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It is mainly in respect to these, that we would devote a paragraph or two in our “Papers.” In the discharge of any sacred mission lt is melancholy to contemplate no higher aim than-a maximum of pay with a minimum of work. We object not to the wish for a competency-for a fair remuneration in return for services rendered. What we object to is, the motive that rises no higher than “pence and ease'. No doubt the improbability of gaining much of either by teaching is in the end discovered. Till, however, this discovery is made, the interests of education are much damaged by the perplexities and discouragements which thus are given to school patrons, and by the inefficient manner in which duties are performed. By such means many a school Committee has been made all but bankrupt, and many a good school all but ruined, to say nothing of the discredit which is brought on the whole class of elementary Teachers.
We write with the desire of lessening so grievous an evil, and though teachers may disrelish our plain and unsavory remarks, we are notwithstanding, discharging, as we imagine, the duty of the truest friendship. Few persons know their difficulties so well as we do, and still fewer are prepared to sympathize with them to the extent that we are. But just in proportion to such knowledge and sympathy, is our strong feeling against all those who become teachers from improper and unworthy motives and whose only consideration being financial, are thoroughly indifferent to the advancement of real education, or the improvement of the position of the Educator. We at once assure them, that school-keeping in their hands will disappoint their own views, and also defraud the intentions, and damp the energies of all promoters of real education. The world is wide, and if money is their object, it is to be obtained; though we very much doubt whether money and ease will often be found together. The men and women which education demands, are those who, under the influence of Christian principle, will devote themselves to a work requiring emphatically self-denial and untiring labour. The present race of teachers must be, to a great extent, in the same position as those who labour in the mission-field. The ground must be cultivated, before the fruit is to be expecteď. The teacher like the missionary has to make his position, and it is the want of a clear conception of this simple fact, that has done more than any other thing to keep that position so low. Forgetting this, it has been the misfortune of some who have secured schools with liberal stipends, to lower, instead of raise, the character of their class, by foolishly imagining their fine clothes and ornamental trinkets were sufficient to put them on the worldly footing of gentle
But outside coverings for pride and conceit, with infallibly lower the position of teachers; and by creating the natural antipathy to insincerity, alienate from them their best friends.
May we then very earnestly and very strongly, charge the new and promising race of teachers to cultivate a modest bearing, mild and courteous address, neat but not obtrusive clothing, and in a word, those habits of behavionr and good manners, which characterize true respectability. As one of their friends, we would impress on them the futility of trusting only to an influence from without, or to any increase in the amount of their stipends, as an instrument for raising their position. The only influence that can permanently benefit them, must be an in-growth, arising from a just perception on the part of teachers generally of their actual position as it now exists, and a determination to show by propriety of conduct, and general usefulness, their fitness to sustain a higher place in public estimation. We are persuaded that whenever the great body of elementary teachers shall do so, the educational authorities and the public, at any rate the reasonable portion of it, will be at once prepared fully to accord to them, as a class, all the respect to which, as Educators, they will be fairly entitled.
Bates of a Lerture ou Teaching to Read. Pu HF.
Having disposed of that part of the subject which related to the Lower and Middle Sections, we take up now Reading in the Upper Section. The objects to be kept in view in connexion with the reading of this section are-superior correctness, style, and intelligence.
Correctness is to be secured by a slow and clear enunciation, in which the vowel sounds and final consonants shall be bought out with such distinctness, as to form a good pronunciation. When unaccustomed and difficult words are met with, give slowly the pronunciation yourself, and let it be very slowly copied by the class.
Style or Expressiveness superadds to correctness, adaptation of the tone of the voice to the character of the subject, so as to convey sentiments and feeling, and can only be done, when there is an ocular command over words and sentences. You may aid expressive reading by a simultaneous repetition in an under tone, (this is the only good purpose to which simultaneous reading can be
applied) yourself giving the model of a few selected sentences; bring out fully the emphatic words, and by a few apposite questions making it understood why certain words should be emphatic rather than others.
Intelligence is to be obtained by a rigid and large analysis of the lesson. The first step in giving a reading lesson, will be to hear it read, each child taking a period. As in the middle section, you are not to read by rotation, but irregularly, that is, the period to be read only by the one on whom you call, Cultivate an efficient mutual correction, down to the minutest particular.
Having carefully read the lesson, with a question now and then to make any difficulty intelligible, you will next take up the spelling. Let the words in the first period be spelt, omitting none because they are small; when words occur which have others of the same sound, but differently spelt, spell them also, that the differences may be made more apparent. Thus the verb were occurs; after having disposed of it, ask for where, an adverb of place, and so in like cases; in this way gather round the spelling in every lesson those difficulties of orthography which fairly fall in your way.
The period being read and spelt, take up its analysis. This portion of your work will call for your very best efforts, and be in itself a fair index of your capabilities and power as a teacher. Of course you will never attempt the analysis of a lesson without previous preparation, and this will not ouly include a thorough mastery of the text, but also a skilful arrangement of the methods and illustrations, by which you propose to render the whole intelligible to your class.
What you have to accomplish in the analysis, is to “vivify the very words of the text, eliciting in the most familiar terms the ideas not already familiar to the children. You are to open up and illustrate the meaning of each word in a passage, and then show the mutual relation of the words, and the connection of the passage with the subject generally of the whole lesson," You are required to regard with much attention the preceding remarks, as a knowledge of the meaning of the individual words which compose a sentence, however precise and accurate, does not necessarily imply an intelligence of the sentence as a whole, much less of its connexion with the subject of the lesson. Avoid telling anything which may be gathered out of the class, and let the information so gained, be questioned on, till you are certain it has become the property of all.
Each period is to be clearly and completely worked out, not a question on the text, another on the sense, followed by one on grammar and etymology; but keeping each in its proper place, perfectly distinct and proportionate. Be careful not to allow thé ing that
power of association, or any favourite or familiar topic to lead you away
from your subject matter, to do so is to give the understandvery
habit of yielding to every casual and fantastic suggestion, which it is the main object of all mental discipline to correct.
This caution is not intended to prevent your calling up and binding together by fresh associations, such 'facts and ideas as have a natural relation to the subject of your lesson. Your knowledge of the course through which the class has already passed, will be your guide as to the manner and extent to'which you should carry out this point. So long as the associations add distinctness to the ideas of the text, so long they will be pertinent; when they fail to do so, they not only darken and confuse, but tend to form that habit of mental vagrancy, against which you are directed to guard. In an analysis, it will rarely be necessary to introduce new matter; the text clearly brought out and illustrated with its natural associations, will quite occupy all the appointed time.
When you think the analysis complete, test your success by ascertaining the children's intelligence of the more complicated sentences, requiring a paraphrase from several, the best being the most truthful as to the sense, and the most correct as to language. Your success will be complete only when every child in the class can thus express in correct phraseology the idea contained in any proposed sentence, and show that a clear and complete conception of the entire subject has been gained.
In taking up the snbject of grammar in connexion with the analysis, it will be sufficient that one entire sentence with its adjuncts be gone through. Dwell distinctly on the logical analysis, bringing out the main parts of the sentence, and clearly connect with the subject, predicate and object, as the case may be, the various abjunctive words and phrases, rather than occupy much ime in mere technical parsing:
Whilst pursuing your analysis for the purpose of vivifying the text, remember that the meaning of a root is of no value unless it helps the meaning of the derivative itself; hence you will take up no etymology at this time, unless it really helps you in your purpose of rendering the text intelligible; neither should you now call for kindred derivatives. After the grammar, you may take up two or three common derivatives for a complete etymological analysis, getting not only at their roots, but their prefixes and affixes, with examples in each case.
The steps then in your reading lesson will be, the reading of the whole as many times as may be thought necessary; next the whole of the first period will be spelt; after which comes a complete analysis of the period; the grammar of a sentence or two, and
the etymology of a few words. When the first period is thus completed, you may dispense with the grammar and etymology, reducing the work to be done in this remaining part of the lesson, to the spelling and analysis of the several periods seriatim.
Lotes of Lessons.
COMMERCE-PORTS AND TRADE OF EACH.
What commerce is, and how, and why carried on-the difference between London, where ? Capital and largest imports and exports-under what cir- port—about 30,000 ships come in annucumstances articles are imported and ally-trade to all parts. exported-make clear that we import Liverpool, where :
Second portonly what England does not produce, about 15,000 enter annually—trade to or produces not enough of—and exports America, West Indies, and Ireland, what we have or make above our wants. why these places ? Imports-(Use Map of World here). Bristol, where?
Trade mostly to - Raw cotton mostly from United West Indies, Portugal, Ireland, and States, why, and why raw ! Sugar Mediterranean. from W. and E. Indies, and Mauritius Hull, where? Trade to Baltie-Tea from China, why! Coffee from Whale fishery. West Indies and Arabia-Flax from Newcastle; where Mostly coal trade Russia and Holland, why from these - Baltic. particular countries Raw silk from Plymouth, where ? Naval station China, East Indies, and France-Corn -coasting- ---some foreign trade, and from Baltic, why :-Wool from Ger- pilchard fishery. many and Australia, why -why im- Sunderland, where coal trade-ship port at all when we have plenty of building sheep ?-Wine from Portugal, Spain, Whitehaven, where ? Coal trade to and France, why from these countries : east coast, and Ireland.
- Timber from Canada, Norway, and Yarmouth, where? Trade to Baltic Russia.
-herring fishery. Exports.- Cotton goods to United Southampton, where ? Chief packet States and India, how is this, bring station to Mediterranean, West Indies, cotton from thence, and then send it and Channel Islands. back! -Woollens to north of Europe- Gloucester, where? Inland trade and Iron and Steel to United States and a little foreign. Holland - Hardware, cutlery, brass, England employs about 200,000 seacopper, linen, apparel, silk goods' men, and beside ships trading to forcarthenware, and machinery, to mos; eign parts, many thousands of small parts of the world. Coal to France' vessels are employed in the trade round Holland and foreign parts.
the coast of England.