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learned that there were coloured people in sanie far the player was too strong for him, and after three or " off place called Canada who were free. I learned, four days the partnership was solemnly formed by
too, from seeing them reading and writing, that they his giving me one of his books as my own, and | could make paper and the little black marks on it teaching me my first lesson. T o st...103 its
talka: It is difficult for children who see this from That was a great day for me. When Eaton left their earliest years to realise the incredulity with me with the A B C ringing in my memory, I saw which a slave-boy ten years of age regards the myself already i writing a free-pass, and with it schierement of reading when he notices it for the travelling to find my mother and sister; and then; first time. For a long time I could not get it out of with another that I should write, leading them to my head that the readers were talking to the paper, Canada.li, 17 Xin tristj ",'t proti hit - Live father than the paper talking to them... When, how:: 1 5001 got into the habit of spelling signs and free, it became a roality to me, I made up my mind trying to reud placard advertisements for runaway that I would accomplish the featı myselfi But when slaves, and so the slavos soon found out that I could isted the white boys with whom I played marbles spell, and, as they thought, read too. 1 is in steach me how to read, they told me that the law One Sunday, I was sitting at the back gate of the rould not allow it. Now, the law was a sort of hotel, when three coloured men came up to me, and bobgoblin who had not stood very higlu in my invited me to go with them to the woods to gather opinion erer since he had torn my mother and sister wild grapcs; and I readily consented to go, as it was uon me, and me from my home; and as I hoped to something of an honour to be invited by my elders to get back to my old home, where I was certain my be their companion. When we got into the woods, nother and sister would join me after awhile, I had instead of their gathering grapes, one of them took do disposition to proroke the law to tear me away from his bosom a newspaper, and, handing it to me, from where I then was. So, for a time, I abandoned said, “ Dare, read dat ar, and tell us whut him say the idea of learning to read sin mor to ti e ne l'bout do bobbolishunis,” teries I bin ljuva . But though the white boys would not teach me to Had a knife been drawn on me, with a threat of read, they could not control or prevent the acquisi- taking my life, I should not have been more asp buss of Å quick and retentive memory with which I tounded. How he had got the idea into his head Tas blessed, and by their bantering one another at that I could read, when it was not in my own, was adling, and betting each on his proficiency over the great wonder, but that he should think I could other, I learned to spell by i sound bofore I knew by road a newspaper, and that I could read about the sight a single letter in the alphabet.itin aliib liiva strange" bobbolishunis,' bewildered me still more.
lly occupation gave me much time for play, and However, as they fell to afirming, and denying marbles being the general game of boys in the South, what one of them had heard his master read in this sai the spirit of gambling í being the prevailing paper, and at the very spot which he had marked and passion with the young as well as with their elders pointed out, to me when he handed me the paper, I It slaveholding society, I soon became not only a found time to recover and to determine what to do. eficient, but also a wealthy marbla player. The This was my couse; I reflected first that even
There was a white boy who belonged to the hotel, though I could not read, neither could they ; and szat ze he was a poor marble player and rather low next, that if I refused to pretond I could, they might
fork, he proposed to go in partnership with me. suspect me of a mero unwillingness to gratify them, or Inis kas just what I had tried to get older white accuse me of fearing to run the risk of being found out. boys to do before, but they were either ashamed of Such an accusation would carry with it a suspicion of kaving a shave-boy for a partner, or else they coveted treachery on my part; and should they entertain it, I ar large stoek of marbles, and meant, by combina- trembled for my fate, alone as I was with them in the te with other boys, to break li me, as it is called woods, Then, too, it must be remembered that
gming parlanco. Perhaps they too were afraid of slavery, is no great promoter of transparency of obw, Now I knew that this boy Eaton Bass, character,or of the belief that deception is wrong. This dy wished nyy partnership that he might have a must be my excuse for looking over the paper with the tanker upon whom to draw, as he was constantly determination to read what I felt they would be pleased getting “broke.''}i But as I had designs against him to hear, no matter though it should not be in the paper. ritas as selfish, 'I readily consented to the terms of I handled tho papor with a trembling hand, and, looking sitoorship. He had no stock to begin with, and, to the column pointed out by the slave, to my great boerefore, I insisted on this putting in an equivalent surprise, I made out this hcading of a leading article:
the way of service to me, which service was to "Howy Clay an Abolitionist.”', I read on a little further, tech mo the alphabet. Tilseiten. H et pul and found that the cditor, in rovicwing one of Henry
Ks resisted thisi enticement for some days, for, Clay's speeches, tried to show thut his tendencies Trang as he was, he had beon taught by his parents were towards Abolitionism. Of course I did not that he was not to teach a slave to read. But the make out fully all the long words, nor did I get any Tice wheh has proved itself to be, if not the parent, intelligent understanding of the leader, but I made a at least the confederate of all other vices--the in- new discovery about my being able to read at all, htiation of gaming--an infatuation that inereases and that, too, in a newspaper. What I read, or 2 proportion to the wont of skill or the bad luck of pretended to read, gave the most intense satisfaction, and awakened the wildest hopes about freedom my former master. I told him I did; and after my among my hearers, and elevated me to the judgment- telling him where he lived- for I went now and again seat of a second young Daniel among them.
to see my kind-hearted old mistress and Stephen, That night, after returning to the city, and when though Dr. C. never recovered from his losses-when the slaves got through with their household duties, I I told the waggoner where they lived, he set a time found the kitchen unusually full of the neighbouring for me to go with him to them that night. While we slaves; and I remember to this day the ludicrous were on the way there, he told me what he might manoeuvres of many of them to get me apart from hare told me before, namely, that he was going to the other slaves, that I might read some book or see if Winnie's son lived with them yet. I trembled all newspaper which they had filched from their masters' over as I asked her son's name, for I was sure he kner libraries. This prepared the way for it to become where my mother was. I stopped, and sat down on a my regular task to read to them.
stump to collect myself, and when I got strength I This clandestine and all but universal reading for told him who I was. “Well,” he replied very drily, the slaves could not continue long without spite or “Winnie told me to give you dis 'ere ; " and ho hope of reward begetting in the breast of some slavo handed me a rag of cotton cloth, tied all about with the purpose to betray me. So one night, when a string. I opened it, and found some blue glass I came into my master's room, where I slept, beads--beads given to my mother by her mother as he called me to him, and, with a threatening a keepsake when she died. I knew by that token warning as to my telling him a falsehood, asked that he was a messenger from my mother, though of me if I could read. I thought it safest to own it, course my mother and myself had had no time to and did so. After a great deal of questioning, he thus agree on any such thing before we were parted. But delivered himself: “I am a Northern man, though I I had often heard her say that nothing would make have been here twenty-three years. I have made my her part with these beads. money here, and, unlike the Southern spendthrifts, I I gave the man a silver piece worth a shilling, and have kept what I have made. Those among them asked him if he would go back with me to my home, who hate my country, and hate me for being a He readily consented, and, after two hours' conver. Northern man, are nevertheless dependent on me for sation with him, I learned all about my mother's the loan of my money when they are in pecuniary condition, which, according to his account, was a very difficulties. But their dislike of me is only smothered, hard one indeed. not extinguished, and they would very readily find The next morning I met him at the stable there cause of accusation against me, because they envy me he kept his horses, and, after giving him quite as my money and hate my politics. They are a wild much as I sent my mother, in the shape of sugar, kind of people, and though my leaving here would be candies, and calico cloth, I parted with him.'' a great misfortune to many, there are others who I then began to besiege my master to let me go to: think that to get rid of me is to get rid of their obli seo my mother. He seemed glad that I had found gations to pay me what they owe me. Nothing out where she was, and promised me that I should would serve the purpose of such better than to prove shortly go to see her. He promised in the genuine me, as they already believe me to bo, an enemy to ness of his joy to take me himself. But when he got slavery. Now, if you go on reading to the slaves, I cool on the subject, and reflected how sentimental,
ither be compelled to give you up to the City and therefore how silly, to slaveholders, it would Marshal to be flogged, or sell you. Don't let me hear appear to go sixty miles to the plantation of a slave. 1, of your reading to the slaves again."
holder, with whom he had no business, merely to take I told him that it was the Bible I read generally, a slave-boy to seea slave-woman, he began to dissuade and certainly there could be no harın in that. “Read me from the purpose of going; and, at last, told mo nothing to the slaves," he replied, and the conversa- that he could not go, and that he would not trust me tion ended.
to go alone. This, I am sure, was from no want of I must confess I did not obey him. For beside the feeling, because he said that he would think the importance which was accorded me as an oracle matter over about buying my mother, though he had,' among the slaves, and the ties which bound me in a he said, no desire to buy a slave, as he had never confederacy of what, under the circumstances, I felt done so. to be wrong-doing-ties that, in this, as in all cases About this timo there came to the hotel to board, of wrong-doing, it seemed safer to run the risk of from Montgomery, Alabama, a family named Young, being crushed by, than to attempt to break--besides and one morning, a day or two after their arrival, 85 all this, I got paid for reading, and I was laying up I was passing through one of the passages near their my money to pay my travelling expenses in going to nursery, I saw a coloured girl, who arrested my at sco my mother, and to purchase something to carry tention, and I stopped. Just as I stopped I heard to her as a proof of my love. Not long after this my one of the children call her Linie--the diminutive filial affection found stimulation from an unexpected for Caroline all over the South. Advancing still source.
nearer to the door, I called her too, but by her full One day, when I was talking to a coloured man name, and in a moment or two she came to the door. from the country, who had brought in a load of I could not summon the courago to speak, and cotton, he asked me if I knew such a man as Dr. C., after a moment's attempt to realise where she was,
she said, “Is your name Sella ? Are you my bro- caught as a robber, rather than expose my mother ther?” We had been separated for years, but to the chargo of harbouring me, should any of the happily neither of us had changed much, She soon slaves find out I was there. At last I made up my sent me away, for fear of giving offence to her mis- mind to retire to the woods and sleep, and then sometress, who was a sickly, querulous sort of a lady; | how or other I would secure my mother's attention but at night she got out a little while, and told me of the next evening early, as she was going into her all her adventures, after having heard from me first cabin. I turned away with a sorrowful heart, and all the facts of the discovery of the whereabouts of went to the fence over which I had clambered to get our mother. Mr. Young came to Columbus in search in. Just as I got upon the fence, some one behind of health for his wife and business for himself, and me called out in a suppressed tone, “Who are you?" to my infinite satisfaction he found the latter, and I had dropped my bag of goods for my mother over settled there. So I had the happiness of seeing my the other side of the fence, and I jumped quickly sister every week till I was sold from Columbus. over after it. But my interlocutor was by my side
It had been a year since I first heard from my in a minute, and repeated his question. It was pretty mother, and having lost all hope of Mr. Powers going dark, and it took me some time to make out what he with me to see her, or even consenting that I should looked like. After a little he bent his head down go myself, I made up my mind that I would run away close to me, and I recognised him at once as the and go. Accordingly I wrote me a pass, prepared a waggoner from whom I had first learned the whereførcel of good things to carry to her, and after abouts of my mother. I said to myself, “It's all up spanding a night with my sister, to get her messages, with me! This man lives here, as he told me; and I set off the next night.
l as he was wonderfully reserved in his talk for a I was fortunate in falling in company with a slave, and cold in his manner when he told me about coloured man who said he was going within a mile my mother, he is very likely, rather than run any of the place. I had provided myself with pen, ink, risk, to give me up to my mother's master.” and paper, to write a pags for my mother, in case she When he recognised me he simply said, “Oh, agreed to run away with me. So when this man it's Winnie's boy," as if speaking to himself, and as joined me, I asked him if he had a pass, and offered if he expected me to be there, though I had no to write one for him. He accepted my offer. But reason to think that he expected to see me. I though he had a pass, he would not, as I wished, answered, yes, I was Winnie's son; but made haste travel by day, and even at night he took by-paths. to add that my mother did not know that I was there, Our journey on this account occupied three nights. and therefore she was not to blame. “What've I got At the end of the third night, or about two o'clock in to do with blaming her?" he rejoined, in that same the morning, this man pointed out to me my mother's dry manner of his; and cold as his manner way, it cabin. Oh! with what anxiety did I approach it! reassured me. “Do you want to sce her?” he asked. Perhaps, I thought, she may have been sold away I answered hastily that I did, if he would hold her since I heard from her, for my companion said he did clear of all blame. “That's her business," he said, not know whether she was there still or not, and he "not mine. If she will attend to her business, and seemed to know a great deal. Then, again, as he did not act like a fool through her joy at seeing you, she not know even whether she was on the place, migbt may do well enough." I then told him about my he not be mistaken about her cabin; and if I were trying to get in, and my fears of being discovered. to wake up some other slave, might not they betray When I got through my story he simply said to me, my presence? But supposing my mother here, and “You wait here." I waited: it was an age of this her ea bin, how could I awaken her without dis-, anxiety. What, thought I, if he has gone to betray turbing the slaves in the adjoining cabin ? With me. He is long, he must be informing his master.
thoughts like these I walked around that cabin on a But as I remembered his cold, honest way, I felt that , cold night, or rather morning, for an hour. No he was not a traitor. Presently I heard footsteps, and
wild beast on the point of starvation ever walked putting my head up as high as the fence, I saw that with a stealthier tread around the snare that held the there were but two persons, and one a woman. I food for which he was dying, or eyed it with a jumped over the fence into the yard again, and in a more critical, suspicious, but longing look, or ever few moments I was in my mother's arms. shivered with irresolution and burned with desire, as Three or four hours of converse followed, as swectas I did during that hour. No heart but the heart of a ever mother and child indulged in, as it concerned the Inother or a child in such circumstances can measure blessedness of reunion and the buoyancy of hope for the weight of uncertainty, the agony of fear, that freedom; and as bitter as was ever realised when it pressed me down and consumed me. I had pulled touched on the sufferings of a mother, torn from her the string of the wooden latch twenty times without children for no crime but the colour of her skinsuccess; I had whispered my mother's name at every sufferings that owod, at least, their physical agony to corner of the cabin again and again, each with the the lash, which was put in use on account of her atindistinctness and suppressed tone of voice that tempts to see her children or to learn their fate: for my sprung from a fear that my whisper might be heard mother had run away three times to reach Columbus by wrong and hostile listeners. I had meditated after she found out where I was, and each time had going down the chimney and run the risk of being failed, paying for the failure with many drops of blood from her bare back, upon which I saw the gave Flanders, with a raw hide, four hundred and terrible furrows made by the cow-hide. This con- seven lashes, the number being counted by one of verse of three or four hours brought in the dull grey the slaves at Terry's order.ry
r i light of the morning, and at my mother's direction | Angered to madness, on account of resistance from I left her cabin and found a hiding-place in the Flanders, Terry's blows were laid on 80 heavily and woods among some dry pine straw, where from ex- | took such terrible effect, that the blood followed at haustion I soon fell asleop. i i i j's every stroke, and saturated the ground from the body
About four o'clock in the afternoon I was awakened of the still-defiant slave. This defiance but angered by hearing persons near me digging in the ground. | Terry the more, and he continued to flog his victim till By careful listening I learned that they were digging he was insensible. One of the slaves observing his ina grave. I learned also that it was for one of the sensibility, called his inaster's attention to it, and slaves who had been killed on the ostate that morna expressed the belief that he was dying. Terry, after ing, which was Sunday. They were evidently afraid giving him a few more blows, aocusing him at the of being overheard in their conversation, so that the same time of " playing 'possum that is, feigning information I got while listening was very unsatis- insensibility ordered him to be taken down. And factory. About eleven o'clock at night, my mother Flanders still remaining apparently insensible, he came to me and took me into her cabin, and from her took out his knife, and stuck it in the foot of his vicI learned the following story about the tragic end of tim two or three times. Seeing at last that his victin the slave for whose corpse his fellows were digging was beyond the power of feeling, Terry turned to his the grave. .shit !*"
its i. ; the slaves and said, “ Yes, he is dead.l. And let every me His name was Flanders, and he had been a terror of you take warning by his fato; for I swear that I to negro-drivers all his life, having made up his will kill every slave I own before one of them shall mind never to submit to a flogging, he inva. outdo mo." di salah
109 Nu vilnius riably supported his resolution by a resistance This all happened early in the morning: so that which, while it had left upon him many scars of Mr. Terry, who was a licentiate in the Presbyterian the conflicts, had tended only to strengthen his re- Church, had time to dross and to quict, his perturbed solve. He had had about thirty different masters; spirit, and to ride upon that same hørse, for the but the one before the last one had never attempted neglect of which he had taken the life of a human to flog him, and had given him a good character for being, nine miles from his home to preach the Gospel industry, though he frankly informed Mr. Terry--the "the glorious Gospel of the blessed God -to man who bought him last, and who was the owner of preach the glad tidings of Him who came to open my mother__that he was an unruly and incorrigibly the prison-doors to the captive, to bind up the broken rebellious slave. Mr Terry had been in early life a hearted, and to preach the acceptable year of the negro-driver, and being a man of athletic frame and Lord.”/es. visst, ja grill. It will great physical courage, he prided himself on nover His servant who waited on him to churrh told muy having been outdone by a slavo's 'rosistance. So mother, as soon as he got back, that Terry in the when he bought Flanders, he told him that he would course of his sermon, in illustrating some principle subdue him or kill him. In about a month aftor he which he had laid down, said that d' that very day he purchased Flanders he gave him orders to trim his had seen the punishment of a wicked tempor. He horse's main and tail on Saturday night. 'Unable had, he continued, nndertaken to give one of his to get the pine knots to make a light sufficient for slaves a light brushing,' and he resisted; but when i him to perform this duty on Saturday night, Flanders he found himself overpowered he became so siolopt had left it to Sunday morning, and sleeping rather that he died in a fit of anger. rauit ,a'ri late from not having to be called to work on Sunday, f. Of course a tale of horror such as this disposed me, his master on going to the stable found his commands to leave this estate as soon as possible; but I could unfulfilled. He went to the cabin where Flanders not consent to leave my mother at the mercy of a slept, and fell upon him while sleeping, with a large man whose fiendish temper and consummate hypo- i1 hickory club, with which he had provided himself for crisy allowid him to murder at seven and preach at the purpose. Flanders, though stunned by the blows cleven o'clock tho same day. given him in his sleep, struggled up, and truc to his dy promise to write a pass with which my mother reputation, grappled with his assailant; and athletic and I could travel on the road, my horrible foreas Terry was, he found himself getting so much the bodings of my mother's end is she stayed on this worst of the encounter that he cried aloud for help. plantation, and my almost heart-breaking entreaties The slaves soon came to his assistance, and finally, for her to fly with me, were all answered, though in after a severe struggle, overpowered Flanders. Terry tears and with the decpest sense of the affection which ordered him to be taken to the smoke-house, where prompted my entreaties, yet with a mournful shake of bacon is hung to be cured, and following the slaves the head by my mother. And at lust sho began to erithere, he commanded Flanders to be tied with one treat me to leave her and return to iny home, I have end of a rope; the other end was thrown over the borne a great deal in my life," she said," so much cross beams which supported the roof, and Flanders that my spirit is crushed and all courage is gone from was drawn up until the tips of his toes could just me, and my body is worn out with labour and the touch the ground. Terry then with his own hand | lash. It will not be long, therefore, before I shall be