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often be sufficient to remedy the evil. | waywardness : -- he should be loving, Where it does not, loss of place in class having the best interests of his children perhaps would. In cases of wilful at heart, and willing to endure any wrong-doing, the child should be ex- amount of fatigue and labour for their postulated with, and lose position; if benefit:-he should be patient, rememthat is not sufficient, he might be re- bering how difficult it is to sustain his quired to stand a little way from his own attention even
now, and what little class, but not so far as to prevent him acquired power of doing so children receiving his instruction. If these me- can have. thods fail to recover him from habitual 3. His manner should be quiet without neglect of his duty, severe measures bustle, with perfect control over his must be resorted to, according to the voice, his temper and his movements; circumstances of the case and the cha- for if he has not, how can he blame his racter of the child. Pain must be in children for not possessing it :-It flicted either in the mind or on the should be earnest without affectation; body, The good Teacher will aim at in every lesson, every act of discipline the former.
and all his arrangements, studying the To make the punishment effective, well-being of the children :-it should the child must understand the reason be firm without vacillation; what he of its infliction, and must feel that it is at one time he should be at all times; is deserved. He must also from the uniformity of manner having a very calm, quiet, gentle, loving manner of powerful influence in producing a feeling the teacher, feel that his good, and not of certainty in the breasts of the child the teacher's gratification is his aim. ren that discipline will be maintained. QUESTION III.
4. Hishabits should comprise punctu"As is the master so is the school" ality, diligence, sound judgment, and is becoming a very general opinion impartiality. with respect to elementary schools. (1.) Punctuality. He should be at the Without fully assenting to the propo- school to receive his children, and not sition, great allowance having to be let them wait, as is the practice with made for home influence and local cha- some teachers, in the street, and somerácter, yet it cannot be denied, that the times in the rain to receive him. He discipline of a school much depends on should be at his post at least a quarter the character of its master.
of an hour before school-time, to see To
secure good discipline it is essen- that his monitors prepare books, slates, tial that the master attend to his ap- chalk and other apparatus for the work pearance, disposition, manner, and of the classes and drafts. His punctuhabits.
ality should extend to the closing of the 1. In appearance he should be an ex- school, and to the beginning and ending ample of neatness and cleanliness ; of lessons; few things are more subavoiding all that is foppish on the one versive of discipline, than allowing a hand, such as gold rings on his fingers, lesson of one class to intrude into the and gold chain dangling on his breast; time of another. and all that is slovenly on the other. (2.) Diligence. The working of an If his own shoes are not daily polished, elementary school, involving as it does his clothes neatly brushed, his hair instruction in a great variety of topics, nicely combed, and his teeth cleaned, to children of very dissimilar ages and he cannot with much effect or consis- attainments and involving constant overtency enforce their observance on his sight in order that all shall be faithfully children.
employed, cannot be effectually carried 2. In discipline he should be kind, wil- out, without great diligence on the part ling to make every allowance for the of the master. Who ever else idles, he forgetfulness of his children, from must not. He has no time for anything, which more faults spring than from person, or subject but his school, his
scholars, and their instruction. Let 3. Revise all the written exercises him begin to play, and the contagion very carefully. spreads to all his classes.
4. In such a case as incorrect spell. moment in school should witness him ing, require the mis-spelt words to be unemployed, or employed in things written a certain number of times corforeign to his office. He should be rectly. able at all times to draw attention to 5. In Arithmetic, let the children himself as an example of diligence and not count as done, any sum whose anfaithfulness in the discharge of his swer was not right in the first operaschool duties.
tion. (3.) Sound judgment.—He should be 6. In the examination of a readingcareful to investigate all cases of dis- lesson, let the very words of the book cipline, by searching for evidence, com- be required in the first instance; the paring statements, considering character putting the substance in their own and circumstances, and by being very language being afterwards obtained. slow in coming to a decision. He 7. Use books rather than slates for should endeavour so to decide in matters all the written exercises of the higher of discipline, that his decision, however classes. often it may be reconsidered, may never Truthfulness is a thing of growth. need to be reversed. if the evidence The dishonesty of copying from their be not strong enough, let him hesitate, neighbours should be frequently imthat his children may see that he is not pressed upon them. If any answers hasty to decide. This will give them be copied, they have taken hat for confidence in the soundness of his which they did not labour. Then, judgement.
besides the dishonesty, the falsehood (3.) To this habit of sound judgment of exhibiting as their own that which should be added as essential to it, that they have copied should be shewn. of strict impartiality. Sometimes for It should also be impressed upon them the same kind of offence the teacher that if in Gallery-lessons they take up must award different punishments. the answers of the thinkers around because of the difference in the character them and give them as their own, they of the offenders; but in these circum
are acting a lie. This is a point of stances it should be felt, that the great importance. The teacher had punishment is as severe in the one case better have a dull gallery with truthas in the other. This will give the fulness, than one with apparent intellichildren confidence in the justice of his gence and much falsehood. decisions, and their acquiescence in the While constant vigilance will be rediscipline will be more willingly ren- quired on the part of the teacher to dered.
detect instances of deceit, yet, in all QUESTION IV.
school operations, he should shew his How to secure diligence in school children that they are trusted; there work has been already shewn in the should be nothing in his tone or mananswer to question 4, in the number ner to indicate that he suspects them. for August, page 157.
When an instance of untruthfulness To secure accuracy, the following does occur, as for instance in working things are necessary :
Arithmetic, quietly pass the slate with1. Let there be a definite amount of out marking it. The appeal will be felt. work appointed for each lesson. In a case of confirmed habit, remove
2. Impress the children that to doa him from temptation. little well is worth more than doing much ill.
(To be Continued.)
PAPERS FOR THE SCHOOLMASTER.
OCTOBER 1, 1852.
Potes uf a Lecture on the Preparation of Lutes of
The preparation of notes of lessons involves a very important part of a teacher's engagements out of school. Apart from the time he
may devote to reading up any new subjects, or to the revision of those already mastered, no inconsiderable portion will be required by a junior teacher for writing up notes.
The former may or may not be done, the latter must; whatever his efforts after scholarship may be, they will be destructive to his professional character, if made at the expense of school duties. Neither may this duty be considered as done when a bare outline sketch of a subject is made and carried to the school, trusting to the power of suggestion to bring in from the knowledge floating in the mind, the matter required for filling up the outline, so as to make a lesson. The subject of the lesson, whatever it may be, should be read up specially for the occasion, so that the “notes” may be a recent deposit of matter, actually collected and arranged for a defined purpose.
Both for the purpose of mental discipline, and the acquirement of exact knowledge, perhaps no method will yield you so large a return; hence you should be encouraged by the consideration, that whilst preparing for your school-work, you are doing so in a way
very considerable advantage to your own mental improvement.
Not a small amount of that nervous excitement and timidity, manifest in the efforts of some teachers in giving a lesson may fairly be attributed to their consciousness of wanting a complete mastery of their subjects. It is evident therefore that if you study your own comfort and success in teaching, and the improvement of your class, you will spare no pains in going to your work, charged with suitable and well-arranged matter.
Notes of Lessons are of two kinds, Teaching Notes, and Full
Notes, or as the latter are sometimes called, Abstracts of a Lesson, Sketches, or simply Notes of a Lesson.
I. Full Notes. The Full Notes should contain a complete abstract of the given subject. In writing them out your first business will be to search for suitable matter, as it is rarely to be found in a collective form. You will, when found, make a rough note of it, that you may know the kind of information, and the place where found. When your search is ended, look carefully over your notes, and make a judicious selection of material ; then give to the individual parts of the subject a clear and logical arrangement. Begin now with the first head, understand it thoroughly, and then make an abstract of it, with a note saying where found, that you may be able at once to put your hand on your authority, at any future time when you may desire to revise the subject. In the same way work through the several parts till your notes are complete.
Be careful to work out your own conceptions clearly, and let them be very carefully expressed. Do not let the thought that your notes are merely for your own use lead you to a carelessness of expression. The more pains you bestow in making your composition express your ideas with exactness and precision, the better prepared will you be to give expression to your thoughts when before your class. The habit is invaluable, and should be formed even at the cost of considerable labor.
This is the proper time to choose your illustrations; if left till you want them they may not be forthcoming; certainly the most appropriate are not likely to suggest themselves. But if now selected, they may be depended on when the matter is used.
Generally, it will be profitable for you to revise a lesson every time it is re-delivered. This will not entail the same amount of labor as at first, and will ensure a freshness in your teaching, as you will have read to little profit, or your reading will have been ill-directed, if it does not yield something new in the way of matter and illustration, on the subjects of your ordinary duties.
Your experience will soon convince you, that no method of study is so valuable as the habit of careful analysis and logical arrangement, and that every subject so analysed and arranged becomes more fully your own in proportion to the care bestowed on it.
II. Teaching Notes.
1. Notes for collective teaching. Having with care selected and arranged the matter in your abstracts, your task will be tolerably easy when you come to prepare notes for teaching purposes. The objects to be kept in view in this kind of notes are, notes of the proper matter for teaching; the order in which the matter should be communicated; and brief hints as to the mode of communication, with any references it may be
necessary to make to a text book, or a sketch of any diagram to be drawn on the board, by way of illustration.
As a general rule the notes employed in actual teaching should be as brief as possible-mere suggestions, and not the information to be given. When notes are long they tend to embarrass the teacher rather than assist. To teach successfully the eye
is wanted, not on the paper but on the children. The principal points requiring attention, besides the matter, are the arrangement and the penmanship. The arrangement should be such that the several divisions and subdivisions may be so placed as to meet the eye at a glance, without requiring time to be spent in searching for the next step. You will be aided in this, by always using the same arrangement for the same kind of subjects. Your notes should be carefully and neatly written, so as to be perfectly intelligible to any person accustomed to school work, without their being embarrassed by abbreviations and unknown symbols. Carelessly prepared notes may be taken as an indication of slovenly mental habits, and hence of a careless study of the subjects, and suggestive of as careless a manner of teaching.
2. Notes for class teaching. The kind of preparation for these notes differs altogether from those employed for collective lessons. Now not only your subject is given, but the matter too, and that in a determinate form. Your business here is to bring out and vivify the text, and hence the notes are mostly those of explanation.
It is to be regretted that less attention has been paid to this matter than to almost any other in the practice of teaching, and yet no secular lesson is more effective, or tends more thoroughly to serve the purposes of clementary instruction than a well-analysed reading lesson. You are not to assume as too many teachers do,