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only in the daily press. To find these items gathered together in a single yolume of moderate compass has hitherto heen impossible.

Liberal use has been made of every source of information in preparing this volume. The facts have been stated with as great accuracy as could be attained by unstinted care and in the briefest manner consistent with complete information. The authors have endeavored to write without bias or partiality in any direction.

It will be noticed that cross-references have been freely used, without which much space would necessarily have been wasted, and the suggestion may be made that even in the absence of references the reader should turn to topics mentioned in the text for the full view of a subject.

"With the hope that this book may help to fill an existing vacancy, it is submitted to the public. June, 1888.

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DICTIONARY OF AMERICAN POLITICS.

Abolitionists.—The first society for the abolition of slavery was formed in Pennsylvania in 1774; New York followed in 1785, Ehode Island in 1786, Maryland in 1789, and Connecticut, Virginia and New Jersey before 1792. Among the presidents of the New York society were John Jay and Alexander Hamilton. These societies did nothing except to petition Congress, and were seldom heard of after 1808. Colonization then became a favorite subject, until in 1829 Tlie Genius of Universal Emancipation, a newspaper advocating "immediate" abolition, was published in Baltimore by William Lloyd Garrison, of Massachusetts. Fined for one of his articles, and for non-payment of the fine imprisoned, he soon removed to Boston, where, January 1, 1831, he began the publication of The Liberator. He opposed colonization, refused to recognize the Constitution, which he proclaimed "a covenant with death and an agreement with hell," and declared for "no union with slave-holders." Public interest was aroused. In 1832 the "New England," and in 1833 the "American" anti-slavery societies were formed on these principles. John Greenleaf Whittier, Wendell Phillips, Benjamin Luudy and others agitated the subject and founded branches in the States, and it became a national topic. The feeling against the abolitionists ran high and riots were frequent. At Alton, Illinois, in 1837, Elijah P. Lovejoy (see that title), an abolition editor, was mobbed and killed, and in 1838, Pennsylvania Hall, in Philadelphia, was burned. In 1838 many of the party desiring to nominate candidates for office, a proceeding to which the "Garrisonians" objected, withdrew. The seceders, who regarded "the Federal Constitution as essentially anti-slavery, and swore with good consciences to uphold it," formed the "American and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society." It was principally of these that the Liberty party, organized in 1840, was formed. In 1848, the Liberty party, having named no candidates, the abolitionists voted with the Free Soil party, and continued with them until 1856, when they supported the Republicans. Until the war was fairly under way the "Garrisonians" were in favoi of allowing the slave-holding States to withdraw peaceably, but when fighting had actually begun, they were among the most ardent supporters of the Union. (See also Brown, John.)

Adams and Clay Republicans.— In 1825, the Federalist party was of no influence—the DemocraticRepublican was the only real party. In it there were two factions, the supporters of President John Quincy Adams and his lieutenant, Henry Clay, known as above; and the followers of Andrew Jackson, known as Jackson Republicans, or Jackson Men (which see). The Adams and Clay Republicans ultimately became Whigs. (See National Republican Party.)

Adams, Charles Francis, was born in Boston, August 18, 1807. He spent much of his boyhood abroad, his father, John Quincy Adams, being at different times United States Minister to Great Britain and to Russia. He was graduated at Harvard and adopted the profession of law. He served in both Houses of the Massachusetts Legislature and was candidate for Vice-President with Van Buren. He served as Representative in the Thirty-sixth Congress, and was reelected to the Thirty-seventh, but was appointed Minister to Great Britain in 1861. He held that position during the Civil War, satisfactorily conducting the many delicate negotiations that arose, notably the Trent affair. He died November 21, 1886. He was a Republican.

Adams, John, was born in Braintree (now Quincy), Massachusetts, October 19, 1735; he died at the same place, July 4, 1826. Thomas Jefferson died within a few hours of him. He was graduated at Harvard College, and was soon afterward admitted to the bar. In 1770 he was elected to the Massachusetts Legislature, and between 1774 and 1777 he served in the Continental Congress. He was a signer of the Declaration of Independence. In 1777 he went to France as Minister of the United States; he was one of the commissioners that negotiated the treaty that closed the Revolution. In 1785 he went to England as representative of our country. He returned to America in 1788, and was elected Vice-President under Washington. On Washington's retirement in 1797, he was elected President by a majority of three electoral votes over Jefferson. During his administration trouble arose with Prance, and war was imminent, several naval engagements actually taking place. (See X. Y. Z. Mission.) The alien and sedition laws passed during his administration tended to make it unpopular, while his policy toward France, which averted the war, alienated a portion of his party, and the end of his administration saw his party thoroughly divided and defeated at the polls. He was the first and only Federalist President. His party in Congress had, just before the expiration of his term, created a number of new judgeships to be filled with Federalists, and Adams, after signing their commissions until late at night of the last day of his term, withdrew from Washington early the next day without participating in Jefferson's inauguration. (See Midnight Judges.)

Adams, John Quincy, was born in Braintree (now Quincy), Massachusetts, July 11, 1767, and died in Washington, February 23, 1848. He was the eldest son of John Adams and a graduate of Harvard. He was admitted to the bar in 1791, and in 1794 he became Minister at The Hague. In 1803 he became a Federalist Senator. As Senator he supported the embargo, for which course the State Legislature censured him. He at once resigned and joined the Republican (DemocraticRepublican) party, and by his new friends he was sent as Minister, first to Russia, and then to Great Britain. He became Secretary of State under Monroe in 1817, and in 1825 was elected to succeed him. His election was by the House of Eepresentatives. His election, his enemies claimed, was the result of a corrupt bargain with Henry Clay, but this charge, although frequently repeated, has always been denied, and it has never been proved. He served but one term. During his administration the anti-Masonic feeling first arose. In 1831, Adams was elected to the House of Representatives, in which he served until his death, seventeen years later. He was stricken with apoplexy in the House, and died two days thereafter. While a member of the House he was a law unto himself—no party claiming his allegiance —and he was the principal champion of free speech against the Gag Laws {which see).

Administration, The, Should be Conducted Behind Glass Doors.—President Cleveland used this metaphor to express his views as to the publicity that should surround the acts of public servants.

Administrations of the United States.—For the officers of the different administrations see under the heads of their respective functions, as follows: President; Vice-President; State, Department of; Treasury Department; War Department; Justice, Department of; PostOffice Department; Navy, Department of the; Interior, Department of the.

Agriculture, Commissioner of.—The Department of Agriculture was established by Act of May 15, 1862. Its object is to disseminate useful information about agriculture to the classes interested therein and to distribute among them seeds of rare or new plants. The department is quite independent of the seven executive departments, though it is not on a level with them and the Commissioner is not a member of the Cabinet. Besides the Commissioner it employs a chemist, an entomologist, a microscopist, a botanist, a statistician, and various other subordinates. The present Commissioner is N. J. Coleman, of Missouri. The salary of the office is $4,500.

Admission of States to the Union.—The following table shows the dates on which the first thirteen States ratified the Constitution, the dates on which the

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