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THIS county belonged to the ancient Cornavii of the Bri


tons, the division of Flavia Cæsariensis of the Romans, and
the kingdom of Mercia during the Saxon heptarchy. Bede*
calls the inhabitants Angli Mediterranei, the Midland English.
The Saxon name was Statfordscyre, from the shire town, Staf-
ford, which name somet have derived from the river Sow, which
dows about three miles east of it.† Somner|| says, somewhat
fancifully, a vado forte Baculo transmeabili. Whatever may
have been the original name of the river, it is pretty obvious, that
the name of the town, and from thence that of the county, has
emerged; as the terminational word, ford, demonstrates; but it
is highly probable that the Sow had, at one time, the letter t, in
its orthography; and if so, there will be very little difficulty in
discovering a rational etymology for Stafford and Staffordshire.
Carnden says, it was called Betheney, at one time.

The two Roman military ways, Watling Street, and Icknield
Street, pass through this county. Watling Street enters it out
of Warwickshire, near Tamworth, and running westward, pas-
seth into Shropshire, at no great distance from Brewood. Ick-
nield Street enters the county, from Warwickshire, at the village
of Hansworth, near Birmingham, runs a little beyond Shenstone,
at which place it crosses Watling Street, and thence proceeding
in a direction north-east and by north, enters the county of


Ecclesiastical History, IV. p. 3. + Salmon's New Survey, II. 515.

* “From Tillington, Sow, washing the walls of Stafford, passeth between
the town and castle of Stafford town." Erdeswicke's Survey of Stafford.
shire, p. 57. Edition of 1723, by Sir Simon Degge, Kat.

# $axon Dict, in loc.

Derbyshire, over the Dove at Monk's Bridge.* There is a great confusion in both the maps, and the descriptions respecting this road. It is said to have derived its name from a conjecture that this part of the county belonged to the Iceni. “ The Ikening Street,” says the learned, or the whimsical, Mr. Whitaker, I “confessedly signifies the way which led to the Iceni of the eastern coast.” The Roman stations in this county that are known, are Pennocrucium, near Stretton ; and Etoctum, at Wall, near Lichfield. But Salmon ý gives to this county four Roman stations, which, he says, are Mediolanum, at Knightley; Uriconium, at Wrottesley ; Uxucona, at Wall-Lichfield; and Etocetum, at Barbeacon. The first of these stations, Camden, in a very positive strain, places in Montgomeryshire ; and Bishop Horseley fixes it on a slip of land, inclosed by the Tern, and another river. Uriconium, we have no doubt, is the

Wroxetor * Plot's Natural History of Staffordshire, p. 400. † Erdeswicke does not appear to mention it; or rather, he mistakes it for Watling Street. In describing the course of the “ Breewood Water," he says, it “washeth the banks of Stretton, so called, because it stands on the way called Watling Street, as if you said Street Town.” p. 63. It is on Ick. nield Street that Stretton stands : the etymology may still be the same.

History of Manchester, Vol. I. p. 103, second ed. 8vo. The topographer or the antiquary, who consults this very odd book, will bave need to keep a strict eye to the windings and turnings of the author, or he will be led into very great mistakes; as many, perhaps most, of Mr. Whitaker's con. clusions and reasonings are founder on some previous supposition. " In all probability,"_" most likely, "-"we may suppose, "-" the Britons must have constructed, &c."-" I apprehend," and other hypothetical phrases of this kind, are favourite modes of expression in this author's works ; and it is from such premises that he reasons and decides, in the most ingenions and positive manner, through several pages, till he seems to hare persuaded bimself, and almost his reader, that he is proceeding on indubitable and acknowledged facts. A society of antiquaries, composed of such men as Mr. Whitaker, would produce far more curious, and even extensive volume3, than those which at present compose thic Archælogia; we will not say more useful or valuable. The History of Manchester, nevertheless, contains much information that may, with safety, be relied on.

Survey II. p. 517.

Wroxetor of Salop;* Uracona, or Usacona, which ought to have been mentioned earlier in the present volume, we believe, belong either to Sheriffs Hales, on the borders of Shropshire and this county,t or to the place assigned it on the map of Shropshire, in the British Atlas, accompanying this work. Great, and in some instances, insuperable, difficulties, must ever attend the task of assigning proper places to the remains of the Roman military roads and stations, which are faintly discoverable in various parts of this island. Salmon places Pennocrucium at Oldbury, in Warwickshire, and gives the second journey of Antoninus, leading from the north by Chester to London, as his authority ; adding, that Penkridge, the place assigned it by some other antiquaries, has “neither military way, remains, nor distance to boast of." | But Plot, Gale, Horseley, and Stukeley all nearly agree, that this is the site of that station.

It must, however, be confessed, that this is not clearly ascertained, though its distance from Etocetum,ĝ the apparent etymology of its name in the river Penck, at the same distance laid down by Antoninus, and the ancient city of Pennocrucium, which may be said still to exist in Penkridge, though at present but an obscure village, naturally encourage some presumption that this is the place. The remains of Roman antiquity, which have from time to time been discovered upon the roads and stations, shall be noticed in their proper places.

Staffordshire is an inland county, lying nearly in the centre of the kingdom. It is a long and narrow tract, something in the form of a rhombus ; bounded on the north by Cheshire and Derbyshire, on the east by Leicestershire, on the west by Shropshire, and on the south by Warwickshire and Worcestershire. Its greatest length, from north-north-east to south-southwest, is about sixty miles; and its greatest breadth, from New. ton Salney, to the western point of Terbey Heath, near Market

Drayton, . Vide Ante, p. 8. + Gongh, Add. Cam. III. 29. # Vol. II. p. 529. ☺ See Pevnant's Journey from Chester to London, p. 158, 8vo. ed. 1811.

Drayton, in Shropshire, is thirty-eight miles.* It contains about 780,800 acres of land; 100,000 of which are pasture, 500,000 arable, and the remaining 180,800 woods, waters, wastes, &c. By the last census, there appeared in this county to be 45,198 houses, 239,153 inhabitants ; 118,698, of which were males, and 120,455 females. Of these numbers 72,465 were employed in trade and manufactures, and 43,930 in agriculture. The poors’-rates, in 1803, amounted to 110,624l. at four shillings and two-pence farthing in the pound; and the property assessment, in 1806, was 1,840,9611. The parochial rates, since that period, have risen to a still more alarming extent. In little more than twelve months, before the year 1795, they advanced, in the parish of Tettenhall, fifty per cent. + The conclusion, therefore, if we had not actual observation to confirm our statement, is rational, that the amount of the poors’-rates, since the year 1806, has advanced in an equal proportion. This county sends ten members to parliament, two of which are for the shire; at present Sir Edward Littleton, and the Right Hon. Lord Granville Leveson Gower, D. C. L.

The present Civil Division of this county is as follows :There are five Hundreds :-Totmanslow, to the north ; Pyrehill, to the north-west ; Cuddlestone, to the south-west ; Offlow, to the east ; and Seisdon, to the South. There is one city, Lichfield ; three boroughs, Stafford, Newcastle-under-Lyne, and Tamworth ; and twenty-four market towns, ancient and modern.

The ECCLESIASTICAL Division comprises one hundred and eighty one parishes ;ť and the diocese of Lichfield and Coventry contains Derbyshire, the larger part of Warwickshire, the

whole * Pitt's Agricultural Survey of Staffordshire, p. 2.

+ Ibid. pp. 37, 238.

# According to Mr. Pitt, (Survey, p. 4.) who says, that by the term parish he means a tract of land having a place of worship, and united in some degree, by a common or mutual interest, without regarding the ecclesiastical constitution, or dependence upon a superior or mother church.

whole of the county of Stafford, (except two parishes) and nearly half of Shropshire. It is divided into four Archdeaconries, Coventry, Stafford, Derby, and Salop, and contains 643* churches and chapels, of which 250 are impropriate. The Iceni according to Dr. Plot + were the original inhabitants of Staffordshire. In this opinion, however, he seems to stand alone, and unsupported. Mr. Shaw says, it must be a mistake, because that tribe were undoubtedly of Derbyshire. Camden and Gough I will not allow that they extended farther to the west than Huntingdonshire ; while Salmon confines them to the two maritime counties of Norfolk and Suffolk. The opinion of Mr. Shaw is, that the Ordivices were the aboriginal inhabitants of this district, and it seems at least pretty clear, that they possessed it many centuries before the Christian era. These were a brave and warlike people whose territories extended over a great portion of Wales, as well as many counties in England. They were not, however, long permitted to enjoy their dominions in tranquillity. The Cornabii breaking through the limits of their original settlements on the banks of the Dee, conquered a large tract of country to the west and north-west, and established a powerful monarchy of which Condate was the capital. The Brigantes, whose original habitations lay more to the north, in their turn subdued a portion of the territories of this tribe, a short time before the arrival of the Romans. Upon this event the metropolis was transferred from Condate to Uriconium, now Wroxetei; and this honour the latter seems to have enjoyed a considerable time, after the first invasion of Britain, by these unrivalled conquerors.

The Vol. XIII. Z z


• Ecclesiast. An. Register for 1808, p. 205.
+ Plot's History of Staffordshire, p. 393.

Gougl’s Camden, Vol. II. p. 159.

| Salmon's New Survey of England, p. 155. $ The situation of this city is much disputed. Mr. Whitaker concludes it to have stood at Kinderton. Dr. Wilkes, on the other hand, will have it te have been placed at Bell-pool near Middlewich,

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