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the loudest in the cause of Reform, and be impossible. The 3rd was adopted who had, by that very means, gained the by Pitt and his colleagues; and, of the popularity that enabled him to retain his consequences we are now tasting, and our place' as Minister in spite of the Aristo- children's children will taste.

- That eracy, was now become the enemy of that this was the real source of the war cause; and was disposed to do all that there can be no doubt in the mind of lay in his power against it. But, the any man of sense, who looks back to cause was now more formidable than it what passed in the years 1792 and had ever been before. The French, a 1793. There unquestionably was, on people who had always been, by the the part of the French revolutionists

, English, considered as slaves, had now the most ardent desire to remain at peace declared themselves free; they had abo- and upon good terms with England. The lished the feudal system in France, and proofs of this are so clear and convincing, all the artificial inequalities amongst that it is impossible for any man, capable men; they had curtailed the power of of judging, to entertain a doubt upon the their sovereign, and, from an absolute subject. They put up with slights and af. despot, had reduced him to a first magis- fronts of all sorts from our government ;, trate with known and determinate pow- and did not, at last, declare war 'till after

- This was a change that could they saw that it was resolved on that they not fail to produce great effect upon should not have peace upon any terms. the minds of Englishmen, and especial. The king of France, who was put to ly as the French, in their new consti- death in January, 1793, and who assur. tation, had proceeded upon the principles edly owed his death, at that time, to the of the English constitution, those very conduct of those who called themselves principles for which the Reformers had his friends, had sent à Minister to Eng. been so long contending in vain. The land, and this Minister was sent out of the French people had declared, and it had country by order of the government in become a fundamental law of France, that same month of January. After this that no man should be tared without his own it was iinpossible that war could be avoid

consent ; that this consent should be given ed. Indeed, it was, in most respects, war by representatives ; and that, in the choos- before ; for, there was an Alien Act and *ing of these representatives, coery man who an Act against passing French assignats, long paid tazes should have u voice. This was previous to the sending away of the the grand point, for which the Reformers French Minister. And, in short, it was in England had been so long contending; as clear as daylight, that the government and, for which they had so long contended of England was resolved not to be upon in vain against the Borough patronage friendly terms with the revolutionary go. and influence. It was no wonder, vernment of France. And why not? therefore, that they hailed the French Why, the reason alledged was, that, if we Revolution; that they applauded it; had peace and a free communication with that they discovered a strong partiality France, there would be also a communis for the persons engaged in it; and that cation of French principles. This was they endeavoured by all the means in openly avowed'; and, not only in news their power, to assist and uphold the papers and pamphlets, but in speeches in cause of the Revolutionists in France, parliament, the war was asserted to be abwhich cause, for a length of time, was the solutely necessary upon this ground. Upon cause of the Reformers in England. this ground the war was justified; and, The ministry in England, and the whole indeed, every act of the government, wheof the Borough faction, could not fail to ther affecting the liberty of speech and be alarmed at this. It was, indeed, quite the press, or liberty in any other way, was clear, that one of these things must take defended upon this same ground : that is place: 1. such a Parliamentary Reform to say, as being absolutely necessary as would satisfy the people of England; to keep out French principles. What 2. A revolution like that which had taken need was there so to dread these French place in France, or even of a more re principles? Were they so amiable ? Were publican cast ; or, 3. A suppression of the they so very bewitching? What should Reformers, which necessarily included a induce Englishmen to run so eagerly war against France, because while a com- after these French principles ? After munication with France was left open, to principles taught by a nation whom Suppress the reformers would manifestly the English had always despised ? If I am

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told that the principles were absurd and not solely, in view. Hundreds of writers yet dangerous, that is no answer to my had appeared against him; but, though question ; nor does it render the question all these asserted, that they had truth on less necessary; for, the more absurd the their side, their writings were unavailing; principles, the greater must be the wonder, the people were so perverse as still to read that the people of England should have | Paine, and, notwithstanding that it was been so enamoured of them. And, if I asserted, that he was a contemptible am told, that it was only a small and con- wretch, and his works full of gross falstemptible part of the people of England hoods and ignorance, it was thought safest who were enamoured of these principles, Ito prohibit the reading of them, and to leave ask how it then came to be necessary to the people at full liberty to read the writ enter into a war to keep out these princi- ings of his answerers. This was thought ples? --The truth is, that the French re- safest, and, therefore, this course volation had awakened the cause of Reform adopted. -But, there was a something in England; the boldness of the French in this proceeding that did not contributo Revolutionists offered an example to the much towards the producing of cooviction Reformers in England, and their success that Paine. was wrong; and especially as held out the strongest encouragement. The it was remembered, that the controversy communication which took place between did not originate with him, but with his opthe English Reformers and the National as. ponent, BURKE, who had, without any apo semblies of France, while it failed not to parent provocation, written and published urge on the former to new efforts, clearly a severe attack opon the French Revolushowed that nothing but a war with lion, and all those who had taken a share Fránce could prevent reform or a revo- in it. In answer to this attack, PAINć wrote lution in England. This communica. his famous work, the “ Rights of MAN;". tion was direct, open, and without the and, BURKE replied, from bis seat in the smallest disguise, and the parties spoke in House of Commons, where he recona language that no one could misunder- mended his Antagonist to the care of the stand; but, if a reform had been granted Attorney General, who was then Şir Jous in England, there does not appear the Scott, now ford Eldon, and who answered smallest reason to suppose that any danger Paine in an eloquent and convincing little to the king's office here would have arisen publication, called an INFORMATION from a communication with France. EX-OFFICIO, to which the latter did not But, it was resolved not to grant this re- choose to stay to offer a rejoinder. PAINE form; and, in order to put its advocates to went to France, and here was a striking insilence, a war against France was necessary. stance of what was apprehended; namely, To enter upon this war, however, without that while the communication with France plausible grounds, was not adviseable. It was open, it would be impossible to put a was expected, indeed, to be a sort of holi- stop to, or to check, the propagation of opi. day war; a sort of jubilee campaign or two; nions dangerous to the system in England. but, it might possibly be otherwise ; and, --The proceedings in France favoured the as the people in general were very averse views of the Anti-Jacobins in England (for from war, it required some time to pre. that was the name that the enemies of reform pare them for it, and also some favouring afterwards assumed ;) the King, who had events.- -Wher, therefore, the Refor- become suspected and odious from the conmers began to appear in considerable duct of those who professed to be fighting strength, and it was seen that their ad- for him against the people or part of the dresses and other publications produced people in France, and especially from the great effect in the minds of the people, a menaces of the Duke of Brunswick, was cry was set up, on the other side, against dethroned in August 1792, and put to death Republicans and Levellers, who aimed at in the next January, the nation having, in the destruction of Liberty and Property, under the interim, been declared a Republic. the pretence of seeking for A REFORM This was held 10 be a confirmation of the IN PARLIAMENT. PAINE, whose pow- charge against the reformers; and, as great erful pen was converting millions to his alarm 'had been excited in the country, principles, was prosecuted as a libeller and amongst weak minded people, who are alout-lawed'; and, such dread had his writ- ways the most numerous, to speak any ings inspired, that in May 1792, a Pro- longer of reform was to speak of republi. CLAMATION was issued, which had the sup- canism, and to wish for the overthrow of pression of those writings particularly, if all order, law, rank, and property

The industry that was made use of to raise after they had presented their petition to this alarm is incredible. The people were the House of Commons, in May, 1793, told all sorts of stories. Plots and con- published an address to the nation, in spiracies were talked of. In some parts of which was contained the passage taken the couniry it was believed, that the Le- for my motto ; and, there can be no doubt vellers were actually upon the eve of com- at all, that the ulurm, at that time existing ing into the towns and villages to divide in the country, had been excited and in the property of the rich amongst the poor: flamed for the purpose of checking the proThe people were induced to arm and gress of reform and culumniating the charac: accoulre themselves. And all this from ters of its promoters. I shall be told, pero no other earthly, cause than the dread haps, that this was a very

laudable pur. which tiie Anti-Jacobins had of a Reform of pose ; for, that, if a parliamentary reform Parliament, that very reform, which Pitt had taken place, it would have ruined the himself had asserted to be absolutely ne- country. But, how is the country now! cessary to the very existence of the nation as What state has it been placed in by the an independent state, an assertion the truth refusal of reform? Is it now in a good site or falsehood of which we are now in a fair ation? Is it happy and safe? Are there way of seeing ascertained and proved to no apprehensions for its security against the whole world; for those are weak po- enemies of any sort ?- Reader, when do liticians indeed, who imagine that ihe you read a debate; when do you read a Victories” which we are now gaining in irial for libel; when do you read about any the Peninsula have any tendency at all to measure of war expenditure, without seeing decide ihe contest between France and us. it stated, that we are now contending for our

Here we are, then, at the end of an very existence as a nation? Everlastingly cighteen years war! Here we are, with six are we told of the crisis in wbich we are; hundred millions added to our national the crisis of our fate ; our arful siluation, Debt ; with the annual interest of that This is the language we continually hear

. Debt swelled from nine millions to thirty. Well, then, this is the situation, in which fite millions; with our taxes augmented we have been placed by the war. . New from fifteen millions to seventy millions; laws of treason; laws about sedition ; laws with our gold and silver converted into upon laws laying restraints upon

the press. paper, which paper lias, even in the House Ask the cause. Oh! they are necessary in of Conimons, been declared to be worth no these critical times for the safety of the more than fifteen shillings and ten pence in country. Complain of the enormous load the pound; with our paupers trippled in of taxes. They are necessary to the safety number, and with a commerce and with of the country. Why, if this be true, manufactories said to be perishing.-- then, the state of England is changed since Here we are, then: such is our state at the this war began. The war against Jacoend of an eighteen years war against Re- bins and Levellers has not insured its publicans, Jacobins, Levellers, and Re- safety. It is not pretended that the Jacoformers of all sorts and sizes.-- I

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bins and Levellers have any power. They over the suspension of the Habeus Corpus never had any in England, except with Act for so many years, the trials of Mr. their tongues and pens; and, in France, Tooke and others for high treason, all the they have been totally destroyed by " Rerestraints upon

and upon the use of gular Government and Social Order.", speech; these I pass over; these the Anti-What, then, are you afraid of? Why jacobin will look upon as a great bless. not do away the laws intended for the ing; but, will he say the same of the crisis ? Why, sure, you are safe now ! income tar? If he has place, or pension, Who, or what, is it that you fear now! or any means whereby he gets a share of what is it, in short, that makes the crisis the taxes, he will; because he, in fact, by Very much puzzled would any Antisuch means, gains instead of losing ; Jacobin be to answer me these questions, but, if he be a fool Anti-jacobin; a gulí He has seen tbe Jacobins and Levellers Anti-jacobin; then the ten per cent. taken overthrown and destroyed, and yet he is from his income will have some weight as much afraid as ever. I shall be told, with him; and, if it has, I beg him to perhaps, ihat whatever the situation of the bear in mind, tbat the income tax was an country may be, it is better than it would invention of Pitt, and that it arose out of have been it reform of parliament had been the war waged against 'the Jacobins and granted, in 1793. To be sure, it is no! Levellers. The “ Friends of the People," possible to say precisely what would

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before. --But, in talking about giving up if reform had been granted in 1793; but, the country to the enemy, we have forgotten it is fair to presume, I think, that a course there might, inthe case of reform, have been the contrary of that which has been pur- no enemy to give the country up to. If a sued would have produced contrary effects, reform had taken place the reformers or, at least, that it might have done so. would, of course, have been contented, What worse could have happened than and, consequently, would have wanted that which has happened, it would, I think, ne cremy to sabdue their country. Aye, puzzle any man to imagine. Where is “but, give them an inch and they will there a Prince in Europe, formerly our ." take an ell. They would not have ally, who could have lost more or suffered “ stopped with a reform of parliament. greater disgrace, than every Prince in Ex- « They would have had a republic."'. rope, our ally, has lost and suffered ? How I do not believe this; but, suppose it to could the Reformers, if they had obtained be true, it makes nothing for the argument; their ends, have put Europe more com for, having formed their country into a repletely into the hands of France than it public there would have been the less reanow is? Could they have laid more or son for their being at war with the repub. heavier taxés" upon the people of Eng-licans of France. Indeed, upon that land ? Could they have cet out prettier supposition, it is downright absurdity work for the Bullion Committee ? Could to talk of an enemy, seeing that there they bave made gold and silver more would not have been the smallest chance scarce ? I shall be told, perhaps, that of war; and, if a war bad, under such they would have done worse than all this, circumstances, taken place, it is imfor that they would have delivered up the possible to conceive a motive for give country to the enemy. It is useless to ing the country up to the enemy; fore oppose assertion by assertion, or, I would

more than a republic the reformers could say, that they would not have done it. not have got.- -But, though this should But, why is it to be supposed that they be conceded to me, it may be said, that, if would have done this? Where is the reason the reformers had got power, they would for it? The very worst that was said of have taken the property from the rich and them was, that they resembled the "Jaco- giden it to the poor, as was done in France. hins and Levellers of France; and, the -It is strange what notions people imJacobins and Levellers of France did not bibe upon this score for the want of a litgive up their country to the enemy, though tle reflection ; for, it requires but a very the Princes of the blood royal, the no- little indeed to convince them, that this is bility, the generals, and the admirals, all what never can be done. In the first place went off and left them to defend the coun- for nien in power to wish to do this there try themselves, without army, without is no reason whatever ; there is no motive navy, without government, and without for it; and, if it were done, it would an. law. In this state they did a great many swer no levelling purpose; becanse the foolish and horrid acts; but they did not poor would merely change places with the give up their country to the enemy; but, on the rich. It is possible, indeed, to take the contrary, they met their scores of enemies large estates and parcel them out in the almost with iheir bare breasts, they re- way of donations to the people at farge ; sisted, they overcame, they subdued, and but, if this were practicable, and if it had they finally conquered those enemies. been done by the Reformers, that, at any Numerous were their follies and their rate, would not have ruined the people, and crimes ; but never did they, for one mo- the common people would have had no reason ment, let fall a word that seemed to say it to complain. Such an idea is, however, most was possible for them to give up their coun- grossly absurd. It is what was never attry to the enemy. So, then, if the cbarge tempted by the wildest of republicans. against the Reformers was true, that they In France they seized upon the royal dowere like the Jacobins and Levellers of mains and upon the estates of the Church France, and would act like them, it fol- and of the Emigrant Nobility, who were at lows, of course, that they would have de- war against France; they seized upon fended England in case of her being at these and sold them; but, Those who retacked; that they would have subdued mained in France continued and still conthose who had dared to attack her; and tinue to possess their property. And, if that they would have raised the glory of this was the case in France, during so tertheir country far higher than it ever was rible a convulsion as there took place,

what ground is there to suppose, that the drop down exhausted, when the shepherds
reformers in England, if they bad obtain. rup in and end them with their clubs. The
ed power, would have acted worse, and building of one French ship at Antwerp,
especially if you reflect, that they would or any where else in the ports of the
have had nothing to annoy and provoke French empire, is of more consequence to
them ? --Those who have an inierest in Napoleon tban ten batties in Spain. Time
preventing a reform in the parliament al. is always working for him, and against us.
ways affect to look upon the reformers as The people of his empire bave no fears to
men who have nothing. It is false ; but, distract them; they are in no crisis; they
for argument's sake, let it be so; and are in perfect safety; his affairs do not
then point me out an instance where they press; every day his situation is improve
have rejected the co-operation of the no- ing; the longer the war in the peninsala
bility and gentry of the kingdom. Point me the better for him.- Is this our state?
out an instance, where they have failed to It is notoriously the contrary. When
demonstrate their pleasure at seeing such Mr. Baring speaks of the necessity of
persons engaged in the cause. Point me contracting our expenditure, he does not
out an instance where they have failed to say how it is to be done. It is to be done
show their gratitude to the full extent for by diminishing the paid force, and by
any aid that they have received from sucb putting arms into the hands of all the
persons. And, surely, if wisdom were people, and by relieving the goveriment
the guide of the nublemen and gentlemen from the necessity of yielding to greedy
of England, they would put themselves at demands. In this way, and in this way
the head of the reformers. The thing only, is a reduction in the Expenditure to
would, then, soon be done, and where take place, and whether this mode of re-
would, in that case, be the danger to pro- trenchment can be adopted without a Par.
perty This would be the natural liamentary Reform I leave the reader to
course of things. All would then be in judge. - A reform in the Commons
their proper place. Nothing need be de House of Parliament is as much the cause
stroyed or impaired but that wbich is an of the king and his family as it is the
injury and a dishonour to the nation. cause of the people. They are all alike
The people, if they were to obtain a re- interested in it; and, I trust, it is not too
form of parliament, would, nouithstand much to hope, that his Royal Highness,
ing all that has passed, never complain the Prince, who has never yet sbewo bim-
of their hardships. They would tug self an enemy to it, will, whenever the oc-
heartly on to the end of the war; and, casion offers, shew himself to be its most
an end to the war there would then be; cordial, as he may be its most powerful,
but, mw, who can say, that he sees the friend.
possibility of putting an end to the war?

WM. COBBETT.
Our internal state is known full as well to State Prison, Newgate, Tuesday,
our enemy as it is to ourselves. This

4th June, 1871. great cause of the people of England is as well understood by him as by any of us ; From the Friends of the People, and, while it remains unsuccessful, he will, I am convinced, never again be dis

26th April, 1811. posed for peace. It is not a battle or fifty bat:ies, in Spain and Portugal, that

THE PEOPLE OF GREAT BRITAIN. will put an end to this war. Such battles, No man, who is not ready to express even suppose them to terminate in real his concurrence in our principles, by victories, have not, and will never have, signing the Declaration, can be admitted the sinallest influence upon the contest in into our Society. The objects of it, as we general. Napoleon is now at war for the conceive, are of a nature at all times fit to soil of England and Ireland; and, wben be pursued and recommended to the such is his object, of what import are the country. At different periods they have baules of Almeida and of Badajoz? A heretofore been avowed and supported by fifth or a sixth part of his arny is sent to the bighest authorities in this kingdom:give employment to the whole of the by eminent individuals, and considerable force that we can spare from our shores. bodies of men; by Mr. Locke and Judge Leopards are destroyed by hanging kettles Blackstone; by the late Earl of Chaiham of food upon the lower limbs of trees, and Sir George Saville; by the Duke of at which they keep jumping 'till they Richmond, the Marquis of Lansdowne,

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