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marriages have been either proposed or 2. What are the chief manufacturing made between the Royal Families of towns in Europe ? Do they furnish England and Scotland? Give dates. products which compete with English

2. With what feeling was the Act of manufactures? If they do, state what Union (1707) regarded at the time in they are. Scotland ? Mention

of its 3. Give an account of Australasia : principal provisions, and shew how it What are the peculiarities of its floods ? has contributed to the welfare and What kind of climate does it enjoy stability of both England and Scot- What do we know of its geological land.

features ? SECT. III.-1. Write a short account SECT. III.-1. Describe geographiof Richard III.

cally the several kingdoms comprised 2. Mention, with dates, the most in the Austrian empire, stating fully important events which took place the sources of its mineral wealth, thi during the reigns of the Plantagenet condition of its agriculture and manukings.

factures. 3. Compare the end of the Plan- 2. Shew by a map the position of the tagenet with that of the Tudor line of Tigris, Euphrates, Orontes, and Jordan, kings, and show how far each was with the sites of Nineveh, Babylon, owing to the character and conduct of Baalbec, Damascus, and Antioch. the reigning sovereign.

3. Mention all those parts of the SECT. IV.--1. What colonies were known world in which coal-fields and lost to Great Britain, and what posses- iron are found. sions gained by her in the reign of SECT. IV —1. State fully, and explain George III.

if you can by a chart, the great eastern 2. When, and under what circum- passage from Europe to China for ships stances, did the Cape of Good Hope touching at the Cape late in the season. become an English colony?

Show how the course is determined by 3. What are the chief objects in prevalent winds and currents. forming colonies ? Show that these 2. Draw a map of North America, have been attained by Great Britain shewing its river and lake system. both in the Old and New World.

3. Explain the formation of dew, SECT. V.-1. State what you have hoar-frost, and fog. How do you acread about Demosthenes or Plato, count for the stationary fog on the coast Virgil or Horace.

of Newfoundland ? Why is cloudy and 2. Describe, with dates, the civil war windy weather unfavorable to the forof Cæsar and Pompey.

mation of dew? When dew is formed, 3. Mention the Roman emperors of is it formed on all substances alike? the Flavian family, and write a short SECT. V.--1. What is the reason why account of Titus.

a comparatively small quantity of snow GEOGRAPHY AND POPULAR ASTRONOMY. falls on the high planes of the Himalaya

SECT. I.-1. Enumerate the head and Andes? lands, rivers, and seaport towns, passed 2. Shew by a map the position of in a voyage from Kirkwall to New- the chief groups of volcanic islands castle; illustrating the answer, if you existing in the Pacific. Mention any can, by a chart.

theories which have been proposed 2. Shew by a map the course of the 'to account for volcanic phenomena. river Shannon; mention its tributaries, 3. What are supposed to be the and state what are the physical features native countries of wheat and oats ? of that part of Ireland through which Between what latitudes may barley, it flows.

oats, and wheat be cultivated in Europe Sect. II.--1. Draw a map of Eng- and America ? What mean winter and land, shewing where battles were fought summer temperature do they require ? in the time of the Great Rebellion.

PAPERS

FOR THE SCHOOLMASTER.

No. 17.

JULY 1, 1851.

Eduration; its Third Periad. As school-life advances, its claims if possible become more urgent; at any rate the period from seven to ten now coming under review, has peculiar claims on the regards of the Educator. It is the period when in the majority of instances school-life terminates.

It is a melancholy consideration that as Educational processes improve, the time for their employment becomes more limited. The testimony of the Inspectors to the short time that the children of the poor are kept at school, the fluctuating character of their attendance while there, and that this short time is becoming shorter must have forced itself on the attention of all readers of their Reports. The Rev. F. Watkins says, “I find from the summary for my district, that above 79 per cent. of all the children under education in it, at Church Schools, are of and under the age of ten years.” Again he says, “It has been my duty in every Report to notice the tender age of the children in Elementary Schools, the gradual lowering of that age in the great majority of places, and the contemporaneous shortening of the school-time of the children.”

In such an unfortunate state of things much cannot be accomplished only by earnest, intelligent, devoted and Christian menmen who in a sense take their lives in their hands. It is desirable that

every child should leave school with the ability to read with intelligence, to compose and write neatly with correct spelling, and to perform ordinary business Arithmetic. To which we might add, a knowledge of our country and of the relations it sustairs with other parts of the globe, and this, without mentioning religious knowledge, is to be crammed into the short space of two or three years.

It is desirable also to remember that during this period is laid the foundation of the child's future social position, and of his usefulness to the community of which he will form a member. The entire colouring of his future life for weal or woe, will be taken from its present aspect. What he is formed now, he will likely remain to the end of his days. We have in our school experience invariably found, that the habits formed now cling tɔ the individual and mould his destiny. These and many other considerations which might be urged, claim for this period the earnest labours of the Educator.

The points requiring attention have relation to intellectual culture, efficient instruction, and the formation of industrial habits.

The intellectual culture of the period should have, in accordance with the principle on which we have hitherto proceeded, special relation to the state of mental developement. But as the life of a child advances it becomes increasingly difficult to mark the exact order of developement, and what adds to the difficulty is, that while some of the faculties are developed spontaneously, others require more or less of special culture. Amongst the former, in addition to Perception and Conception, may be placed Curiosity, the Power of observing resemblances, and the formation of Hypotheses ; amongst the latter to a certain extent Memory and Judgment. · This difficulty, however, is of little moment, so long as we keep from the region of Abstraction, and confine ourselves to the sphere of our observation, in which we shall find sufficient aliment for their sustenance in vigour and activity, of every power of the child's mind.

As a child's connection with the external world enlarges, and its experience grows, it spontaneously exhibits the power of tracing resemblances in objects apparently dissimilar. A thrill of delight, sudden and exquisite, is the consequence of some such discovery.

Nothing can be less like than the working of a vast steam engine and the crawling of a fly upon the window; yet we find that these two operations are performed by the same means--the weight of the atmosphere; and that a sea-horse climbs the ice-hills by no other power. Can anything be more strange to comtemplate ? Is there, in all the fairy-tales that ever were fancied, any thing more caloulated to arrest the attention, and to occupy and gratify the mind, than this most unexpected resemblance between things so unlike to the eyes of ordinary beholders ?” At a somewhat later period the child begins to notice the differences in objects apparently similar, and at length it proceeds to classify and generalize, and to form hypotheses or guesses as to the causes of the facts it has discovered.

With these characteristics of the period before us we shall not be at a loss whence to draw suitable aliment. The works of God around us appear as if they had been specially constructed for this purpose. Every department of Natural History, and of Physical Science, presents us with instances of resemblance in objects very dissimilar, and of differences, where at first sight, we should suppose none to exist.

Sufficient has been said to indicate the process that is to be employed. Facts for investigation, in order to the discovery of resemblances, are to be collected-implying the culture of the eye, the ear, and the hand. Curiosity is to be stimulated in order to lead to the formation of a rational hypothesis, and then from comparison, experiment and analogy, the judgment is to determine the result at which you aim. The whole forming an inductive process as valuable in its effects on the Mental powers, as it is pleasant in its progress.

“In lessons such as these” remarks-Mr. Fletcher, “Observation and experiment would be led by hypothesis, and even when it is impossible to submit the object or circumstances to the outward senses of the children, but necessary only to tell them the result of the observations and experiments of others, this will never be digested and assimilated unless hypothesis have given a zest for it. Unless the mind have been brought to ask a question, the answer will not be properly stored in its recesses."

Before passing away from the direct intellectual culture necessary to this period we would urge a proper cultivation of the Memory. There appears recently as great a tendency to neglect its culture, as there was formerly to unduly cultivate it. This is a great mistake. “The training and exercise of the memory'' says Isaac Taylor, “should be a principal business of education. There is however nothing which more enfeebles the reasoning powers, and checks the imagination, than an excessive or exclusive exercise of the memory." The

memory must be cultivated. Not by committing to its care long lists of hard words or geographical and scientific terms, but by making it the recorder and retainer, in appropriate language, of the ideas or facts obtained, either by means of observation, or by an Inductive process.

Valuable and essential as are direct efforts towards intellectual culture, yet it is still more important at this period that attention be given to the means of efficient instruction. For apart from the fact that such instruction may form, as it undoubtedly should, an efficient instrument in Mental cultivation, it is to be remembered, that the things in which instruction is given, Reading, Writing and Arithmetic, form nearly the only means by which the poor can prosecute that intellectual culture which the Educator has begun.

To the processes of instruction and to their vigorous appliance, it is expected that the Educator in this period directs his chief attention. The results at which he should aim are thoroughness, accuracy, neatness, acuteness and intelligence. In every exercise he should secure an intelligent action of the mind; as nothing is more to be dreaded, than an unintelligent, mechanical mode of dealing with the ordinary topics of school-life. The most strenuous efforts of mind should be required on every subject; if not, a habit of mind will be fostered which will fit them for nothing more than mere mechanical drudgery as they grow up; and few conditions of operative labour are so slightly remunerative, or so little desirable as those, where there is mechanical exertion without intellectual activity-where man is no more than a machine.

But a great purpose of school education and instruction will be thwarted, if great care is not taken to form them in industrial habits. To so form them will not be difficult, as this period is characterized by incessant activity. Hands, feet, eyes, tongue are in constant employment. The child has learnt to feel the irksomeness of unemployed time, and has made the discovery that employment causes it to pass more swiftly; hence it seeks something to do. If this activity be not usefully directed, it will expend itself, it may be, in what indiscriminating people call mischief.

Children should be urged to industry by motives drawn from the gratification resulting from employment and progress, from the influence which their present diligence will have in fitting them for honourable and profitable pursuits, and from the consideration that they are thus best prepared for usefulness to those around them.

The habits which it is desirable that a child should acquire at

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