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accomplishes; and it is remarkable that in the would be doing a good work. He cannot expect, as country of which I am writing, and in which these I have shown, that there will be nothing said institutions are plentiful, the crime of child murder, against it. It would be difficult to mention any though not altogether unknown, is at all events one of the very soundest efforts of social science infinitely less common than in England.
which is not attended by some drawbacks. But, if To sum up the whole, then, it becomes tolerably he be a Christian philanthropist, he will repose evilent that, things being as they are, the establish- always in the conviction of one thing that in his ment of a Crèche in a neighbourhood where female exertions for the protection of outcast infancy he labour is in much demand, is an additional safeguard is giving its practical fulfilment to the law of Him to the morality of society; and that any person who reserved for the guilelessness of the child the who should originate one in such a neighbourhood, most unqualified admiration that He ever expressed.
H. T. ARMFIELD.
If you take a map of France you will see, doubtful. Long after the drift, in which the towards the centre, just south of the forty-sixth much-contested hatchets are found, had begun to parallel, a tract of high land. This is a remarkable be covered with peat in the valleys of the Somme feature in a country so uniformly level. To detine and Oise, these volcanoes were burning, throwing it geographically (and it is wonderful what a help out scoriæ, forming fields of lava, burying the towards getting interested in any district is a little Hyæna spelæa and the Elephas primigenius, perprecision in one's ideas about its geography), we haps occasionally entrapping some clansman of the must note that it lies between the valley of the Arverni who had gone out to hunt these “preAllier and the wide rain-fall off to the Bay of historic" mammals. Biscay, down which a whole army of affluents of Remarkable geologically, the district is no less the Loire (notably the Vienne) run north-west, remarkable historically. The reader of Cæsar will while the Dordogne, the Lot, and other tributaries remember that it was the Arverni who headed the of the Garonne cross it in a westerly direction. last grand effort of the Gauls to shake off the Sapposing you have a moderately good atlas, you Roman yoke, to which, at the outset, they had so will see on the district thus marked out, several easily submitted. Vercingetorix was an Auvergnat. strangely detached mountain masses. These, the We know with what infinite pains he overcame the Pay de Dôme, the Mont d'Or, the Puy de Cantal, mutual jealousies of the tribes who were then, as ker,--are extinct craters, the highest points of the ever, the great source of weakness to a Celtic elevated tract forming the old province of Auvergne. nation. With consunimate skill he held the great They are now divided into the departments of Dome conqueror at bay; and, when the Gallic cavalry and Cantal, not named from rivers (as is the case had been broken--not by the Romans, who were with by far the greater number of the eighty:six always poor creatures ou horseback, but by Germans new divisions), but from the strange dome-shaped whom Cæsar had imported, how magnanimously he hills, wbich are the most striking features in their went out from amongst his blockaded countrymen, neighbourhoods. Geologically the whole province is and gave himself up in the hope of obtaining better very remarkable. It is all volcanic, and of the terms for them. Cæsar, to his eternal shame, kept most recent formation. No one now-a-days, who him to “adorn his triumph"; and then, of course, koows anything of geological terms, is deceived when the grand procession was over, the chieftain when granite is spoken of as “the oldest of known was killed in cold blood. The whole course of the rocks." We know that it is sometimes one of the upper Allier is historic ground. We can still trace youngest, and that its age can only be determined along its banks the marches and counter-marches by noticing what are the rocks over which it has of Gauls and Romans, the latter anxious for a boiled out. In the very centre of England, the battle, and the former striving to starve and weary
mass of Mount Sorrel (whence came the stones that out the invader. Verciogetorix soon saw the use! pave London Bridge), and a good deal more of lessness of general infantry engagements, in which
Charnwood Forest besides, are granite, or rather the clausman, almost without defensive armour, syenite, superposed on, i.e., shot up through and and with huge claymores of soft metal, were matched overlapping lias, and even more recent rocks. But against the legionaries armed with “pilum” and the Auvergne rocks are not even granite : they are short cut-and-thrust sword. generally what is called tuff, the same basaltic : As we can well believe, Auvergne was the strongformation as Etna and Vesuvius may pour out at bold of Druidism. All through Roman conquests, any time. Sir Charles Lyell, in his “Antiquity of and the edicts of emperors, there were zealous Man,” remarks that “man may be presumed to pagans found, who, in outlying districts, kept up have witnessed the volcanic eruptions of central 'the early worship, the pagan being the map of the France,” even supposing the authenticity of a hamlet, as the heathen is the dweller on the heath. fossil map shown in the museum at Le Puy to be The councils of Clermont fulminated anathemas against those " who worshipped stones," " who In the French system there are fewer failures, carried the eucharist to the graves," "who ate but the prizes are far smaller. Their system fills meats offered to devils,” &c.; but still the old rites the land with a race of very small farmers, who went on. Even now, if we may take M. Morny's own their little farms, and live contented. They word for it, the worship of Hesus and Teutates has work hard, are very illiterate, and far too slow only been exchanged for that of the first Napoleon, and unimproving. Our plan, amidst much anguish “whom many a peasant supposes to be still alive.” | and heart-breaking, ensures "progress" to all, and
The Auvergnats are poor. Is it the want of capital wealth and dignity to a few; but then it leaves us or the lack of opportunities at home which drives a residuum of "failures,” in places like the Glasgow them in swarms to seek the humblest occupations Wynds, such as it would be hard to match in any in the great French towns ? or is there in moun other part of Europe for wretchedness. With us, taineers who belong to a subject province, a sense the Highlander has more than battled down the of inferiority leading them to accept work which is prejudices felt toward him as one of alien race. generally esteemed degrading? We know that the The author of “Waverley," himself a Lowlander Swiss, the Norwegian, the man of the mountains to the backbone, was partly instrumental in getting who lives under his own government, is intensely up the Highland furore of some forty odd years high spirited, and will not submit to be in any way ago. In this respect he stands out in honourable “put upon." But it would seem as if the dependent contrast to the great historian, who, Celtic by tribes, though loving deeply their own rugged name, takes every opportunity of degrading the race lapd, and secretly despising the man of the plain, in southern eyes. But the Auvergnat, though he yet feel abashed in the presence of his greater never had any prejudices of race to contend against, civilisation and material advantages and better has taken naturally to the same humble kind of training. We may call the Auvergne people French work which we have named. You often find him Highlanders, remembering, however, that there is figuring in the reports of the Paris “ Police correcreally no difference of race. They are pure Gauls, tionnel;" for he is a hot-tempered little fellow-which the men of the high and low Alps scarcely in that again resembling the Highlandman. It are, while those who live in the Vosges are not needs all his sobriety, which is very great for a Gauls at all. And this term, French Highlanders- Frenchman, to keep him from getting into con. for one who knows anything about “sixty years tinual trouble. For indeed those who are always siuce”-is significant: using the words, however, quoting Jean Crapaud, as giving such a lesson in not in the sense of the author of “Waverley," but temperance to Sawney and John Bull, cannot have as meaning sixty years from the present time. lived in northern or central France, or they would Such an one will remember the poor Highlander in have seen enough to make them alter their opinion. Edinburgh, and almost all Scotch towns, filling the The Highlandman has plenty of perseverance, will offices of sweep, scavenger, dustman, or common live on a crust and a mouthful of salad, and will labourer; just, in fact, the work the low Irish do put by every farthing (sewing it up in his mattress, in London, and the Auvergnats do in Paris. The or adopting some such primitive kind of bank), that Highlander's perseverance and superior energy con- he may be able at last to “retire to his estate," tinually raised him indeed; but it is still the fact, have a house of his own, a couple of cows, and a that he generally began at the foot of the social pony to ride to market on. ladder. There was little or no emigration then ; ! But if his temper is hot and his habits penurious, the army could not find room for all, and the glens his heart is warm and his feelings tender. To any would only maintain a limited number of human one from his own country he is like a brother; to creatures; and so the surplus had to go off and seek all who need help or claim pity he is kind and comtheir fortune as best they could. Such too was, passionate. His ambition is not high and his views and is, the lot of the Auvergnat. Driven early to are limited : he wants the wide grasp of thought leave a land where there is no work to employ tbe and far-reaching prudence which perhaps distinhands and fill the mouths of any “ additions to guish the Highlander amongst the other Celtic the population,” he becomes water-carrier, porter at races ; but he is a good, worthy fellow for all that. the balles, stone-masons' labourer, nightman, or The following incidents, for the truth of which oftenest sweep-nearly all the sweeps in Paris being Madame Eugédie Foa, in her “ Contes Historiques from Auvergne. The chief difference between him pour la Jeunesse,” vouches, put bis character in a and the Highlander is, that the Frenchman saves very amiable light; and are interesting, too, because every penny in the hope of going back and buying they make us acquainted with something of the a little plot of ground whereon to “settle” for life; private life of the celebrated French surgeon, Baron while the Scotchman, who cannot dream of pur- Dupuytren. chasing land where it is already laid out in large estates, pushes his fortune in the south, and, rising, “Bless me! it's a very cold day for bread and becomes perhaps a master-builder in "Auld Reekie,' cheese, and nothing to wash it down with,” said or overseer in the Glasgow warehouse be used to Chassagne, the young water-seller, as he went to sweep out as a boy, or even a merchant prince in give some water to the portress of the house in an London or abroad.
attic of which he had his lodging. “Very dry fare:
III bet that young gentleman who lives under me cap on, to have, instead of that pair of buckets, a has something to make his more palatable !” barrel all to myself, --a fine new barrel painted red,
" Oh ! are you going up-stairs, Chassagne?” said with the hoops picked out with blue. What a the portress ; “for, if you are, please to band in proud day it'll be when first I put myself between this letter at No. 8; the postman has just left it." the shafts and wheel my own barrel.”
* Why can't he fetch it himself ?" said the water- / Dupuytren could not help smiling at the extent cartia.
l of his friend's ambition. " Why? poor fellow, be hasn't left his room these “How much does a barrel cost, then ?" three days; and more than that, I'm sure he's not “Why 260 francs, at least; but I'll tell you a had a mouthful to eat since yesterday morning. secret, I've got 200 towards it safely stowed away I I had not been afraid he'd snap me up, as he did in a stocking." obce before, I should have taken him some warm milk and a bit of bread to-day.”
While the student is gone to post his answer to "Really now, do you think he is so clemmed ? it his cousin, the owner of the house comes to gather almost makes me think of taking up to him mine. his rent. He turns the Auvergnat out, locks the Ah ! you should have tried him with the bread and door, and is walking away, when Chassagne says:| milk, missus."
" Where will he go, poor fellow ?" The Auvergnat carries up the letter, and finds the “That's his business, not mine; he owes me for young student, very pale and thin, writing on the five months, that's enough for me." bed, and a heap of books. The letter is from a “But his books and papers? You'll kill him, I reh cruin and guardian enclosing an order for a tell you ; he's not well.” loaia-ior, and volunteering abundant advices and The end is that the Auvergnat takes the landlord reflections on the youth's indiscretion in going up to up-stairs, opens the stocking, and pays the rent. Paris, and making himself a burden to his relations. But Dupuytren knows nothing of this till long The student is young Dupuytren, reduced for the after. He posts his letter, and before finally accepting time being to great want, owing to the break-up, in the water-seller's help, determines to put his pride 1794, of all the public educational establishments. ' in his pocket, and call on a young fellow-student, He bad held a bursary at the College de la Marche Count Léon de son of the Duke of — The in Paris. At such a time his cousin's treatment is count is going to have a party, for it is his birthheart-rending : he tells it all to the sympathising day. Aurerguata
“Come, stay, old fellow, and dine with us. "Well, if I were you, young gentleman, I should What! you won't? Ah! it's those old college jast pack up the money again, and send it back, clothes that you've got on. Stop a bit: you and and say I neither wanted his money nor his advice." I are pretty much of a size ; my man will put you
"Thank you, my lad ; you've almost made me into one of my suits in a few minutes." feel myself again. But, dear, dear! what shall I “No, I can't stay ; I wanted a word with you." de ? I'm starving.”
“What? business, is it? Oh! do put it off till Before he could look round, the Auvergnat had dis. you call again. I can't avd won't hear it to-day. appeared. He soon returned, however, with a bottle But tell me, what have you been doing since all of wine, which, with his bread and cheese, he placed the collegers were scattered ? By the way, Dupuyon the table. He cut off some slices, poured out a tren, do you know I'm worried every day by classcouple of mugs of wine, and began to eat quite fellows, who come to me for help, because I'm a cheerfully. Poor Dupuytren's heart was too full ; ' duke's son. They'd keep my purse empty enough he seemed more likely to faint than to eat.
if I listened to them all.” “There, now! I warrant you won't drink with Despite this discouraging prelude, the poor lad me, because you're a gentleman, and I'm only a unfolds his sorrows to the count, and begs the loan poor water-carrier."
of ten pounds. At last Chassagne's kindly tact succeeds : he 1 “You see, Léon, I only want it till the schools takes Dupuytren share his breakfast, and promise reopen, and that must be very soon. They cannot do accept further help.
without doctors and surgeons any more than bakers; "You see, it's my turn to help a body now. The and when once they open I can get a 'scholarship’ person, who brought me up when I was left an immediately, you know. So all I want is to be kept Iaphan, said to me when he sent me off to make my going till then. Now I know you can lend it me,
tay in Paris : Now be sure you do to others as if you will."
“Ten pounds! why that's a whole month's pocketThe student, who feels that he has something in money. You're coming it rather strong, my friend." him, says :
| A cold sweat came out on Dupuytren's forehead; "I'll pay you a hundred fold when I'm head but still he forced himself to try once more. surgeon at the hospital."
“Well, then, do without pocket-money for one .. "Ah! come now; that is too good. Why that's month, and you'll give me the means of living and like my wishing, as I do, when I put my wishing. studying for a whole quarter."
“You are surely not serious, Dupuytren,- but “Do you think any barrel I could have bcught there's the bell ; that's some of my friends. Good. would have been half as much to me as that one?” bye, if you won't stay,”
says the other. So Dupuytren goes back hopeless to his room. “Well, Chassagne, shake hands ; if you talk like There he finds Chassagne rubbing his hands before that, there's nothing else for it. We must be sworn a tureen of smoking soup.
brothers, you and I, from henceforth." “Come, make haste, it's getting cold.”
“Wbat ! you, sir, a gentleman born, and I a “Why, you good creature, you'll be making a water-carrier ?” . hole in the stocking.”.
“Yes. I know I'm a gentleman born, and I'm “Well, you see," said the Auvergnat, who could sure I shall be somebody, too, one of these days, scarcely restrain a sigh when he thought of what a and you're a water-carrier, as you say ; but still big hole the landlord had made in it a short time we'll be brothers all the same. I mean it, you ago, “ we must dine ; and, besides, you'll make it know.” all up to me, you know, when you are head man at! “Well, then, if you do mean it, come and let's the hospital.”
leave some supper,” says the Auvergnat. “I can't “Ah, yes! you shall be sure to have your barrel tell how it is that I always get so hungry when I then, and a pony into the bargain to draw it." I | feel uncommon happy.".
“Oh! a pony !- that's more than I ever dreamt They were like brothers from that time. Chas. of. No; I'll stick to the barrel, please, and draw it sagne never sought to rise above his position of myself."
water-carrier. Unlike most of his countrymen, he From that day forward Chassagne installed him. did not care to return to Auvergne, for he had no self as purveyor and factotum to the young student. relations there, and here was his “brother” in The other would protest from time to time, and Paris. say, -“Dear me, this won't do, you know-we're Dupuytren was made Professor at the School of living on your barrel all this long while.”-“Never Medicine in 1811 ; in 1813 he was appointed second mind,” he would say ; “I'd give a barrel, horse surgeon at the Hôtel-Dieu ; in 1815 he became and all, this very minute, if I had them, for the head-surgeon there, and up to his death in 1835 he pleasure of knowing you. Talk of obligation ! I continued to maintain and increase an European should like to know who's the obliged party. Why, reputation. But he never forgot old times. The look at me, now : till I knew you, I had not had a rich paid him large fees, and the poor he prescribed soul to speak a kind word to me since our old parson for gratuitously; all came to him, and every one died. I used to come in at night tired and cold, was taken in in his turn, whatever his rank or other and there was no one to take me by the hand, as claims. One little instance, the subject of which you do, and say “How are you getting on, Chas- is also an Auvergnat, will illustrate Dupuytren's bagne ?' To hear you speak is as good as a warm thorough syn patly with the sick poor--a sympathy at the fire any day, Master William. Besides," he which is rarely found in full measure, except added, “I pray for you night and morning, do you amongst those who have themselves known sorrow. know? So something's sure to come of that."
Poor Mathieu had fallen blind; and how his Early in 1795, the School of Medicine was esta- ' wife and eight children were to live was a problem. blished. Dupuytren was admitted as prosecteur; He determined he would not be a burden to them and his talent speedily brought him into notice. any longer : so, one night, when the children were The house-surgeon, who knew his straitened means, supposed to be asleep, he said to his wife, “Wife, was soon able to put something in his way, which I've made up my mind ; I'll turn out, and see what brought him in five-and-twenty pounds. No I can pick up along the road-give me one of the sooner was the money in his pocket, than off he children, and I'll go.” goes to buy a barrel and harness. This done, he “Oh, father, do take me," says little Peter, who puts himself into the shafts, and wheels it away to was awake all the time; “take me, and we'll go to show it to Chassagne.
Paris. There's neighbour Richard, that was so ill, “Come, take me out, old fellow : I shall never you know, -broke his arm at mason's work; why, get this harness off," he cries to the astonished he got nursed so beautifully, and such a wonderwater-seller.
fully kind gentleman to cure hiin; and now he's “What! you don't mean to say you're head come back quite strong, and with money into the surgeon yet, do you?”
bargain.” “Not exactly; but I've earned a little, and so your barrel was the first thing. Come, put it! So off they start next day. Mathieu goes to under shelter, and let's have some supper.”
Richard to ask who the kind doctor is, and gets a By-and-by, Dupuytren goes to his old lodgings to slip of paper with the name written on it, and also pay his rent, and discovers the rest of Chassagne's a purse with a couple of pounds, which his good kindness.
neighbour insists on his taking “What, you impudent rogue! you actually ven- ! “Good-bye, and God bless you both," says he. ture to thank me for the barrel, when, but for me, “Ah ! I'm sure He will,” says Peter; “I shall you'd have had it more than six months ago." | pray to Him night and morving. Our Father does
not forget the poor Auvergoats. We shall do, IL “Stop; there is not much soot in them this July feel certain.”
weather, you know," said the doctor, smiling at So they begged their way to Paris. Just outside his eagerness. the barrier they met a lot of masons who had just "I don't know how to do anything but sweep struck work : and Peter begged of them. At first chimneys," said the lad, looking suddenly very sad. they laughed at bim; but when they heard his story "Can't you read ? " they get interested in it, and take father and son “I just know my letters.” off to supper. One of them reads “Dupuytren” on “Well, then, you shall go to school, while your the bit of paper with which friend Richard had father is being taken care of elsewhere." faruished Mathieu.
The end is that Mathieu is cured, and sent home * Dapnytren : ah! you'll be in safe hands with with several more louis in his purse, but without him. It was he who gave me the use of my left Peter, of whom the doctor says, “Leave him with arm, which I'd never been able to do anything with me; I think I can make a man of him, and a useful since I was a baby. Stay, you won't know where man into the bargain.” to go to look for him: come to me at twelve to. As to the Barop Dupuytren, we have said that morrow, and I'll show you.”
he was uniformly kind and strictly just in his
attentions to all. He treated rich and poor exactly After waiting their turn in a room full of rich alike, never going out of his way for the sake of a and poor, who are all served alike, the blind man fee from the one, nor shirking any amount of trouble and bis little son come before the great doctor. His in behalf of the other; but still, in his treatment of kindly manner encourages even the father, who little Peter, we may be certain that the remembr-and-by “makes bold" to offer the purse con- brance of Chassagne went for something. Chassagne taiting Richard's two pounds, and two more which was a good soul, there was not a better in France, he had saved out of the alms along the road. and he and tbe Baron thee'd and thou'd one another
"Time enough to talk of that wben you're cured, whenever they met, which was pretty often. Chasmy good friend. And now as to lodging; we must sagne, however, never tried to be anything but a get you into the Hôtel-Dieu; I can see more of you water-carrier : he had no head for anything else. there, and you'll be better pursed.”
Now here was one of those Auvergnats whom the What was to be done with Peter ?
water-carrier was so fond of, like a good-hearted "I can't go home alone, and what shall I do French Highlander as he was; one, too, of whom without father? Oh, dear!” and the poor little the doctor saw by his eye and intelligent brow that fellow looked as if his heart would break.
something might be made. So Peter grew up; and “Will you stay with me, my little man?" the doctor got a worthy successor (who is still "Oh, sir, I told my father, when he was practising, we believe); and Chassagne, the patron, frightened by so many people, how kind and good in his own small way, of all needy people, and of you looked."
all needy Auvergnats in particular, was made "I'm kind to children, my boy. What's your happier than even on the celebrated day when he name ?"
first got his own new barrel. “Peter, at your service, kind sir; I'll sweep all For Auvergoats, like true Highlanders, stick your chimueys for you, at any rate ;” and Peter shoulder to shoulder; and are never so much debegan unbuttoving his coat at once.
| lighted as at the good success of a fellow-countryman.
1. S. FAGAN.
Isaiah lx. 1. To whom speaketh the prophet this ?
| proaching Jerusalem for the last time in the flesh, To a person ; to an individual person. “ Arise | beheld the city, and wept over it, accosting it as a thou : shine thou : thy light is come.”
person, when it was in reality an aggregate of Bat in prophetic, which is (in other words) poetic, persons, and saying, “If thou hadst known, even haguage, we find oftentimes an ideal person: words thou, at least in this thy day, the things which He addressed as it were to a person, or words are belong to thy peace! but now they are hid from uttered as if concerning a person, when in sober thine eyes.” reality they are spoken of, or spoken to, a com-! Just so it is here. The same city, regarded as an munity, an aggregate of persons, possessing indeed aggregate of human souls, over which, seven censome common characteristic, some link of vital turies afterwards, Christ wept, is here addressed, in anion, but yet having each one a distinct and respon- tones most opposite, by the evangelical Prophet, sible being, a life of time and a life of eternity, in “ Arise, shine ; for thy light is come, and the glory which done other can partake or intermeddle. It of the Lord is risen upon thee.” may be a city, it may be a nation, it may be a Many reflections occur to us in reference to this church or a congregation ; even as our Lord, ap- | contrast.