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There is another matter which we wish to mention. The Inspectors or Examiners, who supervise the papers in London, will, we suppose, look carefully as to what a Candidate's papers exhibit of his discipline of mind : which is a thing you will perceive quite distinct from the amount of his information. They will have an eye, we suppose, upon the manner in which the Candidate marshalls bis thoughts ; how he disposes his facts and his arguments; in what way he employs his illustrations; whether his quotations are apt and accurate; and other such evidences of intellectual discipline which a man may want, and yet have his head crammed full of knowledge. We have not space to dwell further upon this point, but we are very strong in our belief as to its importance.
A portrait painter, we know, draws a slight sketch of the face he intends to pourtray before he endeavours to finish any part of it. If he were just to draw the nose, let us say, and finish that off completely before he did anything else, he would find himself miserably out of his reckoning without doubt, before he came to complete the face. If the picture is to be a group of figures, this preliminary sketching of the outlines is of still greater importance. Learn from this a very useful lesson respecting composition in general. Take a slip of paper, of which at your examination you will, of course, have a supply beside you, and before beginning to write your answer, dot down a sort of synopsis or table of contents of what you intend to say. In this synopsis, try to arrange your facts and arguments in the proper way: placing the important ones in a prominent position, and fixing an inferior place for the subordinate ones. This, as Whateley says in recommending the same plan, should serve as a track for you to follow, not as a groove within which you are to confine yourself. If, while writing your answer, you see good reason for enlarging in this point or that, of course you will feel yourself at liberty to do so, but your reason should be good, and not a mere desire to express some striking thought which sometimes occurs in the warmth of composition. If
you do not follow some such strict plan as this, you will have the satisfaction most likely, when you review your answer, of finding that you have said some things which you had better not have said; that some other things important to be noticed you have left untouched, and that if you must mention them you must put them now in the form of an appendix; that you have put this in the wrong place, and that, which should have been prominent, in a corner where it is all but buried; and in short that your picture is a bad one for want of proper arrangement and symmetry. This skeleton or synopsis should be as brief as possible, so as to give you at a glance an idea of your whole composition. Let us append to this a hint on the
danger of being too concise : not only show that you could say more, but if you have room, and it is really to some purpose, say it.
In such papers as those in Arithmetic, Algebra, &c. you will have, in the
process of working out the answer, several incidental calculations to go through; these, or the most important of these at all events, we would advise you to put in the margin of your paper, in order that if
result should be wrong the examiners may have an opportunity of ascertaining whether the error arises from ignorance of principle, or from some lapsus in the operations.
In the next place do not be over anxious to take the last questions in the sections. These in most papers are said to tell more; and a sort of magical attraction dwells in them for some candidates. Take the question of course which you feel you can answer best ; the glare of those last questions has so dazzled the eyes of some candidates, that they have mistaken their way, and fallen unexpectedly into the fourth class.
If the last question in the first section should be such a one as will take you a long time, and you have reason to think that some of the questions in the lower sections would tell better, it is often advisable to go down to them; and then, if you have time, return to the first section, and take that question in it, which, according to your time and ability, you can manage the best.
Whenever you have an opportunity it would be well to illustrate your text by maps and diagrams. In geography, of course, you will be required to draw maps; and you would be wise to practise yourself in doing this, by way of preparation.
Let your penmanship be plain. Consider the comfort of your examiners. To say the best of it, the examination of a great number of papers is a tiresome task; lighten it as much as you can by letting your writing be legible. Study also neatness in your papers, and such a division of your answers, broadly marked, as will assist the eye, and make the labour of examination less difficult.
The subjects upon which you should lay yourself but most determinedly are, in order of importance :
I. Religious knowledge.
There are, as you know well enough, other papers of great importance in which you should endeavour your utmost to do well ; but in these you must do well if you would gain a certificate,-at all events, a respectable one.
In concluding these few suggestions we must remind you that many candidates must calculate, after all, upon not succeeding. We wish to damp the enthusiastic expectations of no one; but it is as well, in any case, to be prepared for the worst. There are excellent teachers who could not gain certificates, and some who have high ones who rank low as practical men. Whatever may be the result the attempt to obtain a certificate is praiseworthy. You cannot but be improved by the examination, if you only get a deeper insight into your own imperfections; for the history of errors, you know, shortens the road to truth.
Ilates on Ehemistry.
CARBONIC ACID.---SYMBOL CO2.
ATOMIC WEIGHT, 22.
How PREPARED.—(1) Synthetically, by burning Charcoal in air or Oxygen. (2) Analytically, by removing the Carbonic Acid from substances that contain it, as Carbonate of Lime, in the shape of marble or chalk, The decomposition must be made by some acid, as Muriatic Acid, which has a stronger affinity for the lime than for the Carbonic Acid existing previously in the compound, but now set free. Thus :Before Decomposition C,O, CO, + HCl, i,e Carbonate of Lime
& Muriatic Acid. First Stage
C,O, HCI + Co, i,e Muriate of Lime &
CaCl + HO + C0, i,e Chloride of Calcium
Water & Carbonic Acid. PROPERTIES.—Colourless, invisible gas; sharp taste; water dissolves more than its volume ; the cause of the sparkling in the effervescing liquids. Exp. Half-fill a bottle of water with the gas and shake it. Exp. Infusion of Litmus poured into a jar of Carbonic Acid is slightly reddened ; restored to a flask and heated, recovers its colour. Compare Carbonic Acid Gas with Nitrogen. Carbonic Acid has a greater density than Air. Exp. Pour a jar-full upon a lighted taper. Lime Water mixed with Carbonic Acid becomes milky. Exp. Breathing into the water has the same effect; proving that we expire this gas. Decomposing power of plants upon Carbonic Acid Gas by means of their leaves. The leaves take in the Carbon for themselves, and give back the Oxygen to purify the air. This happens only in the light; at night, the reverse process takes place. The Vegetable world requires the Carbon, the Animal world the
Oxygen. Exp. 2. Place a green branch in a vessel of Carbonic Acid Gas over water in the sunshine. After some hours, a lighted paper will shew that the Oxygen part only is left.
CARBONIC OXIDE—CO. Atomic weight 14. Pass Carbonic Acid through a tube of red-hot iron. The tube withdraws one atom of Oxygen from one atom of Carbonic Acid (CO2), and thus converts it into Carbonic Oxide (CO). The usual mode of obtaining this gas for experiments is by heating Oxalic Acid in Sulphuric Acid, when large quantities of both Carbonic Acid and Carbonic Oxide are rapidly thrown off. To separate the former, the whole is caused, by an arrangement made for the purpose, to pass through a Solution of Potash, which abstracts the Carbonic Acid and disengages the Carbonic Oxide.
PROPERTIES.—Colourless, invisible, having little or no colour or taste. Deadly poisonous, forming a part of the destructive elements of the fumes of burning Charcoal. Combustible, forming Co, with the Oxygen of the Atmosphere. Mixed with an equal volume of Oxygen, detonates loudly, when fired.
Putes af Lessons.
MINERAL PRODUCTS : THEIR GREAT IMPORTANCE.
What a mineral is, and why found from the necessity of coal to smelt the in the west, and not in the east of iron, and then tu work the machinery England.
--and how the coal and iron districts The minerals constitute the great are now the centres of great population source of England's wealth-plenty of -as Newcastle, Leeds, Sheffield, Maniron to make machinery-and plenty chester and Birmingham. of coal to work it with. The chief are Copper is found chiefly in Cornwall ooal, iron, copper, lead, tin and salt; and Devon; Lead in the north of Engin the useful metals, England is richer land, Wales, and Derbyshire ; Tin in than any other country.
Cornwall and Devon; Salt in Cheshire Coal is found in immense quantities; and neighbourhood. show Northumberland and Durham Bring out clearly the vast importance ooalfields. These supply all the cast of the minerals to England—that they coast, and the south as far as Plymouth; afford subsistence to about two-thirds besides London, France, Holland and of the inhabitants, either in procuring, foreign parts. Show that of Yorkshire, manufacturing, carrying or selling Derbyshire, and Notts, supplying all them, or their results. Bring out that inland district. South Lancashire, moreover, more clearly these four dissupplying Manchester and district. tinct classes supported by the produce Warwick, supplying Birmingham and of our mines; that is miners, manufacdistrict. South Wales supplying also turers, carriers either by land or water, the south of England.
and the sellers, either merchants or reIron is found in most of the Coal tailers.
show the advantage of this
Scripture Illustratious Po. W.
and returning to Jerusalem found Him I. Purposes of Travelling. The in the Temple, Luke 11. 44. When Jews, like all scattered populations, merchandize was to be carried, asses had but few shops; hence the greater and camels were used. Joseph's part of the merchandize was supplied brethren carried their corn on asses, to them by travelling merchants, – Gen. XL. 26, 27. and the Ishmaelites respectablo hawkers, or pedlars. The their goods on camels, Gen. XXXVII. 25., Jews were required, Deut. xvi. 16, to chariots were occasionally used by go up to Jerusalem thrice in the year: those of high rank, 11 Kings v. 9. this led the whole of the males to III. Resting Places.— Parties traveltravel much more than we do. As ling, mostly rested by the side of some there were no posts for conveyance, nor stream or well, Exo. 11. 15., and John regular water carriage, many persons IV. 6. There were at some places inns were employed as messengers and car · or caravanseras, not inns like ours, but riers of goods.
a large yard, with high walls, to the II. Modes of Transit. The common inside of which were attached rooms people on foot, -there being then, as and stables. These inns were open to row, no regular means of conveying any one, but nothing was to be had but passengers.
Others rode on asscs, a water; each one found his own much finer animal there, then here. mattress, food, and cooking utensils. Thus the Gibeonites travelled, Josh, When the rooms were full, the last 11. 4. Even persons of rank and pro- comers took shelter in the stables. It phets rode on them, Judg. XII. 14, and was in one of these stables that Christ i Kings XII. 23. Our Saviour himself was born, because the rooms in the inn did when He entered triumphantly into were full, Luke II. 7. The want of Jerusalem. Horses were forbidden to inns is not much felt in eastern countries the Jews, Deut. XVII. 16. and Solomon as the people are very hospitable, and sinned in buying these from Egypt. freely entertain strangers. Thus For the sake of security people travelled Abraham entertained three men, Gen. in companies; so the parents of Jesus XVII. 1-8. St. Paul exhorts to this were travelling when they missed Him, practice, Heb. XIII. 2.
Seripture Lesson for an Infant Gallerg.
“I press forward towards the mark for the prize of the high calling of God in Christ Jesus.'
EPISTLE TO THE PHILIPPIANS III. 14.
I Subject and illustration of the of Greece. In a country a great way passage.
from our own, the people used to have II Application.
certain games,-running was one of 1. Introduce the lesson by picturing these. out to the children the ancient games 1. The scene of the Race. These