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things should be secured. The parallel subjects of instruction to suit the difdesks to face the wall at the distance of ferent states of the children. 5 feet from it. On the wall should be 3. By marking out for each class a hung the black-board and maps when definite amount of work to be accomrequired. To each section a particular plished in a given period, part of the school-room should be al. 4. By dviiding the school hours into lotted with sufficient space for drafts equal portions, say, of half an hour's and classes, so that in the movements length and assigning to each a distinct which occur, one section should not in. lesson, involving change of place and terfere with another. Each section subject at the end of it. should be furnished with all the appa- 5. By placing an apprentice and two ratus it requires,—that it may not be monitors over each section of four necessary in any lesson to obtain an drafts. The apprentice to form two article from another part of the school. drafts alternately into a class, and to
It will aid the orderly working of the be held responsible for the diligence section if its slates, books, ink, pens, and progress of the whole section. chalk, duster, black-boards, pointers, 6. By appointing certain parts of &c. are committed to the charge of each day for revising the lessons preMonitors, whose duty it would be to pared under the apprentices, and for see that they were all kept in their supplementing their instruction; and right places, and in proper condition. this in every section and with everychild. QUESTION 4.
7. By examinations of the drafts at Employment to be intelligent must the end of short fixed periods, for the be suitable, and calculated to arrest the advancement of the proficient, and of attention.
sections at longer periods, for removal Employment is suitable, when it is into higher sections. adapted to the state of mental deve- 8. By registering at each examinalopment and attainment and it is calcu- tion the state and progress of each lated to arrest the attention when it is child in a book prepared for the purthus adapted to the children's state. pose, and on a card for the inspection
That employment may be constant, it of the children's parents. must not only be intelligent, but there To accomplish these purposes, it will must be variety, a definite amount, su- be absolutely necessary to draw out a pervision, revision and advancement. routine of daily labour, and to form a
Variety is essential because the pow. well digested syllabus of instruction er of continuous attention in children adapted to the wants of the school and to one subject is weak, a definite amount to its local circumstances. of labour in each lesson and for a given The routine must inform one of the period furnishes a motive to diligence, work of every part of the school at and provides a test for it. Supervision every hour of the day, for every day in is required, because temptations to idle- the week, and should show whether it ness and indolence amongst children is carried on by the apprentices or are many. Revision is essential in order teacher ; whether it is in the desks, at to secure the diligence both of children the drafts, or on the gallery. and subordinate teachers. Advancement The syllabus should be for a given from draft to draft and from section to period of moderate length, because the section so as to reward the diligent, value of instruction is lost by extendand spur the indolent. We propose then ing it over too wide a surface. At the to secure intelligent and constant em- completion of the period too, the opployment by the following means. portunity should be seized, to recon
1. By a careful classification of the chil- sider its different topics in the light of dren according to intelligenceandattain- its experience, expunging where usements in drafts, classes, and sections. less, strengthening where weak, and
2. By a skilful graduation of the supplementing where deficient. "G.
PAPERS FOR THE SCHOOLMASTER.
SEPTEMBER 1, 1852.
Childhood. When we reflect what it is we commit to a Master or a Mistress, we may well wonder whetherit is possible for any other profession to require more peculiar natural qualities of mind and disposition, and more special preparation than thatof the Educator. For what is a child, which we are too prone to entrust to any empiric, orincapable bankrupt? Wefancy that we see a wayward thing whose buoyousness must be curbed, and love of mischief overborne by bodily chastisements ? How little do we think that, in every child there is the germ of a man, who will have to live in a thousand relations to his fellow-man, and after expending his allotted time here will have to wing his way to enter on new relations in another and an endless world. Can we educate aright while we are thoughtless of this truth? But, much more than this. Can we educate aright, if we know not and have not studied the science of childhood-its lurking capabilities—its dormant powers-its bright fires its intense affections, and its world of poetry? What mean its ceaseless energies ?-its elasticity of spirits ?—its love of play? Are these but evidences of a restless and rebellious creature, crying for the compassion of the christian, and the correction due to an outcast ? Or do they tell of powers, now pent up in childhood's prison, which need a gentle and a sympathising hand, not to crush them, but to guide and nurture them? Assuredly the chief desideratum of an Educator of children is not scholarship. The most successful need not be necessarily learned, much less must they wear the mien of a monk, or a sour ascetic. But this they must
be-skilled in the science of childhood. Cheerfulness is the character of a child, and wo! to that Educator who would tinge it with gloom. Workhouses have often been the breeding-places of human monsters, because no mother has been there to surround the new life of the babe with a laughing infancy; or mothers only in name, whose hearts profligacy or ruin have petrified, have rudely and for ever knocked off the dust of those early blossoms. Infancy is an early morning; then let it be bright and untarnished with a cloud, and it will give the better prospect of a bright and sunny day. The life of promise must begin with a smiling spring.
At first, the infant finds itself in a world so deluged with the things of sense that it scarcely hears, and scarcely sees. But soon its passiveness flits by: It unites itself to the outer world by its organs of sense.
Its eyes behold the bright color with wonder; its hands attempt to grasp the things around it, and its ears are pleased with its mother's pleasant accents. Its education has begun, Its abode should be no dark dungeon, but a sunny room; its lungs should breathe a vital atmosphere, and it should be taught to measure distances as it looks on the prospect without, and to hold communion with objects within. We say communion, for a child is not a mere animal. As it grows, it has a life within it, beyond that of mere existence. It is the life of intelligence. Its buddings forth will shew themselves, not as with animals, by a communion with even the inanimate things which surround it. Alive itself, it will give life to everything else. The sun and moon and stars all live in its sight. Thedoll is a baby, the stick a sceptre, and the wooden horse is to its little owner what the dray-horseistoits master. The wondering child lives, and God intended that he should live, in a little world of poetry and fancy. Nor is this the poetry so much of ignorance, as of joyousness and cheerfulness, which throws an ideal condition around the real objects of its
Do violence to these impulses of a child, spurn its amusements, curb its fruitful imagination which transforms inanimate things into animate, and bowers into elysiums, by words and looks of harshness, and you hurt irrecoverably the bloom of manhood's promise. The very nursery, especially of workhouses and unions, is a subject most suited to the political economist and statesman. To err in childhood is to err to a Nation's shame, and irretrievably.
But childhood passes into boyhood. Let the child have passed, as he should have passed, into boyhood with his natural joyousness unabated, and the pent-up activity, which erewhile expressed itself in merry laughs and happily good-natured tumbles, will work itself still outward from within in roystering games. Remove, as you value the future man, this child from those whom the trouble of life has made morose, and to whom the overflowings of animal energy
have no charm, and who “hate children;" and let no rough grown-up hand of an impetuous teacher, mistaking it for crime, crush thesuperabundant energy.
It was well devised that schools should be opened for those young infants whose parents some Divine visitation, or poverty, or sin, had disqualified for the office, where a playground with its pretty flowers and changing games should be more than half the school; but why, when the first few years have passed away, should school-life become a dull and wearisome routine? Education must embrace the boy in his play-time as well as his study. It is the Educator's task not to repress the inward energies, but to watch and direct their unfoldings. Punishment for mis-doing should consist in a sense of disgrace rather than of pain; the boy who suffers pain without flinching, by reason of that overflowing energy, of which we have spoken, is a worshipped hero; and if he does flinch by reason of the might of that grown-up hand having crushed this energy, he is a hopeless slave; which character will prove the greatest blessing to himself and to society is a problem hard to be solved, and not worth the solution. If in the above remarks any additional argument should awaken itself in the mind of the thoughtful in regard to the mission of that sacred and responsible man or woman to society—the trainer of children; it will justify an increased effort to watch over the choice of these instruments, to whom we shall confide a Nation's hope, and the life-seed of posterity. Strange that a people's wisdom is more liable to be employed upon the science of rearing cattle, than of men for another generation, and of constructing a cradle rather than its tenant.
Putes of a Lecture on the Use of the Gallery, when
applied to the Purposes of Instruction. Without noticing the different methods employed in this part of School work, it will be sufficient to say that the one which seems to meet with the most general approval is that of taking the lesson by sections, according with the natural divisions of the subject, to give the exposition of the first part, proposing as many questions as shall ensure that ideas and not mere words are being communicated ; and at the end of the first section of the subject, to propose a series of searching questions, put individually, as a test that the ideas have been generally received, and can be reproduced in suitable language. The other divisions of the subject are proceeded with in the same way; and at the end of the sectional examinations the entire subject is recapitulated simultaneously, with the design of arranging in a natural order, and binding together the main points of the lesson ;. this will be in fact a synthetical reconstruction of the whole.
The success of your gallery teaching will depend on attention to the following remarks on the several particulars involved in this part of your work; and no effort should be spared by you to work
them out efficiently, as your standing as a Teacher will be determined in a great measure by the skill you display in this department.
In the first place, seek a clear conception of the purpose contemplated in this kind of teaching. In teaching the ordinary branches of school instruction, it is highly important that they should be so taught as to develope and train the various mental powers: but in collective instruction in the gallery, mental training becomes a special object, educing rather than conveying instruction, so far at Pleast as the results of the children's 'Observation and powers of judgment and reasoning will admit. The memory is still to be cultivated, but cultivated through the understanding.
You will apply the ordinary methods of communication to gallery teaching, subject only to those modifications which special circumstances may require. “ All your instruction should be built on the compass of the child's existing knowledge, seeking 'to extend the boundaries of that knowledge by building up its conceptions of that which it does not know by its relations with what it does' know; and in all matters of reasoning, leading from the known to the unknown.” In working out these principles, you will require not one but a union of methods; your own preparatory analysis, a synthetical exposition and a vigorous use of interrogation.
Let your exposition be characterized by adaptation to the capacity of the children under instruction. Any words or phrases used