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VOL. XIX. No. 36.)

LONDON, SATURDAY, MAY 4, 1811.

[Price 18.

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[1090 SUMMARY OF POLITICS.

“ should omit many of equal merit. Hav,

“ ing taken, however, this general view, PORTUGAL. THE War. In my last," and knowing the great acquisition of I had not room to say all that I wished to “ military glory to the Country, and the say upon the subject of the Vote of Thanks“ small loss at which it has been pur, to Lord Talavera. Therefore, I resume "chased, I cannot help adverting, for 4 that subject now, and I am the more con. “few moments, to a few considerations firmed in the necessity of speaking freely respecting the manner in which that and fully upon it, since I see, that the oc- " success is likely to affect our enemy and casion seems to have been seized upon for " ourselves, our Allies and the rest of the purpose of drawing the two hostile poli- " Europe. With respect to our Allies, no tical parties towurds one another, an event of man can doubt that it has given them an which the sensible and observing reader “ additional year for the continuance of will want no assistance to enable him to “ their struggle; and that they have reanticipate the consequences. -Even Mr. “ ceived a lesson fram which they may WHITBREAD seems to have been afraid of " derive the greatest profit. With regard being thought to, dissent in silence from “ to ourselves, the campaign cannot, in the vote of Thanks; and hastens to say, " like manner, be without its advantage, that he claims a share of the honour of "For some time there have been two giving that vote; seeing, that he should " parties in this country, who have enter, have been one of the loudest in behalf of “ tained very different sentiments on the it, if he had been present when it was pro- “ situation of the country: While the posed. But, I cannot say, that, after one party maintains that our glory is set, what I have seen for some time past, this "the other maintains, that at no former niuch surprizes me. - There has been " period of our history was that glory such a mixture of praising and of blaming “higher. To those who think that the in MR, WHUTBREAD's speeches; he has so glory of this country Dever shone with often ended in complimenting those whom he prouder lustre than during the struggle began in accusing; he has so often taken “ which we have now so long maintained the word of those, whom bolescribed as “with France, the present confirmation of totally unworthy of all trust- und confidence ; their opinion cannot fail to be consoling and, in short, there has been so much of " But those again, who thought the sun of backward and forward work in his pro- Britain's--glory for eper set, never more ceedings, that I, as well as most others, I " again to rise among the nations, those, I believe, have began to pay much less atten- "should think, would be among the first to tion to him than formerly.--Having congratulate the illustrious glory with made these remarks, which, though I have " which their country has been crowned. made them reluctantly, I could not wholly " To those this glory cannot fail to be suppress, I shall proceed with my remarks "most cheering and consolatory, and inon Mr. Perceval's speech, taking up the “ finitely more so than to us. We all subject where I left off in the preceding " now know that we shall have a British Number.-But, first of all, it will be 'army to defend our country, if ever the best to insert here the remaining part of " battle shall be bronght to own the speech upon which I am commenting, “ shores, an army which has uniformly that I may leave no room for a charge of “ beaten the army of the enemy, headed garbling.--"I will not here enter into a " by Generals who have out-generalled " detail of the various distinguished actions the Generals of the enemy. With re" which have from day to day been ex- spect to that enemy, what must be now "hibited during the whole campaign, “his feelings after all his insolent boast“ down to the last act of valour of Colonel ings, and what must be now his confu. “ Beckwith, on the banks of the Coa, for "sion, wben he sees that he is without “ fear lest while I distinguished a few Il" means to carry his designs into execu

Our

« tion? What effects these events may last year. --The reader will bear in mind “ have produced in France it is impossible how often we were assured, that the French “now to foresce. They may be to that army never could get away from the trap,

country a salutary lesson, while they into which they had fallen. So fully

demonstrably prove, that extension of were this credulous public persuaded of dominion is not in reality an increase of this, that the capture of the whole of the " strength. With respect to the effect of enemy's, army was regarded as an event “these victories on other parts of the almost certain. And, yet, when no part “world, they will at least point out to of it, except a few stragglers, have been " them the rock on which they themselves captured, when it has not only got away 6 split. With these views, which to some unhurt, but is presenting a steady front to

persons may perhaps appear too san- ours; yet, even now, we are called upon " guine, I will own that it does appear to

to exult at the result? I am sure that this "me impossible to conceive that the world could not have taken place in any country " should for ever remain enthralled under in the world but this. I am sure of it. its present degrading tyranny; and There is no people but those of this coun" that it does not appear to me unreasona- try, amongst whom it would have been “ ble to suppose that we may be the instru altempted. ---But, let us examine a little "ments by which the delivery of Europe more closely the grounds upon which this

may be effected; and that, in that Vote of Thanks was passed. --Mr. Perce“ Peninsula, which has been the scene of val views the result of the military move" the post unprincipled acts of aggression, ments in Portugal in three lights: 1. As “ of the most outrageous barbarity of the it may affect our allies. And, here he

tyrant, that there the power of the tyrant says, that these allies will now have had * should also find its grave Hear!) What- an useful lesson, and will, at least, guin ano“ever may be thought of the probability ther year for the continuance of their struggle. “ of these suppositions, we sliall now leave -Now, as to the utility of the lesson " them, and revert again to the proper giren them in the last year's campaign, “ business before the House, the thanks and even up to this hour, I can not, for " which are due to those who have put us the life of me, discover it. I do not see " in a situation to entertain such proud and in what way they can profit from this " ennobling sentiments. As long as a lesson, that is to say, favourably io us. feeling sliall remain in favour of valour, And, as to their gaining another year for so long as the hearts of men shall con- the continuance of their struggle, that “tinue to be affected by distinguished gain nay possibly prove a' most dreadful "military glory, a glory acquired not in loss. If indeed, Mr. Perceval will ensure " the support, but in the resistance oftyran. final success, I shall be ready to say, that "ny, in the most righteous cause for which something has been gained, by the Portu. " the sword can be drawn; so long shall the guese, with a proviso that that success is " fame of Lord Welling on stand em. to lead to their being a free people. But, “ balmed in the meinory of a grateful if there be no security of final success in " posterity, and so long shall he continue the struggle, there is nothing gained by to receive the thanks of mankind Cloud deluy; there is nothing gained on the one "applause). The Right Honourable Gen- side any more than on the other side; the "tleman then concluded, with moving, French have another ycar before them as " That the Thanks of the House should be well as our allies; and what, then, is there " voted to Lord Wellington, for his dis- to boast of upon this score.--Suppose “ tinguished Military Services in Portugal England were invaded by a French army, " and to the Army under his Command.” and the enemy after coming almost to the

-To read this Speech, who would not capital were compelled to retreat to the imagine, that the achievement to be sea shore. Should we think it any great thanked had produced a total change in thing to boast of, that we had gained the aspect of affairs, not only in Portugal, another year for the continuance of the and Spain, but in the whole of the Conti- struggle? And, let not the reader imagine, nent of Europe? Who would suppose, that the French being driven out of Portu. that nothing at all had been gained upon gal is the same thing that it would be to the enemy since this day twelve months; drive them out of Great Britain. It is and that, in fact, his situation was better, at very different indeed. To be on the conthe time when this speech was made, than fines of Spain is the same thing, as to all it was reported to be at any time within the the purposcs of hostility, as being in Por, tugal. The two kingdoms are, in fact, . " be brought to our own shores; an army one country.

'The line of separation is " that has uniformly beaten the army of imaginary ; or, at least, it is no more than " the enemy, commanded by generals the line of separation between Middlesex “ who have out-generalled the generals of and Berkshire. So that, the expressions : "the enemy." -With regard to this driven out of Portugal: evacuation of Por uniform beating and this out-generalling, "tugal:" and the like, are mere inventions these points have already been sufficiently to deceive this credulous nation. I dare discussed; but, did it require this achievesay that the French look upon themselves ment; was it not till now, that we knew as being in Portugal as much as they did that we had a British army to defend our own six months ago, in a military sense of the shores; and, did it require the expending words. They may cross the line at any of 20 millions of our taxes in Spain and moment; and, if our object be to prevent Portugal to ascertain this fact? Why, we them from doing so, we shall want an used to say, that “one Englishman could army that will not be supported by a few “ beat three Frenchmen;" this used to dollars every month. If the French be not only a common saying, but an arare not to return again to Portugal; if they ticle of belief, in England ; and, are we; are out once for all; if there be no chance then, come down so far in our pretensions of their re-entering it and subduing it; if as to have doubted, until just now, whether that is beyond the means of Napoleon; we could muster up men able to defend then, indeed, the driving of them out will our own country against an invading have been a great step; but, if they can French army? Surely it was not very return; if their return be not nearly im- wise to proclaim this to the world, who possible, the people of Portugal will not will say, of course : What, then, while be fools enough to rejoice ; for, if the you were holding such a high tone, while French should return amongst them, it is you were outwardly professing such conmanifest, that their lot will be much more tempt for Frenchmen, you were at bottom wretched than if the recent retreat had afraid for your lives, and

you

discover never taken place.All, therefore, as your former fears by exulting that now to the Portuguese, and the Spaniards too, you are safe! What! and is it, indeed, depends upon the result. It is possible, inatter of boast, matter of pride, matter of that the reireat of the French may be for joy and exultation, and do we call it their good; but, it is also possible, that it gloriour, because something has hapmay prove to be the greatest of all the pened which assures us that we shall be calamities that have hitherto: befallen able to save ourselves from becoming the them. If they are to be a free people, slaves of Frenchmen! If, indeed, the ministhen the having got their invaders out of ter had said,“ we now know that we have an their territory is a great blessing; but, if “ army capable of chastising the insolent foe; they are, from whatever cause, finally to "capable of invading France, and carrybe subdued, then the longer the hour of ing the English banners to the capital.” their subjugation is delayed, the worse is If he had, indeed, beaten the march to it, and the worse must it be, for them. Paris; then there would have been someWe are not in the best situation for judg- thing of consistency in the boust; then, ing of the interests of the people of Por- though we might have doubted of the fact, tugal. We are very apt to think that we should have conditionally admitted the whatever is our interest must be theirs. conclusion. But, as it is we are to boast, Turn the question as often as we will, our we are to exult, we are to be all cock-aown interest is sure to be uppermost; and, hoop, because something has now taken therefore, it may, to some of us, appear a place, which, as we are told, gives us the great advantage to have so safely secured knowledge that we shall be able to find men another year for the continuance of the to defend our country, in case the French struggle in Portugal; but, I would have were to invade it; and, for having made this the reader bear in mind, that the Portu- consoling, this heart-cheering discovery guese may possibly see the matter in a to us, we are to thank Lord Talavera.very different light.--2. With regard Here, however, I must stop to say, that, to ourselves, Mr. PERCEVAL said that this supposing such discovery to be matter of achievement must make us all happy, great joy in England, I do not see that the -principally because “we NOW know discovery has been made in the event al. ar that we shall have a British army to de. luded to. I do not see any thing in the "fend our country, if ever the battle shall events of the campaign in Portugal, which, if I had had any fears for the defence of sena. Mr. Perceval must, therefore, have England before, would have removed, or a very high opinion, I think, of the senat all tended to remove, those fears. For, sibility of the Emperor Napoleon, when what have I seen? A French army and he supposes, that the retreat of his Poran English army meeting upon the fron-tuguese army, under such circumstances, tiers of Portugal, the business of the for- will throw him into confusion; will fill mer being invasion, and the business of the him with shame; and make him despair. latter being defence. Now, can I draw any It is stated, observe, that the allied very great consolation from what fol. army consists of 100,000 men ; and, if lowed? Do I see that that took place our newspapers tell us truth, that of which I should like to see take place in Massena did not, when he began his reEngland? Should we, any of us, like to treat, amount to 50,000. If this statesee the French do here what they have ment be true, it is wonderful ; it is bedone in Portugal ? Should we like to see yond measure astonishing, that the French them follow our defenders for so many army should have retreated in such com. hundreds of miles into the country, and to plete order. They left behind them no be permitted to lay one half of the coun- sick nor wounded. They took all along try waste, before they were compelled to with them : And, is such a retreat, under retreat? Would it be much consolation to every possible adverse circumstance, calus to be told, that our army had uniformly culated to throw the Emperor into conbeaten the enemy, and that our generals füsion ?- -However, be it so, for, I am had out-generalled his generals? Would sure, I care not what degree of confusion this be any great comfort to us, if, at the seizes him and every despot upon earth, same time, we saw ourselves reduced to under whatever name he may exercise his the most poignant misery? Should we power, though I must confess that, if I exult much at such a state of things were compelled to choose, I should prefer Should we, I ask, call it glorious ? This is an undisguised to a disguised despotism. the way to view the matter. To make the Confusion to him ! but, let us not lose cur

case our own.

To ask ourselves how we senses, let us not believe, until we bave should like to be defended as the people of something like proof of it, that he wants Portugal have been defended; how we the means to carry on his designs; and, should relish these victories if they had particularly let us be cautious how we inbeen gained upon our own shores; and, dulge in the pleasing hope that this athow we should like this promised advanchievement of Lord Talavera will produce {age of another year added to the continu- any effect in France. Did the affairsof Wal. ance of the struggle. -3. Mr. Perceval cheren, or any other of our celebrated ex. said, that, as to the enemy, this achieve-peditions, produce any effect in England ? ment of ours must plange him into confu- Did any one of them cause any movement sion.-----Now, before we go any further, of the people here? Nay, did any one of Jet us ask why we should suppose this would them, or all of them put together, take be the case. -What is there to produce from any minister one single voice of his this effect upon him? A retreat of one of his parliamentary inajority? Reader, you will, armies, with, comparatively, very little without hesitation, answer me in the ne, loss. Now, are retreats unknown to us? gative; you know that they produced no We have seen a retreat under Sir John effect at all. A little grumbling from the Moore; we have seen a retreat under City of London, in an instance or two, Lord Talavera, from the spot whence he wbó received a sharp. rap upon their takes bis title, leaving his sick and wound. knuckles for their pains ; and, there was an ed to the mercy of these same " barbarous end of the effect ; except, indeed, that the “ French;" we have seen a retreat onder rap upon the knuckles seems to have made LORD CHATHAM; we have seen a retreat the Citizens grateful, rather than otherunder the Duke of York; we have seen a wise. Why, then, I ask, should the retreat retreat under GENERAL GRAHAM, whom the of Massena produce any effect in France ? parliament thanked; nay, and have we not Why should the people of France make seen a retreat under Lord Talavera during any stir upon such an occasion ? Why this very war in Portugal?-_Well; did should they be out of temper with their any of ihese throw us into confusion? Yet, Emperor. It is a strange perversity which they were, some of them at least, attended has seized us, to believe, that every little with circumstances full as well calculated adverse circumstance in the affairs of to excite confusion or he retreat of Mas- France is to cause the people to rise

against the government. What would be , by the retreat of Massena. The world! said to any of us Jacobins, if we were to It is Europe he means, doubtless. And foretell the overthrow of the government the nations of Europe are now to see the in England, because of the failure of an rock upon which they split. - -There is a expedition or an armament? Why, then, great deal of matter in this litile sentence. should such effects flow from such failure - The nations of Europe do not, that I of the armaments of France? Here, on the hear of, seem to think that they have split contrary, to fail appears to be meritorious at all. I see no indication of iheir enterin a Minister. Pitt failed in all bis wars ; taining any such notion. It seems, thercand the parliament decree him a public fu- fore, a pure assumption on the part of the neral and a monument at the expence of the Orator, who should have shewn us the people. Why, then, again I ask, do we nations that had split. There is a contusuppose, or should we suppose, that the sion here. Mr. PERCEVAL meant godernpeople of France are to be roused to re- ments ; and, it is very true, that many of bellion, or to opposition against the Em- them have split, and actually gone to peror, by the retreat of Massena ? pieces, but the people are alive and well. But, this retreat is to be " a lesson" to the They have, to be sure, changed rulers, enemy; to Napoleon, perchance, and is and those of them, who were better of beto convince him, “ that crtent of dominion, fore, have, of course, changed for the " is not increasc of strength."-HE wants worse ; but, in any case, I do not see how no lesson to convince him of that, but, WE they are to profit from what has happened seem to want it ; for, we are frequently in Portugal, nor how the retreat of Masfiring Park and Tower guns for the con- sena is to shew them the rock upon which quest of Íslands, to send a pound of beef | they have split. Mr. Perceval, howto which costs us a crown in silver money. ever, appears to have great hopes about

We, indeed, have need of a lesson like something; and he does not think it unthis. We, who have an Empire in the East, reasonable to suppose, that we may yet be which has long been dragging England the instruments by which Europe is to be down to ruin. His empire is not nearly delivered !- -Good heavens! What, stilt so extended. His is all within his reach. bent on the deliverance of Europe; even He can come at it, and command it. We after our principal Ally; our August cannot do so with ours. Besides, his Ally, has given his daughter in marriage plan is not to unite Spain and Por- to our enemy, “the tyrunt,as Mr. PERtugal to France. He has set up a

CEVAL calls him.--The march to Paris" new king in Spain, who is residing will assuredly be revived, if we make the in the Capital, and who is, as far as he French retreat another fifty miles! What! is able, grinding the poor people down deliver Europe still, after having ratified with taxes. So that, Napoleon is not many of the conquests of France by treaty! here fighting for extent of dominion. He But, it is foolish to be surprized, or to afis fighting for alliances ; and what are we fect surprize, at any thing of the kind. fighting for in Spain and Portugal ? Are We have been engaged in the deliverance not we fighting for alliances too? Say, we of Europe for the last eighteen years, and are not; why, then, we must be fighting on we shall go as long as the means for extension of dominion ? No: that will exist. Mr. WHITBREAD recommended not do. What will do, then? Why, we an endeavour to obtain peace; but the are fighting, in Spain and Portugal, the minister told him, that this was not the time. battles of England. We are there antici. He was very right. It certainly is not pating the attack upon ourselves.--Say you the time; and I do not believe that he so? Well, then, surely there can be no will ever see the time as long as there is a blame to the French for going there to paper-money in England, that will pass meet us ; unless you hold, that it is unfair (at any rate) in lieu of gold and silver. in them to attack' England. So that, in But, as to the deliverance of Europe, that no view that you can take of this matter, is to say, the reconquering of other counwill it bear the test of reason. A shew of tries from France, what must be in the argument may be made up; but there is head of the man, who could conceive the nothing solid; , nothing that does not idea, merely because Massena had revanish at the appearance of truth. treated to the frontiers of Portugal? What But, besides an effect upon the people of is this to do for the Italians, or the Dutch, France, the rest of the world is, it seems, or the Hamburghers? If they wished it, according to Mr. PERCEVAL, to be affected that is to say, for I, for my part, have

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