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ROUMANIA.

Date of enactment. January 25 (February 7), 1912. (Includes sickness insurance.)

Injuries compensated. Injuries resulting from accidents without investigation as to whether caused by force majeure or fault of the injured. Accident caused intentionally shall be submitted to the central office for investigation. No sick money benefits paid if the illness or accident was due to drunkenness.

Industries covered. Industries and handicrafts using machinery operated by motor power of all kinds, building undertakings, earthworks, mines, quarries, sawmills; agricultural machinery, forestry, mills, tramways and railroads of all classes; inland and sea navigation, transportation in so far as loading and unloading merchandise are concerned. Other industries may be added by order of the central office.

Persons compensated. All workers and helpers.

Gorernment employees. The law covers employees of the State, districts, and communes in occupations otherwise under the act.

Burden of payment. Burden of payment rests entirely upon the employer after first two weeks; medical treatment and sick benefits paid from sick relief funds supported by its members (employers and employees) who contribute on the basis of a certain wage classification from 0.05 leu (1 cent) to 0.60 leu (11.6 cents) per week. Compensation for death. (a) A death benefit amounting to 100 lei ($19.30). b) To a widow without children one-fifth of the average wages of the deceased

until her death or remarriage; to each child under 16 years of age, including illegitimate child of mother dying as result of injury, one-fifth of such earnings. In no case shall the aggregate pensions exceed three-fifths of

annual earnings. (c) If the deceased was a female person the same pensions are payable to her

children and to her husband if he had been incapacitated for a considerable

time. (d) If the deceased leaves dependent persons in the ascending line, a pension of

one-fifth of such earnings shall be paid them, with preference in favor of

the parents over grandparents. Compensation for disability. (a) Medical treatment at home or in a hospital, medicines, and therapeutical

appliances, supplied by sick funds for first two weeks. (6) Beginning with the third week the injured person, if totally incapacitated,

shall be allowed during the entire period of incapacity two-thirds of his wages, and if partially disabled a correspondingly reduced allowance,

payable from the General Trade Association for Accident Insurance. (c) In case the person is so injured as to require the attention of another the allow

ance may be increased to full wages. If the wages exceed 5 lei (96.5 cents) per day, that sum plus one-third the excess is considered in computing pensions.

Revision of compensation. No provision is made for revision of compensation.

Insurance. Every employer in the enterprises covered by the law must insure his employees in the General Trade Association. Insurance is effected in the General Trade Association for Accident managed by an Administrative Council appointed by royal decree.

The State does not become a member of the General Trade Association, but itself insures its employees.

Security of payments. The association fixes the amount of contribution from employers to cover the amounts to be paid as benefits and pensions.

Settlement of disputes. All disputes as to right to and amount of assistance or benefits shall be decided by the arbitration courts, with a right of appeal to the administrative council of the central office.

RUSSIA.

Date of enactment. June 23 (July 6), 1913; in effect January 1, 1914, replacing act of June 2 (15), 1903.

Injuries compensated. Injuries from accidents in the course of or arising out of employment, causing incapacity for work, or death, except such are caused intentionally by the injured.

Industries covered. Factories, mines, iron and steel works, local railways, tramways, and inland navigation, making use of motor power and regularly employing 20 workpeople or more. Enterprises employing 30 or more workpeople, whether using motor power or not. Other industries may be added by the insurance council.

Persons compensated. All persons (other than casual workers) irrespective of age or sex, employed for wages or salary. Those having annual earnings in excess of 1,500 rubles ($772.50) may sue under ordinary liability law.

Government employees. The law excludes employees on State owned undertakings and the main railway systems; zemstvos and village establishments are included.

Burden of payment. Medical treatment for persons, including hospital treatment. medicine, bandages and medical appliances, and sick pay, for persons insured in the sick fund, for the first 13 weeks of disability will be paid from that fund to which the employees contribute three-fifths and the employers two-fiîths. From the ninety-first day compensation is paid by the accident insurance association in which the injured person is insured at the cost of the employers. Compensation for death. (a) Funeral benefits, fixed at an amount varying between 20 and 30 days' pay

of the insured person. (6) To widow one-third of annual earnings until death or remarriage; to each

child under 15 years of age one-sixth in case of survival of one parent; otherwise, one-fourth; to each dependent relative, one-sixth. The total annuity in no case in excess of two-thirds of the annual earnings of the

deceased. (c) A lump sum payment may be substituted for annuity not in excess of 36 rubles

($18.54) plus 15 per cent of annual earnings of the deceased. (d) The maximum annual earnings for purpose of calculating insurance are 1,500

rubles ($772.50). Compensation for disability. (a) For total disability during the first 13 weeks from two-thirds (for male persons)

to full amount (for women) of daily wages. After the ninety-first day

two-thirds of the injured person's earnings. (b) For total permanent incapacity an annuity of two-thirds annual earnings, and

for partial permanent incapacity a proportionately smaller annuity. (c) The annuity may be increased to full pay in case of resulting insanity, loss

of both hands or both limbs, or such disablement as requires constant care

by another person. Revision of compensation. On request of either party within three years reexamination may be made to adjust pension to any change in working capacity.

Insurance. Insurance is effected through employers' associations established by the order of the Minister of Commerce and Industry, with a prescribed district for each association. An insurance association may transfer its liability for payment of insurance to the government savings bank, by a deposit equal to the capitalized value of the pension.

Security of payments. The insurance associations are under direct State supervision.

Settlement of disputes. In case the decision of the insurance board is unsatisfactory, a rehearing is granted and from the decision rendered on this second hearing an appeal may be carried to the ordinary courts.

SERVIA.

Date of enactment. June 29 (July 12), 1910; in effect July 1 (14), 1911.

Injuries compensated. Insurance of workmen relates to cases of illness, accident, disablement, old age, and death when it can not be proved that accident occurred owing to the fault of the injured workman.

Industries covered. All handicrafts and commercial undertakings in which are employed in the one workshop or in one place more than 15 workers where motor power is used, and more than 25 workers where motor power is not used.

Persons compensated. All workmen, including apprentices, in handicrafts and commercial establishments under the law; voluntary insurance for others provided annual earnings do not exceed 2,000 dinars ($386).

Government employees. Relief funds in the case of mines, and insurance funds in case of State and private works which shall be in existence at the time this act comes in force, may be placed on an equal footing with the local associations under the same conditions as agreed with the national insurance fund.

Burden of payment. Accident insurance premiums shall be paid by the employers

alone.

Compensation for death. (a) A funeral benefit in proportion to the insured monthly wages of the deceased,

fixed by the local workmen's insurance associations. (6) A sum equal to 30 per cent of the allowance to which the insured person shall

have had claim to be paid the widow, so long as she remains un married, and 5 per cent in addition for each child up to the time of completing their fourteenth year. Should the widow remarry she may be granted

three years' allowance. (c) Should the children be orphans, the eldest shall receive 20 per cent of the

allowance, and the second, third, and fourth children 10 per cent each,

and each additional child 5 per cent of the total allowance. (d) Up to the time when this insurance becomes payable, medical attendance for

the injured and his family, medicine and similar assistance, nurses in hospitals and health resorts for workmen and families and daily relief money

not less than half the daily wages of the insured person. Compensation for disability.

(a) Medical and surgical aid. (b) Pecuniary benefit not less than 5 per cent of wages of injured, according to

disability. (c) In the event of permanent total disability, maximum may be equal to full

wages. Revision of compensation. No special provision is made in the law.

Insurance. Insurance is effected in local workmen's insurance associations, which form a National Union of Workmen's Insurance Associations. Certain relief and insurance funds are recognized when meeting required conditions. Accident and sickness insurance obligatory.

Security of payments. The State makes each year a grant not less than 100,000 dinars ($19,300) to the insurance fund.

Settlement of dis putes. Appeals are allowed from the decision of the local associations to the national union, and a further appeal to the minister of political economy, whose decision shall be final.

SOUTH AUSTRALIA. Date of enactment. December 14, 1911; in effect January 1, 1912, replacing act of 1900 and amendatory act of 1904.

Injuries compensated. All injuries to workmen arising out of and in the course of the employment causing death, or disability for at least one week, except when due to serious and willful misconduct of the workman injured.

Industries covered. Any employment," including agricultural work employing mechanical power, and navigation in domestic waters on South Australian vessels, but excluding home work, domestic service, and clerical work.'

Persons compensated. All workmen including apprentices, engaged in manual labor or otherwise, provided weekly earnings do not exceed £5 ($24.33).

Government employees. Act applies to civilian persons employed under the Crown to whom it would apply if the einployer were a private person.

Burden of payment. Entire cost of compensation rests upon employer; but if there are contractors, then either upon such contractors or the principal, provided contractors for agricultural work included in the act must bear the burden alone. Compensation for death. (a) A sum equal to three years' earnings, but not less than £200 ($973.30) nor

more than £300 ($1,459.95), to those wholly dependent upon earnings of

deceased. (6) A sum not exceeding above amount is dependents were partly dependent

upon deceased, to be agreed upon by the parties or fixed by arbitration. (c) Reasonable expenses of medical attendance and burial not exceeding £20

($97.33), if deceased leaves no dependents. Com pensation for disability. (a) A weekly payment during disability not exceeding 50 per cent of employee's

average weekly earnings during the previous 12 months, such weekly payments not to exceed £1 $4.87) nor, in case of total incapacity of workmen under 21 years and receiving under 20s. ($4.87) a week, to be less than 108. ($2.43) per week, and total liability not to exceed £300

($1,459.95). (6) A weekly payment during partial disability to be fixed with regard to differ

ence between employee's average weekly earnings before the accident and average weekly amount which he is earning or able to earn after

injury. (c) A lump sum may be substituted for weekly payments after six months on

application of either party, the amount to be settled by arbitration under

the act in default of agreement. In any case, if disability lasts less than two weeks, no compensation is paid for the first week.

Revision of compensation. Weekly payments may be revised at request of either party.

Insurance. Employers may contract with their employees for substitution of a scheme of compensation, benefit, or insurance in place of the provisions of the act, if the public actuary certifies that the scheme is on the whole not less favorable to general body of employees and their dependents than the provisions of the act. In such case employer is liable only in accordance with the scheme.

Security of payments. In event of employer's insolvency the amount of compensation due under act, up to £100 ($186.65) in any individual case, becomes a preferred (laim; or where an employer has entered into a contract with insurers in respect of any liability under this act to any workman such rights of the employer, in the event of insolvency, are transferred to and vested in the workman.

Settlement of disputes. Disputes arising under the act are settled by the arbitration of existing committees of employers and employees, or, if either party objects, by a single arbitrator agreed on by the parties, or, in absence of agreement, by a special magistrate. An arbitrator appointed by the magistrate has all the powers of a local court.

1 Seamen are compensated under a Commonwealth law of Dec. 28, 1911.

SPAIN.
Date of enactment, January 30, 1900; in effect July 28, 1900.

Injuries compensated. All injuries by accidents to employees in the course of and by reason of the employment causing death or disability. Compensation may be reduced if injured person was engaged in an illegal act.

Industries covered. Manufacturing, mines, quarries, metallurgical establishments, construction work, industries injurious to health, transportation, gas and electric works, street cleaning, theaters, and agricultural and forestry establishments using power machinery.

Persons compensated. Workmen performing manual labor, including helpers and apprentices.

Government employees. Act applies to employees of State factories and other Government establishments, to labor accidents in war and naval departments, and to establishments of provincial and communal governments.

Burden of payment. Entire cost of compensation rests upon employer.
Compensation for death. In addition to any prior benefits paid for disability,

(a) Funeral expenses, not exceeding 100 pesetas ($19.30).
(b) A lump sum equal to two years' earnings, if widow, and children or depend-

ent orphan grandchildren under 16 years survive; eighteen months' earnings if only children or orphan grandchildren survive; one year's earnings if only widow survives; ten months' earnings to dependent parents or grandparents over 60 years of age, in absence of widow or children, if two or more survive; seven months' earnings if only one parent or grand

parent survives. (c) For these lump-sum payments, by mutual consent, the following pensions

may be substituted: 40 per cent of annual earnings when widow and children or grandchildren survive; 20 per cent of annual earnings when only widow survives; 10 per cent to each dependent parent or grandparent over 60 years of age, when no widow or children survive, but not over 30 per cent in the aggregate; compensation to widow ceases on her remar

riage, and to children on their attaining the age of 16 years. (d) In these cases, the daily earnings to be considered as not less than 1.50 pesetas

(29 cents). (e) All of these compensations are increased by 50 per cent if the establishment

is lacking in the required safety provisions. Compensation for disability.

(a) Free medical and surgical treatment during disability.
(b) Fifty per cent of daily earnings, including Sundays and holidays, from day

of injury to day of recovery from disability, but not over one year, after

which case is treated as one of permanent disability. (c) In case of permanent disability, in addition to the foregoing, a sum equal to

two years' earnings for total disability. Eighteen months' earnings, if total disability extends only to former trade. One year's earnings in cases of partial permanent disability for usual employment, unless the employer agrees to employ injured workmen at some

other work at old rate of wages. (d) In these cases the daily earnings to be considered as not less than 1.50 pesetas

(29 cents). (e) Compensations are increased by 50 per cent if the establishment is lacking in

the required safety provisions. Revision of compensation. No special provision is made in the law.

Insurance. Employers may contract with authorized insurance companies to assume obligations imposed by law.

Security of payments. No special provision is made in the law.

Settlement of disputes. Disputes concerning compensation under the law may be carried to special permanent labor tribunals consisting of representatives of the State, employers, and employees.

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