblances to the Italian city (Venice), Ojeda gave to the bay the name of the Gulf of Venice; and it is called at the present day Venezuela, or little Venice: the Indian name was Coquibacoa."
55. Juarez. The name of the President of the Mexican Republic is pronounced by the Mexicans, Hwä-rās, but by the Spaniards, Huä-rāth. I have these facts from a Mexican. Webster has Hoo-ä-rés, or Hwä'-rěth, H indicating a strongly aspirated h.
CORRECTION.-In Note 36, January Monthly, the point in the first quotation from Lowell was destroyed by being printed as prose. It should have been
“If you choose to compare him, I think there are two per
sons fit for a parallel — Thompson and Cowper." 80 that two per should rhyme with Cowper.
MR. HENKLE'S PHILOLOGICAL NOTES.
MR. EDITOR: If you think these rejoinders to Mr. Henkle's "Notes ” of sufficient importance, please give them a place in the MONTHLY:
1. Latham. In England I have invariably heard the name of our distinguished philologist, Latham, pronounced with the soft sound of th as in this. A family with which I am well acquaint