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accordance with Mr. Falconer's remark, that, It was this very • relation of such qualities to the duties of the respective sta. tions, that constituted their convertibility into the titles of · those who were placed in them.' • As in the Roman empire,' says Selden, it was a solemn custom to give to the Emperor

the titles of Pius and Felix, which were the most usual, and •Clemens and Tranquillus, Sanctissimus, and many others, ' such denoting their quality, or that which should be their

quality, by way of honorary, but arbitrary addition. Such honorary and arbitrary additions are the ternis, • Your Purity,' • Your Gravity,'' Your Prudence,' in Eusebius ; Constantine evidently using this mode of address, for the purpose of expressing the high respect which he entertained for the superiorecclesiastics of his time.

It would exceed our limits, to enter largely into the discus=" sion of the use of the words των της εκκλησίας λογω, which, Mr. Nolan insists, are to be explained as if they conveyed an inti mation from the Emperor Constantine to Eusebius, that the latter was to exercise his discretion in accommodating the new copies of the Scriptures to that which he apprehended to be the doctrine of the Church,' but which, we agree with his opponent in maintaining, have no reference to doctrine, and as little to the credenda of Eusebius as the model on which the text of the new copies was to be formed. The Scriptures are indispensable to the service of Christian congregations, and it was necessary that copies of them should be placed in the churches which the Emperor had erected in his new Metropolis. But this specification of the local communities for which the copies were to be obtained, excludes, we think, most completely, the notion of Mr. Nolan, that the letter of Constantine was written for the purpose of directing Eusebius to the use of his own discretion in furnishing a text; because, on this supposition, the mention of particular churches must have been entirely out of the question. For the use of the new churches, Constantine directs that fifty copies of the Scriptures should be supplied; and that the preparation of those copies had no reference to alterations of the text, is evident, because, while the direction of the Emperor refers the care of procuring them to Eusebius, he at the same time informs Eusebius, that orders had been given to the Rationalist to supply the necessary materials; and those orders would just as much prove

that the Rationalist was to exercise a discretionary power of selecting and amending' those Scriptures which he might conceive to be useful and necessary to the doctrine of

the Church,' as that such a power was committed to Eusebius by Constantine. Mr. Nolan insists, that itióneun in the

former part of the letter ( την τ’ επισκευής και την χρήσιν, το της εκκλησίας abyw 'arayxaiov forces goya-oxess) is specified as the necessary cause to the contingent effect, their use to the doctrine of the church; to which end their preparation, he remarks, could not in any respect have contributed.

But whatever the enignion might denote, as being connected with the knowledge of Eusebius, that it precisely denoted in the orders of the Rationalist #ws άπαντα τα προς επισκευήν αυτών επιτήδεια παρασχεϊν Φροντίσιον. If επισκευη denoted the selection and amendment of the Scriptures in the hands of Eusebius, what could the Rationalist supply towards. that object? Of what kind was the assistance which he was to give ? Was he to be co-adjutor with the Bishop in revising and reforming the sacred text? But if the tionen in the one case denoted only the providing of copies of the Scriptures in respect simply of transcribing from copies already in use, it is quite obvious what it must denote in the other, The 'emboxeus was the preparation of the copies, the superintendance of which was committed to Eusebius, and the 'oxiridouce which were entrusted to the care of the Rationalist, were the materials : he was to provide scribes and parchment, and when the scribes bad finished their labours of transcription, the 'itionen was completed.

By the temerity with which he ventures to support his strange hypothesis, Mr. Nolan has exposed himself to the rebuke of bis opponent; and on perusing the following extracts from the “ Second part of the Case,” every reader will perceive that the confident assertions of Mr. Nolan are in direct opposition to the truth of the case. Nor can he be allowed in this instance of his transgression, any · benefit of clergy.'

• With regard to the language of the Letter, the fabricator says, “ For my own part, after the striking remarks, which you (Sig. Calbo) have made on the internal evidence of the instrument, no doubt. remains on my mind, that it was originally framed in Latin ; and if you feel any kesitation on this point, one consideration will probably confirm you in an opinion, in which I feel myself established by your observations. It is in fact only necessary to my hypothesis to suppose, that the instrument, by whomsoever drawn up, was submitted for the approbation of the Emperor ; and this being granted, it is not to be denied that it was submitted in Latin, as Constantine was acquainted with NO OTHER LANGUAGE.” “ As indeed the Emperor and Bishop, between whom the communication was made, were respectively acquainted with that language, the difficulty really lies in conceiving how a different language should be chosen as the medium of communication, of which one of the parties possessed NO KNOWLEDGE.” For an assertion of this kind, repeated with so much confidence, it is natural to require some reference to an autho. rity of a contemporary, to his biographer for example; but there is Vol. XX. N. S.

2 E

no such reference, no such authority. The reason why the Emperor used Greek, is recorded in unsuspected sentences, and it is the simple and plain reason, because he understood it. Constantine opened the Council of Nice in the language of the empire, and in his imperial capacity, in Latin, which the Bishops did not understand.The speech of the Emperor was interpreted for the Bishops, but no one interpreted the speeches of the Bishops for the Emperor, or assisted him in carrying on his conversation with them. Eusebius describes his condescending and affable behaviour, and his conversation with them in their own language : πράως τε ποιούμενος τας προς έκαστον ομιλίας, ΕΛΛΗΝΙΣΩΝ ΤΕ ΤΗ ΦΩΝΗ, ΟΤΙ ΜΗΔΕ ΤΑΥΤΗΣ ΑΜΑΘΩΣ ΕΙΧΕ, γλυκερός τις ήν, και ήδύς. Vit. Constant. lib. iii. p. 584. It seems then, that the Emperor, who removed the seat of the Roman government to Byzantium, actually understood the Greek language. On one side you have a Bishop, a contemporary, a friend, affirming that this prince understood Greek; and on the other, an English ecclesiastic, not yet a Bishop, and living in the 19th century, affirming that the Emperor “ understood no other language than Latin." i Fond of the arts and sciences, he had carefully studied philosophy, history, and law, and could speak and write equally well in Greek and Latin." p. 181. Sketches of Church History, by John Erskine, D. D. pp. 19, 20.

For the humiliation to which the Author of the “ Integrity “ of the Greek Vulgate” is here reduced, he has only to blame his own predilection for hypothesis, and his rash proceedings in support of a fabulous assumption, which no sober reader can peruse without surprise, and no intelligent reader can examine without perceiving its entire repugnance to the spirit and letter of the documents adduced as the basis of the heterogeneous and most extravagant figment. For other instances of detected errors and exposed sophisms we must refer to Mr. Falconer's pamphlet. Every reader who is well affected to the Bible, and whose reception of its doctrines is the pledge of his satisfaction with the completeness of the evidence which supports its integrity, must, with him, regard it as 'a matter of • infinite moment, not to disturb the testimony of history by ' unfounded hypothesis, or to affect to supply the want of his• torical proof by fabricated facts ;' and no person entertaining such a sentiment, and influenced by such a feeling, will consider the labours of Mr. Falconer as either unseasonable or of little importance.

Art. VIII. A View of the Present State of the Scilly Islands ; ex

hibiting their vast Importance to the British Empire, the Improvements of which they are susceptible, and a particular Account of the Means lately adopted for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Inhabitants, by the Establishment and Extension of their Fisheries. By the Rev. George Woodley, Missionary from the Society for promoting Christian Knowledge ; and Minister of St. Martin's and St. Agnes, Scilly. 8vo. pp. xvi. 344. Price 12s.

London. 1822. THE HE most venerable of Societies has not for many years

done a more serviceable or praiseworthy thing, than sending out a Missionary to the Scilly Islands. Our readers will have in recollection, the appeal which was made to the British Public in the year 1819, on behalf of the then distressed inhabitants. To the honour of Britisa generosity be it re* corded,' says Mr. Woodley, 'that at a time of great national

difficulty, embarrassment, and consternation, near £9000 was • collected for these beneficent purposes.' The venerable Society for promoting Christian Knowledge, which, we are told, has ever manifested a particular regard for the Island'ers, displayed its accustomed benevolence and liberality on . this occasion by a noble donation. We are glad to hear such good things of the Society. The money thus raised, appears to have been most judiciously and effectively applied. A fish-cellar has been erected in the island of Tresco, for the purposes of storing and curing the fish; boats adapted for the mackarel and pilchard fisheries have been bought, and others repaired, and nets, tackling, &c. have been liberally furnished; by which means the inhabitants of these desolate rocks have been placed in a condition to earn their bread, and maintain their families, without the fear of absolute starvation. In the year 1820, the quantity of pilchards caught and stored, was, 140 hogsheads, which, at £5 per hogshead, made a return of £700.

• What has hitherto been done, however,' says the reverend gentleman, • can but be considered as the incipient measures of an undertaking which, if duly and spiritedly pursued, (by giving suitable encouragement to the exercise of the skill and industry of the Islanders, and thus enabling them to avail themselves of the resources which Providence has placed before them,) cannot fail to be attended with immense advantage to the country at large. But this can only be effected by enlarging the fishery at

* See E. R. Vol. X. N. S.

p.

493.

Scilly, and establishing it on that extended scale on which it
may be proved capable of acting. Hitherto, the fishermen have
seldom been able to proceed further than four or five leagues fronı
the land, in pursuit of the cod and ling fishery, through the want of
proper boats; whereas, from the peculiar situation and conve-
niences of these islands, the catching of such fish might be carried on
by the natives, ander suitable encouragement, to almost any extent.
Boats or busses can proceed for the Channel from Scilly, with the
wind from W. S. W. to S. ; while, under the same circumstances,
those in any part even of Mount's Bay would be wind-bound. It is
lamentable to observe, that, by the present regulations of Govern-
ment respecting the fisheries, the Dutch fishermen are protected at
the
expense

of our own.'
The importance of the Cornish fisheries does not rest merely
on what they supply for home consumption : they furnish a
considerable export trade. Pilchards, after having been salted
and pressed, are exported in hogsheads to the Mediterranean,
where they are stated to be in great request. Upwards of
30,000 hogsheads are annually consumed in England, and
above 100,000 hogsheads have been exported in one year.
The mackarel are for the most part sold fresh; otherwise they
are pickled in casks. During the mackarel fishery, which
lasts from about the middle of March, till July, many boats
arrive from Southampton, Bristol, and other ports in both
Channels, which take from the natives considerable quantities
of mackarel. The pilchard season commences when the
mackarel disappear; and lasts till the latter part of October.
During the summer months, various species of fish are caught
with hook and line ; and among the smaller kinds caught and
salted by the Scilly Islanders, for winter consumption, are
many whose names will be for the most part new to our readers,
such as bass, wrass, chad, scad, brit, barne, cuddle, whistlers,
• &c.'-all included by the Islanders under the general name
of rock-fish. But, besides their importance as a source of
provision and of wealth, the fisheries are constantly rearing a
numerous race of skilful pilots and hardy sailors, alike useful
to the naval and the commercial interests of the country.
Hardy, and intrepid, and enterprising they must be in no ordi-
nary degree, to follow their hazardous calling. It is a common
saying in Scilly, and meant as a compliment to the healthiness
of the place as favourable to longevity, that for one man who
dies there a natural death, nine are drowned.

There is something marvellous in the tenacity with which man clings to his native soil, his attachment to it being found strongest where there seems least to excite or sustain that attachment. But the principle pervades all nature. The plant

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