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PORTUGAL. THE WAR.Extract of

tenant-General Lord Viscount Wellington, Dispatches from Lord Viscount Talavera,

K.B., by the Earl of Liverpool, dated Olveira de l'Hospital, March 21, 1817.

Goveiw, Murch 27.- London, 13th April

1811. The enemy suffered much more in the When I found that the enemy retired affair of the 15th than I was aware of, with such celerity from Moita, I contiwhen I addressed you on the 16th inst; nued the pursuit of them with the cavalry, the firing was not over till dark, and it and the light division under Major-Geappears that great numbers were drowned neral Sir William Erskine only, support. in attempting to ford the Ceira.-The ing these troops with the oth and 3rd die enemy withdrew his rear-guard from that visions of infantry, and by the militia on river in the course of the 16th, and we the right of the Mondego ; and I was crossed it on the 17th and had our posts on induced to halt the remainder of the army the Sierra de Murcella; the enemy's army till the supplies, which had been sent being in a strong position on the right of the round from the Tagus to the Mondego, Alva. They moved a part of their army should arrive. This halt was the more on that night, but still maintained their po. desirable, as nothing could be found in the sition on the Alva, of which river they country; and every day's march increasdestroyed the bridges. We turned their ing the distance from the magazines cn left by the Sierra de Santa Quiteria with the Tagus rendered the supply of the the 3d, 1st, and 5th divisions on the 18th, troops more difficult and precarious ; and while the light division and the 6th the further advance of the main body for manasuvered in their front from the Sierra a few days did not appear to be necessary. de Murcella; these movements induced the The cavalry and light troops continued to enemy to bring back to the Sierra de Moita anpoy the enemy's rear and to take prithe troops which bad marched the pre- soners; and the militia under Colonel ceding night, at the same time that they Wilson had an affair with a detachment received their corps from the Alva, and in of the enemy, on the 22nd, not far from the evening their whole army were as- Celorico, in which they killed seven and sembled upon Moita, and the advanced wounded several, and took filteen prisonposts of our right were near Arganil, those The militia under General Silveira of our left across the Alva.The enemy also took some prisoners on the 25th. retired from the position of Moita in the The enemy

retired his left, the 2nd corps, night of the 18th, and have continued by Goveia through the mountains upon their retreat with the utmost rapidity ever Guarda, and the remainder of the army since ; and I imagine their rear-guard will by the high road upon Celorico. They be at Celorico this day. We assembled

have since moved more troops upon the army upon the Sierra de Moita on the Guarda, which position they still hold in 19th, and our advanced posts are this day strength. Our advanced guard is in front beyond Pinbancos, The Militia under of Celorico, towards Guarda, and at AlColonels Wilson and Trant, are at Fornos. verca, and the 3rd division in the inoun. -We have taken great numbers of pri- tains, and occupying Porco Miserella and soners, and the enemy have continued to Prados. - The allied troops will be coldestroy their carriages and their cannon, lected in the neighbourhood of Celorico and whatever would impede their pro. 10-morrow.-General Ballasteros surprised gress.--As the great number of the pri- General Remon on the 10th, at Palma, suners taken on the 19th had been sent aud dispersed his detachment, and took out on foraging parties towards the Mon- from lim five hundred prisoners.-Gedego, and had been ordered to return to neral Blisteros had since retired to Valtheir position on the Alva, I conclude that verile, and I hear that General Zayas had the enemy had intended to remain in it been detached from Cadiz with six thoufor some days.--Soult has gone to Seville sand men, including four hundred cavalry, since the fall of Badajos ; and it is re- to be disembarked at Huelva to join Geported, that about three thousand! I'rench neral Ballasteros.-P. S. Since writing the troops had been serin on their march above, I have received the report of a through Barcarota to the Southward. gallant ac ion of one of our patroles yes

terday evening, between Alverca and PORTUGAL The War.---A dispatch, of Guarda, under the command of Lieutenant

which the following is an extract, was Perse of the 16th Light Dragoons, and yesterday evening rcceived from Licute. Lieutenant Foster of the Royals, who al

ers.

tacked a detachment of the enemy's ca- the extent of 32,000 hectares *. 2. Our valry between Alverca and Guarda, and Minister of the Interior shall distribute the killed and wounded several of them, and 32,000 hectares . mong the departments took the Officer and 37 men prisoners.- of our empire, taking into consideration The enemy have withdrawn from Pinhel those departments where the culture of across the Coa.

tobacco may be established, and those

which, from the nature of the soil, may Foreign Office, April 12.

be more favourable to the culture of the Dispatches have this day heen received

beet-root. 3. Our Prefects shall take at this office from Charles Stuart, Esq. his Majesty's Minister at Lisbon, dated the lotted to their respective departments shall

measures that the number of hectares al30th ult. stating that Sir William Beres

be in full cultivation this year, or next ford, having united the whole of his force in Portalegre on the 23rd of March, ad- of hectares shall be laid out in our Empire,

year at the latest.--. A certain number vanced on the 24th, and attacked the in plantations of woad proper for the enemy with his cavalry on the 25th. fabrication of indigo, and in proportion to They were compelled to abandon Campo the quantity necessary for our manufac. Maior, 'with the loss of 600 men killed and wounded. On the 26th General Be- distribute the said number among the des

tures.-5. Our Minister of the Interior shall resford's head-quarters were at Elvas.

partments of the Empire, taking into parThe enemy had withdrawn their whole

iicular consideration the departments beforce, excepting a weak picquet, to the yond the Alps, and those of the South, other side of the Guadiana. The corps where this branch of cultivation formunder Marshal Souit has halted in the neighbourhood of Llerena. ---General Bal.erly made great progress.-6. Our Pre

fects shall take measures, that the quanlasteros had returned to Gibraleon, on the 29th, where his force had been increased tity of hectares, allotted to their departby the arrival of 6000 men under General ments, shall be in full cultivation next Zayas. - Marshal Bessieres arrived at Za- shall

, before the 4th of May, fix upon the

year, at the latest.-7. The Commission mora on the 5th of March, with 7000 men. places most convenient for the establish

ment of six experimental schools, for giv

ing instruction in the manufacture of beet. FRANCE. -Decree relative to the making of

Sugar and Indigo out of Ecet Root and soot sugar, conformably to the process of Plant-woad.-25th March, 1811.

the chymists.-8. The Commission sball,

also, by the same period, fix upon the Napoleon, Emperor of the French, &c. places most convenient for the establish-Upon the report of the commission ap- ment of four experimental schools, for pointed to examine the means proper to giving instruction as to the extraction of naturalise on the continent of our empire, indigo from the lees of the woad, accord. sugar, indigo, cotton, and divers other ing to the processes approved by the productions of the two Indies :~Upon the Commission, 9. Our Minister of the Inpresentation made to us, of a considerable terior shall make kuown to the Prefects quantity of beet-root sugar, refined, crys. in what places these schools shall be tallized, and possessing all the qualities and formed, and to which the pupils destined properties of cane sugar :- Upon the pre- for this manufacture should be sent. The sentation also made to us at the Council of proprietors and farmers who may wish to Commerce, of a great quantity of indigo attend the course of lectures in the said extracted from the plantwoad, which our experimental schools shall be admitted departments of the south produce in abun- thereto.-10. Messrs. Barruel and Isnard, dance, and which indigo has all the pro- who have brought to perfection the properties of the indigo of the two Indies:- cesses for extracting sugar from beet-root, Having reason to expect that, by means shall be specially charged with the direcof these two precious discoveries, our em- tion of two of the six experimental schools. pire will shortly be relieved from an ex- -U. Our Minister of the Interior shall portation of 100,000,000, hitherto neces- in consequence, cause to be paid to them sary for supplying the consumption of sugar and indigo: We have decreed, and * The hectare is 2.472 English-Statute decree as follows :--Art. 1. Plantations of Acres, or 2 A. 1 R. 35{ P. — therefore, beet-root, proper for the fabrication of 32,000 hectares are equal to nearly 80,000 sugar, shall be fined in our empire to English Acres.

the sum necessary for the formation of the Britain. I had no idea that the remnant said establishments, which sum shall be of that system, productive of no conceivcharged upon the fund of one million, able advantage to England, and deservedly placed, in the budget of the year 1911, at odious for its theory and destructive effecis the disposal of the said minister, for the to others, could survive the public declaencouragement of the manufacture of beet. ration of France that the edicts of Berlin root sugar, and woad indigo.-12. From and Milan were revoked. Instructed at the 1st of Jan. 1813, and upon the report length, however, by your Lordship's conto be made by our Minister of the Inte- tinued silence, and alarmed for the prorior, the sugar and indigo of the two perty of my fellow-citizens, now more Indies shall be prohibited, and be con- than ever exposed by an erroneous confi. sidered as merchandize of English manu- dence to the ruinous operation of the Bri. facture, or proceeding from English com- tish Orders, I was preparing to support my merce.-13. Our Minister of the Interior general representations by detailed rem is charged with the execution of the pre- monstrance, when I received the honour sent decree. NAPOLEON, of your note of the 4th instant.

In the

conference which ensued, I troubled your AMERICAN STATES. -Mr. Pinckney to

Lordship with a verbal communication, of

which the following is nearly the subLord Wellesley.-Great Cumberland

stance.—The doubts which appear to stand Place, Dec. 10, 1810.

in the way of the recal of the British Or. MY LORD,

ders in Council (under which denominaIn compliance with the request con. tion I include certain orders of blockade tained in your note of the oth instant, I of a kindred principle and spirit) must reproceed to recapitulate in this letter (with fer to the manner, or the terms, or the some variations, however), the statements practical effect of the alleged repeal of the and remarks which I had the honour to decrees of France. - That the manner of make in our conference of the 5th, re- the proceeding is satisfactory to the Brispecting the revocation of the French De- tish Government cannot be questioned ; crees, as connected with a change of sys since it is precisely that in which its own tem here on the subject of neutral rights. numerous orders for establishing, modify

-Your Lordship need not be told, that I ing, or removing blockades and other mashould have been happy to offer at a much ritime obstructions, are usually proclaimed earlier moment every explanation in iny to neutral states and merchants.--The power on matters of such high concern to French repeal was officially notified on ihe rights and commerce of my country, the 5th of August to the Minister Pleniand the future character of its foreign rela- potentiary of the United States at Paris by tions, if I had been made to understand the French Minister of foreign affairs, as I that explanation was desired.-My written had the honour to inform your Lordship communications of August and November in my letter of the 25th of the same month, were concise, but they were not intended which not only gave the import, but (as to be insufficient. They furnished evi- the enclosed copy will shew) adopted the dence which I thought conclusive, and ab. words of General Armstrong's statement stained from laboured commentary, be. to me of the lenour and effect of that no. cause I deemed it superfluous. I bad tice. On the 9th of August the notifica. taken up an opinion, which I abandoned | tion of Gen. Armstrong was published in reluctaatly and late, that the British Go- the Moniteur, the official journal of the vernment would be eager to follow the ex- French Government, as the act of that Goainple of France, in recalling, as it had vernment; and thus became a formal deprofessed to do in promulgating, that ex- claration and a public pledge to all who traordinary system of maritime annoyance, had an interest in the matter of it. It which in 1807 presented to neutral trade would be a waste of time to particularize in almost all its directions the hopeless al- the numerous instances of analogous prac. ternative of inactivity or confiscation; tices in England, by which this course is which considered it as a subject to be re- countenanced; but a recent example bapgulated, like the trade of the United King-pens to be before me, and may therefore doms, by the statutes of the British Par. be mentioned. The partial recal, or moliament, and undertook to bend and fashion dification, of the English blockade of the it by every variety of expedient to all the ports and places of Spain from Gijon to purposes and even the caprices of Great the French territory (itself known to my

Government only through a circular noti- state two, the first depending upon Great fication to me, recited afterwards in the Britain, the last upon the United States; London Gazette) was declared to the Anie- and, as they are put in the disjunctive, it rican and other Governments in exactly would be extravagant to hold that the the same mode. I think it demonstrable non-performance of one of them is equithat the terms in which the French roro. valent to the non-performance of both. I cation was announced are just as free from shall take for granted, therefore, that the well founded objection as the manner.- arguments against iny construction of the Your Lordship's view of them is entirely Duke of Cadore's letter must be moulded unknown to me; but I am not ignorant into a new form. It'must deal with two that there are those in this country, who, conditions, instead of one : and, considerprofessing to have examined them with ing them equally as conditions precedent, care, and having certainly examined thern to be performed (disjunctively) before the with jealousy, maintain that the revocation day limited for the operative commenceon the 1st of November was made to de- ment of the French repeal, must maintain, pend, by the obvious meaning to those that, if neither of them should be perterms, upon a condition precedent, which formed before that day, the decrees were has not been fulfilled, namely, the revo- not to be revoked, and consequently that, cation by Great Britain of her Orders in as neither of them has been so performed, Council, including such blockading orders the decrees are still in force.—if this hyas France complains of as illegal.-If this pothesis of previous conditions, thus rewere even admitted to be so, I am yet to duced 10 the only shape it can assume, be learn upon what ground of justice the Bri- proved to be unsound, my construction is tish Government could decline to meet, at once established ; since it is only upon by a similar act on its part, an advance, that hypothesis that any doubt can be thus made to it by its adversary in the face raised against the exact and perspicuous of the world, towards a co-operation in the assurances that the decrees were actually great work of restoring the liberty of the repealed, and that the repeal would be. ocean; so far at least as respects the Or- come effectual on the 1st of November. ders in Council of 1807 and 1809, and such This hypothesis is prored to be unsound blockades as resemble them. It is not ne- by the following considerations. It has cessary, however, to take this view of the clearly no foundation in the phraseology question ; for the French revocation turns of the paper, which does not contain a on; no condition precedent, is absolute, syllable to put any condition before the precise, and unequivocal.-Whát construc- repeal. The repeal is represented as a tion of the document wbich declares that step already taken, to have effect on a revocation might be made by determined day specified. Certain consequences are, suspicion and distrust, I have no wish and indeed, declared to be expected from this am not bound to enquire. Such interpre- proceeding; but no day is given, either ters would not be satisfied by any form of expressly or by inplication, within which words, and would be likely to draw the they are to happen. It is not said “bien same conclusion from perfect explicitness entendu que les Anglois auront revoque,” and studied obscurity. It is enough for &c. but " que les Anglois revoqueront," me that the fair and natural and necessary &c. indefinitely as to time.- The notion import of the paper affords no colour for of couditions precedent is, therefore, to the interpretation I am about to examine. say the least of it, perfectly gratuitous; -The French declaration, “ that the de- but it is also absurd. It drives us to the crees of Berlin and Milan are revoked, and conclusion, that a palpable and notorious that from the 1st of November they will impossibility was intended to be prescribed cease to have any effect," is precision il- as a condition, in a paper which they, self : but they are followed by these who think it was meant to deceive, must words--"bien entendu qu'en consequence admit was meant to be plausible.--It was de cette declaration les Anglais revo- a palpable and notorious impossibility queront leurs arrets de Conseil, et re- that the United States should, before the nonceront aux nouveaux principes de Ist of November, execute any condition, blocus qu'ils ont voulu etablis, ou bien no matter what the nature of it, the perque les Etats Unis, conformement a l'acte formance of which was to follow the as. que vous venez de communiquer, feront certained failure of a condition, to be exerespecter lecis Droits par les Anglais."'. cuted by Great Britain, at any time before If these words state any condition, they the same Ist of November. That the act expected from the United States was to be the decrees as it found them up to the 1st consequent upon the failure of the other of November; and, consequently, up to is apparent. It is also apparent that upon that day it could not, for any thing cona any interpretation, which would make the tained in that letter; be said that the rights aci of Great Britain a condition precedent of American commerce yere m longer to the French repeal, consequently prece infringed by them. A pirospective pro. dent to the Ist of November (when the elamation, that ihey we cance to vioa repeal was, if ever, to'take effect), that late those righis, mihi perbaz, 'scuel; condition could not be said to have failed, but it could scarcely have any $54anuai before the whole period, from the 5th of operacion, either in favour of France, or 4, August to the 1st of November, had the prejudice of England, until i persa elapsed. But if Great Britain had the to which it had Icoked had arrived. Let whole time within which to elect the it be admitted, however, that all physics course which she would pursue, what op- and legal obstacles to the issuing, befort portunity would be left to the United the first of November, of a proclaination, States (equally bound, upon this idea of to take effect immediaiely, were out of conditions precedent, to act their part the way. How would such a proceeding within the same period) to become ac- fulfil of 'itself the expectation that the quainted with that election, and to decide United States would, before the 1st of Noupon and take their own course in conse- vember, ' cause their rights to be requence; to say nothing of the transmission spected by the English," in the mode of such intelligence of it to Europe as pointed out by the letter, namely, by the would be indispensable to the efficacy of enforcement of the Non-intercourse Law? the conditional revocation ?—This general The proclamation wonid work no direct view would alone be sufficient to discredit or immediate consequence against Engthe arbitrary construction under conside. I land. Three months from its date must ration: but it will be more completely pass away before the Nou-intercourse Law exposed by an explanation of the nature could revive against her; and when it did of the act, which the letter professes to so, the revival would not be the effect of expect from the United States, in case the proclamation, but of the continued adGreat Britain should omit to revoke. herence of England to her obnoxious sys-, This Act is the revival of the Non-Inter- tem. Thus, even if a proclamation, etteccourse Law against England; France re- tual from its date, had been issued by the maining exempt from it, as well as from President on the day when the French dethe provisions of the subsequent law,com-claration of repeal came to the hands of monly called the Non-Intercourse Act. the American Minister at Paris, the interNow, it is too plain upon the face of the course between the United States and last mentioned law (to which the letter Great Britain would, on the 1st of Noexpressly refers) to escape the nost negli vember, have remained in the same congent and unskilful observer, that this re- dition in which it was found in August. vival could not by any industry or chance As all this was well understood by the be accomplished before the time fixed for Government of France, the conclusion the cessation of the French decrees, or is, that its Minister, professing too to even for a considerable time afterwards; have the American law before him, it certainly cannot be allowable to assume, and to expect only what was conformthat the revival was required by the letter able with that law, did not intend to re(wbalever was ihe object of the writer or quire the revival of the Non-intercourse his Government) to precede the cessation. against England as a condition to be perAnd if this was not required, it is incon- formed before the first of November.trovertible that the cessation would by the It is worthy of remark, as introductory term of the letter, take place on the ap- to another view of this subject, that even pointed day, whether any of the events they who conclude that the repeal of the disjunctively specified had intervened or French decrees has failed, are not backnot.—The first step towards the revival of ward to ascribe to the French declaration the non-intercourse against England would a purpose utterly inconsistent with that be the proclamation of the President, that conclusion. They suppose the purpose Fraoce had so revoked or modified her to have been to affect the existing relations edicts, that they ceased to violate the between America and England, by the neutral commerce of the United States. only means which the declaration states But the letter of Mons. Champagny left the act of Non-intercourse. And it is cer

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