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methods and preparation necessary to

3. Of what use are the “ Leaves of its efficiency.

Trees,” to the plant, soil and atmogNOTES OF LESSONS.

phere. 1. What advantages arise from the 4. Illustrate the following sentence : division of labour?

“ What life is, we know not; what 2. Name four trees of tropical climates life does we know well.” which belong to the monocotyledons ; ) [The answers to this series of questions are describe their mode of growth, with to be drawn up as Notes of Lessons, and

should exhibit not only a knowledge of the any particulars you know respecting

matter, but of the best method by which them.

it could be conveyed to children.]

EXAMINATION QUESTIONS FOR PUPIL TEACHERS.

(FEMALES.)

annum,

FIFTH YEAR.

words:

FOURTH YEAR.

3. Find the Interest of £189 6s. 60. 1. Analyse :~"Many of the endow- for 341 days, at 34 per cent per ments and talents we now possess, and of which we are too apt to be proud, will terminate entirely with the present

1. Analyse the following verse :state; but virtue will be our ornament

“When Tubal struck the corded shell, and dignity, in every future state to

His listening brethren stood around,

And wondering, on their faces fell which we may be removed.”

To worship the celestial sound." 2. Give the roots of the following 2. Give the roots of the following words :Infamous Reflect

Progress

Edify Benefactor Homicide Collapse Legislature.

Seclusion Creature. Dexterity 3. What names are given to differ- Analysis Synthesis Hypothesis. ent kinds of English verse ?

1. Find the Compound Interest for Give a brief account of the organi- £320 for three years, at £5 per cent. zation of the School in which you are

per annum. placed.

2. A person does of his work in 3

days; in how many days will he finish 1. Describe the mountain ranges of it. North America and the plains of South America.

Write a brief essay on the industrial 2. Name the countries into which occupation of girls; its methods and Asia is divided.

utility.

Describe the reign of Queen Anne. 1. Add together 1, 14, 15, 14.

2. How many of an inch are there in 9 of a yard.

1. Mention the battles which have taken place between the English and Scotch, and shew their results.

2. In what places have English kings held their courts, and when,

PAPERS FOR THE SCHOOLMASTER.

No. 23.

JANUARY 1, 1853.

The Dew Year.

We again have crossed the threshold of another year. In every department of this busy life, the thoughtful mind will review the varied incidents which lie mingled in the year that is past, and gather from the retrospect materials of hope for the year that has now begun. In the particular department of Education, we congratulate its friends that its progress is sound and sure, and as rapid as can well consist with healthiness and stability. It is true that no universal system, which by including all religious sections without offending any religious prejudices, has yet been discovered; but the progress of the present scheme, which some regard as but preliminary, has been most satisfactory. The measures proposed to Parliament by the two rival Manchester Associations are for a time at least unsuccessful; but the ready and hearty welcome which they met with, argues favourably for the future. Meanwhile the Annual Examinations just terminated at the various Training or Normal Institutions, exhibit the capabilities of the present system, be it preparatory or final

. We are informed upon credible authority, that no less than fourteen hundred candidates for Certificates of Merit, and Queen's Scholarships have presented themselves. When we bear in mind the careful training under Christian influences, and the anxious selection which distinguish this large class, we are approaching the time when the real adaptation of the existing system to the wants of the country will be put to the test.

The number of timid men who viewed education as another name for anarchy, and knowledge for idleness, who feared that a generation, who could understand what they read, would despise manual labour, forgetful that every Sculptor, Merchant, Colonel, and Şecretary of State, were as dependant upon the use of their fingers, as the farm labourer and domestic servant, are either unquestionably on the decrease, or ashamed to express their jealousies. The large Towns and Cities where manufacturers have been taught the value of intelligent heads, united to skilled hands, have all pronounced, by the employment of the existing system, in favour of a wide and solid Popular Education. The country districts where labourers vegetate and die, like the potatoes, form the chief obstructives to the spread of Education. They have too long accustomed themselves to attach no value to their servants, except as implements, and to consider it no part of their Christian duty to treat them as rational and intelligent beings. But the very fact that they are compelled to labour, constitutes the very argument with the reflective mind, that they should enjoy the elevating and countervailing blessings of a sound and judicious education. Deprived of this, what attributes remain to them but those animal ones which unite them to the mere beasts of burden? It is the high mission of the Elementary Teacher to arrest this degenerating tendency, which placing him in something of the same relation to the Minister of religion in which the Baptist stood to the Redeemer, makes applicable to his teaching the same description, as of "one crying in the wilderness, prepare ye the way of the Lord, make his path straight.” Let him unite in his work the religious with the moral, the industrial with the intellectual, that is, let him aim at moral training by religious motives, and let him exalt the intellec tual principle without incapacitating for healthy and physical endurance, and he may well look through the prejudices of man upward for success, assured that He who pours the light of heaven alike through the casement of the cottage and the chiselled windows of the palace, who paints His Bow of the covenant upon the glorious arch of the sky, and upon the humble dew-drop that trembles upon the leafless hedge-row, who bids emphatically that "to the poor the gospel should be preached,” will bless his endeavour and recognise

Yet, however, high be the mission of the Teacher, the honour is not indeed a worldly one, as the world is accustomed to award its honours. The moment he sacrifices his personal humility, he loses power as a teacher. True and solid information, however, has of itself no tendency to breed conceit. It is no less morally true than etymologically, that the empty head is the proper reservoir of vanity, and, if we mistake not, the history of our Normal Institutions, will testify that the most distinguished for real intellectual advancement are highest in the scale of personal humility. The next great essential element of success to a teacher is the most scrupulous truthfulness. And truthfulness of action is equally indispensable with truthfulness of words. Want of truthfulness, however anomalous the assertion, springs from want of courage, and at the same time from want of humility. “Weaklings,” says the German Richter, “must lie, hate it as much as they may,” and Anton tells us that lying is derived from to lie, for a liar lies prostrate, both in body and mind. Cowardice is one parent of untruthfulness, and the other is Pride. The man who palms what is not his own upon the world, and the woman who dresses above her station, attempt a deceit upon society, and act the character of a liar. But what of him who, in the garb of a Teacher, shall be the living expositor of God's truths in revelation and nature, and who all the while is to the children, so proverbially sharp-sighted in moral things, a very type and illustratration in his dress, manner, or deeds, of habitual untruthfulness !

Such is the mission, and such the perils of the Schoolmaster. At this opening year we insist upon the deep consideration of his position on which more will be said in another article), and his prospects. We earnestly exhort the large body who have assembled at the December examinations to be men of faith and men of prayer. Let them show themselves men of faithnot simply the faith in revelation but faith in the efficacy of the great mission in which they are engaged. So that as the warrior feels faith and confidence in his battle-axe and his bow; and as the mariner trusts in faith to his rudder and his compass, so they also may have faith in the great engine which God has placed in their hands. And they must be men of prayer. They must not only seek the Divine blessing upon their every day labour, but they must learn to carry trustfully all thoi

care and troubles to Him whose ears, while man may be unable or unwilling to help them, will ever be open to their wants. Then with the word of God in their hands and the love of Christ and his children in their hearts,-making His spirit the guide,--His word the rule,-and His glory the end and aim of all they dom and we venture to assert, fearless of contradiction, that there cannot possibly be conceived an Institution of greater value to the country than our Normal Colleges, and a section of any community more full of promise, than the present race of England's Elementary Schoolmasters.

Position of the Tracher.

The question of a Teacher's Position is one as weighty and interesting to the friends of education as to the Teacher himself. It is one moreover which occupies considerable

attention, just now, especially on the part of the former. Mainly through their exertions, great efforts have been made, and no inconsiderable amount of expenditure incurred to secure teachers of a higher grade than heretofore. The Normal Schools or Colleges have increased the facilities for higher intellectual training than could have been hoped for a few years since ; while they have not been remiss in seeking to raise the character of the students in a higher pointof view. It becomes a matter of rather serious enquiry how far these advantages have been turned to account. The Christmas Examinations abundantly testify to intellectual progress, but the friends of education wait to witness still riper fruit. They desire that all who have been thus carefully prepared, should show an amount of earnestness of character, purity of morals, and devotedness to their work, in advance of their predecessors. They feel strongly that any education which shall permanently benefit this country, must not only be intellectual but moral and religious, and entrusted for this end, to the hands of teachers who go forth to their work in the spirit of self-denial, and are sustained by a deep inward sense of duty. That many suck teachers have begun well, and are now doing good service to the cause of education, we are far from doubting, but we are equally persuaded that there are others, who are not marked with this stamp.

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