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though by the Harter Act he is relieved from responsibility for such negligence. Therefore we have only to determine whether by the language of the general average clause the cargo-owners are entitled to contribution from the ship for sacrifices of cargo made subsequent to the stranding for the common benefit and safety. The language is that in the circumstances presented "the consignees or owners of the cargo shall not be exempted from liability for contribution in general average, or for any special charges incurred, but with the shipowner shall contribute in general average, and shall pay such special charges, as if such danger, damage or disaster had not resulted from such default, negligence," etc. This language clearly imports an agreement. that the shipowner shall contribute in general average. The opposite view would render the clause inconsistent with the principles of equity and reciprocity upon which the entire law of general average is founded.

The foregoing considerations compel a negative answer to the third question. In view of the valid stipulations contained in the bill of lading, it would be a contradiction of terms to permit the cargo-owners to recover contribution from the ship in respect of general average sacrifices of cargo, without on their part contributing to the general average sacrifices and expenditures of the shipowner made for the same purpose. This would not be general average contribution, the essence of which is that extraordinary sacrifices made and expenses incurred for the common benefit and safety are to be borne proportionately by all who are interested.

Our conclusion, accordingly, is that of the questions certified to us by the Circuit Court of Appeals, the first question should be answered in the affirmative, the second question should be answered in the affirmative, and the third question should be answered in the negative, and it is

So ordered.

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Nos. 193, 196.

Submitted March 6, 1912.-Decided May 13, 1912.

The record in this case shows that the court below did not err in bringing this case to a speedy conclusion and avoiding the loss occasioned by the litigation to all concerned.

A litigant cannot, after all parties have acquiesced in the order setting the case for trial and the court has denied his request for continuance, refuse to proceed with the trial on the ground that the time to plead has not expired, and when such refusal to proceed is inconsistent with his prior attitude in the case.

The granting of a continuance is within the sound discretion of the trial court, and not subject to be reviewed on appeal except in cases of clear error and abuse; in this case the record shows that the refusal to continue on account of absence of witness was not an abuse, but a just exercise, of discretion.

Under the circumstances of this case, and in view of the existence of an equity of redemption under prior transfers, held, that a transfer of all the property of a corporation to one advancing money to enable it to continue its business was not a conditional sale of the property but a contract creating security for the money advanced, and on liquidation of the assets the transferee stood merely as a secured creditor.

The mere form of an instrument transferring property of a debtor cannot exclude the power of creditors to inquire into the reality and substance of a contract unrecorded although required by law to be recorded in order to be effective against third parties. Under the general law of Porto Rico, machinery placed on property by a tenant does not become immobilized; when, however, a tenant places it there pursuant to contract that it shall belong to the owner, it becomes immobilized as to that tenant and his assigns with notice, although it does not become so as to creditors not having legal notice of the lease.

In this case, held that the lien of the attachment of a creditor of the tenant on machinery placed by the tenant on a sugar Central in Porto Rico is superior to the claim of the transferee of an unrecorded

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lease, even though the lease required the tenant to place the machinery on the property.

5 Porto Rico Fed. Rep. 155, affirmed.

THE facts are stated in the opinion.

Mr. F. Kingsbury Curtis, Mr. Hugo Kohlmann and Mr. Martin Travieso, Jr., for Valdes, appellant in No. 193 and appellee in No. 196.

Mr. N. B. K. Pettingill and Mr. Frederick L. Cornwell, for Central Altagracia, appellee in No. 193 and appellant in No. 196.

Mr. Francis H. Dexter for Nevers & Callaghan.

MR. CHIEF JUSTICE WHITE delivered the opinion of the


These cases were consolidated below, tried together, a like statement of facts was made applicable to both and the court disposed of them in one opinion. We shall do likewise. Stating only things deemed to be essential as shown by the pleadings and documents annexed to them and the finding of facts made below, the case is this: Joaquin Sanchez owned in Porto Rico a tract of land of about twenty-two acres (cuerdas) on which was a sugar house containing a mill for crushing cane and an evaporating apparatus for manufacturing the juice of the cane into sugar. All of the machinery was antiquated and of a limited capacity. The establishment was known as the Central Altagracia, and Sanchez, while not a cane grower, carried on the business of a Central—that is, of acquiring cane grown by others and manufacturing it into sugar at his factory. On the eighteenth day of January, 1905, Sanchez leased his land and plant to Salvador Castello for a period of ten years. The lease gave to the tenant (Castello), the right to install in the plant "such machinery as he may deem convenient, which said machinery, at the end

Opinion of the Court.

225 U.S.

of the years mentioned (the term of the lease) shall `become the exclusive property" of the lessor, Sanchez. The tenant was given one year in which to begin the work of repairing and improving the plant, and it was provided that "upon the expiration of this terrn, if the necessary improvements shall not have been begun by him (Castello), then this contract shall be null and void, and no cause of action shall accrue to any of the contracting parties by reason thereof." Further agreeing on the subject of the improved machinery which was to be placed in the plant, the contract provided: "Upon the expiration of the term agreed on under this contract, any improvement or machinery installed in the said Central shall remain for the benefit of Don Joaquin Sanchez and Don Salvador Castello shall have no right to claim anything for the improvements made." The rental was thus provided for: "After each crop such profits as may be produced by the Central Altagracia shall be distributed and twenty-five per cent. (25%) thereof shall be immediately paid to Don Joaquin Sanchez as equivalent for the rental of said Central and of the twenty-twò (22) cuerdas of land surrounding the same. The remaining seventy-five per cent. (75%) shall belong to Don Salvador Castello, who may interest therein whomsoever he may wish, either for the whole or part thereof." It was stipulated, however, that in fixing the profits no charge should be made for repairs of the existing machinery or for new machinery put in, as the entire cost of these matters was to be borne by the lessee, Castello. The lease provided, moreover, that in case of the death of Sanchez the obligations of the contract should be binding on his heirs, and in the case of the death of Castello, his brother, Gerardo Castello, should take his place "and be a contracting party if he so desired. Otherwise the plantation, in such a condition as it may be at his death, shall immediately pass into the possession of its owner, Don Joaquin Sanchez." In June,

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1905, by a supplementary contract, the lease was extended without change of its terms and conditions for an additional period of ten years, making the total term twenty years. Although executed under private signature, this lease, conformably to the laws of Porto Rico, was produced before a notary and made authentic and in such form was duly registered on the public records, as required by the Porto Rican laws.

On the first day of July, 1905, Salvador and Gerardo Castello transferred all their rights acquired under the lease, as above stated, to Frederick L. Cornwell for "the corporation to be organized under the name of Central Altagracia, of which he is the trustee." This transfer bound the corporation to all the obligations in favor of the original lessor, Sanchez, provided that the corporation should issue to Castello a certain number of paid up shares of its capital stock and a further number of shares as the output of sugar from the plant increased as the result of its enlarged capacity consequent upon the improvement of the machinery by the corporation. The lease further provided for the employment of Castello as superintendent at a salary, for a substitution of Gerardo Castello, in the event of the absence or death of his brother Salvador, and, for this reason, it is to be assumed, Gerardo made himself a party to the transfer of the lease. This transfer of the lease to the corporation was never put upon the public records. The corporation was organized under the laws of the State of Maine and under the transfer took charge of the plant. The season for grinding cane and the manufacture of sugar in Porto Rico usually commences "about the month of December of each year and terminates in the months of May, June or July of the year following, according to the amount of cane to be ground." Central factories in Porto Rico usually "make contracts with the people (colonos) growing cane so that growers of cane will deliver the same to be ground, and such contracts

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