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Srripture Illustrations Jo. V¥.

EMPLOYMENT OF THE PEOPLE.

The Jews were nearly all employed was followed by a feast. The corn on the land, and were in no way a was carried home, and threshed out by manufacturing people; hence when the treading of horses or oxen Deut. Solomon wanted workmen he sent to xxv. 4, or sometimes with a flail or Phenicia for them. The ordinary oc- staff. Threshing floors were so situated cupations of the people were as shep- as to catch the wind, that when the herds, farmers, and fruit-growers, corn was thrown up, the chaff might be

I. Pasturing.—The patriarchs Abra- blown away. Psa. 1. 4. At other time ham, Isaac, and Jacob possessed large the chaft was blown off by a fan flocks; Abraham and Lot had so much Matt. III. 11. 12. cattle that they were obliged to separate

III. Fruit Growers.-Palestine was to find pastures. Abraham employed famous for its grapes, hence vine-dressers 318 servants. Jacob had large flocks are frequently spoken of. The vinewhich were kept by his own sons. yards were mostly on the terraced sides Moses kept the flocks of his father-in-1 of the hills. At the vintage, the law in the desert of Sinai. The life of grapes were thrown into a vat, and the a shepherd was of toil and danger. juice trodden out by men's feet, Neh. Jacob tells of his toils Gen. xxxi 31-40, xiii. 15. The juice was put into skin and David of the danger I Sam. xvii. bottles—thus Christ says "men put new 34.35. In the East the sheep are not wine into new bottles.” Next to the driven, but follow the shepherd, whose grape was the cultivation of the olive voice they know; to this our Saviour on account of its valuable oil, which alludes Jno. X. 4, 5.

was used in large quantities for eating, II. Farming.-The grain principally burning and anointing. In the time of grown was wheat, barley and rye. The Solomon large quantities were exported. ground was turned up by a plough, The mountain, east of Jerusalem, was smaller than that used in England, named from the Olive-yards on it. The drawn by one or more yoke of oxen, figs of Palestine were famous, as were I. Kings xix. 19. The barley harvest also its pomegranates, dates, melons, followed the sowing in about three and cucumbers; the melons from the months, at the time of the Passover, neighbourhood of Jaffa are still famous and the wheat harvest about five weeks in the Levant. after, a the Pentecost. The harvest

Ethnographic Geography,

OUTLINE NOTES.

Remark.- There are three chief branches of the Human Race; viz:

I. Caucasian. II. Mongolian. III, Ethiopian.

I. Caucasian. Characteristics; head, round-face, oval—hair,curled-beard, full-capacity of head, from 79 to 109 cubic inches. This race is divided into :

(a). The Indo European inhabiting : { head elevated-cheek bones, largeHindostan; Persia; part of Asia Minor; colour in North America-copper; in all Europe, excepting Hungary, Fin- South America, orange red. This race land, Lapland and part of Turkey. inhabits Patagonia; Persia; Terra del

(6). The Syro-Arabian : inhabiting Fuego, and centre of South America. Arabia; Syria; Egypt; and Africa, II. Ethiopian Characteristics; head, North of the Desert.

narrow and long-forehead, low-cheek II. Mongolian. Characteristics; head, bones, high-teeth of both jaws, prosquare-face, broad and flat-hair, thin jecting-lips, thick-hair, black and and lank-cheek bones, projecting, woolly-colour, black-beard, scant. eyes small, and set obliquely near the This race inhabits Africa, South of the cheek bones · colour olive-capacity of Desert; West Indies, and part of head, from 69 to 93 cubic inches. This America; having been transported to race inhabits Asia, north of Himmalaya these districts as slaves. Closely allied Mountains; China; Mongolia; Tartary; to this race is Ivan; Japan ; Lapland ; Finland ; (a). The Papuan; inhabiting New Hungary; part of Turkey; Labrador; Guinea, New Hebribes, and the hills of and North America, except these parts the countries inhabited by the Malay. inhabited by Caucasians. Closely allied Note. The human race is estimated to this race are

at 900,000,000; of whom there are :(a). The Malays; brain rather Mongolians 450,000,000 smaller; these inhabit the Indian Caucasians 350,000,000 Archipelago; Malacca; Cochin China, Ethiopians 100,000,000 and Madagascar.

P.S. G. (6.) The Americans; crown of the

RIVERS.

1. Source.

ground below. Thence seeking the II. Course.

lowest level, it winds its way, often by III. Mouth.

a circuitous path to the sea—the comI. Source. It is well known that mon receptacle of rivers. Lakes which rivers rise from mountains or elevated give rise to rivers, are likewise elevated ; lakes; the water necessary to feed thus, the lake which is the source of them comes from the clouds, where it the Volga is on the Valdai Hills. has been drawn by evaporation from II. Course. The course of a river is water and land. The rising vapour is generally divided into two parts, viz. : wafted by the wind to the mountain, its first and second courses. By the and precipitated upon it. The rain first course of a river is meant that which has thus fallen on the mountain, part of it which is nearest its source. either trickles down the outside, if the This part is generally most rapid in the crust is rocky, and collects in caverns, river's course, from the great descent or it sinks into the mountain, and the waters have in pouring down the there collects in the basin of the rock mountain's side; and it is in this course inside, 'till the amount of water causes that the waterfalls are most commonly the mountain's side to open, and thence found; as in the Rhine. The secund issues the water which runs into the course has a more gentle slope; hence the rapidity of the water is not so great, its length, and the quantity of water it as in the first course, although the discharges

. Some rivers have several feeders which it receives impel the mouths, as the Nile, Volga, Danube, water of the river. This course is Po, and others. This is caused by the generally known by its numerous wind- collection of sand and stones in the bed ings, which assist greatly the erection of the river, which are washed down to of manufactories and wharfs on its its mouth, where the waters of the sea banks. These windings tend to stop and river meet and cause them to be the rapidity of the river, by the waters deposited; a rapid river will wash the having so many turns in their banks to sand into the sea, and so have but flow against. Some rivers are, how- one mouth. The mouth of a river is ever, comparatively straight in their the outlet of goods brought down the second course, as the Rhone, in France, river, and the inlet of goods to be sent whose waters are consequently, very up the river into the country. The rapid. The course of a river is in the river is the national highway. Rivers opposite direction to the mountain have been beautifuliy described by ranges from which they rise, as is seen Solomon in Ecclesiastes. “All rivers in the river systems of England, run into the sea, yet the sea is not America, &c.

full; unto the place whence the rivers III. Mouth.—The mouth of a river come, thither they return again." is that part of it which enters the sea, and which varies in length according to

P. S. G.

WHAT IS NOT EDUCATION?

“If one that had the treatment of and secondly, because the portions he the human body from infancy in his neglected could not simply remain hands were to bestow unwearied atten- where they were, but gradually dwindle tion to the strengthening and develop away, rendering the disproportion more ment of a single limb, to the neglect of monstrous still, and leaving the cultiother parts of the structure, which were vated portion in an excess which would allowed to dwindle and weaken by prevent its applicability to its true neglect, he would produce a monster. object. This is true of all composite If a politician who happened to possess things, and there are few things more the power to grasp and command the composite than the human being. He, energies of a whole people were to therefore, who simply educates the culture and developethem in one intellect will produce a monster; but direction only,-as, for instance, the this is what men do in every direction, formation of a military character, to and especially in our own age. The the entire and utter negleet of tho intellect is being developed as if it were economical, the social, or commer- the whole of the interior man. In cial,-he would produce an imbecile doing this, men forget three great and monstrous policy. Why ; because, things: first, they are utterly obviating first of all, he would obviate the inten- | the original intention of God, who tion of nature by an excessive and intended the human being to come out partial developement, which would be in the developement of a perfect whole; hjohly out of proportiou with the rest ; secondly, the intellect itself becomes

distorted and weakened in its applica- sound one which did not result in this tion by a disproportioned cultivation, character. Again, we turn our eye to for it was not created to stand alone, the training college; and passing on it is as much part of, and dependent on, from some such institution to the sphere the other portions of the man as the in which its pupils labour, is not the wall depends on the buttress and the scene that we constantly see not unjustroof, before it is fitted for its permanent ly described in the following words? end; and thirdly, the whole being is # clergyman in some remote agriculmaterially injured, so as to produce tural district has got floating before his rather a mass of ruins lying in heaps mind the ideal of some hundred or two around an attenuated column in the children of his poor formed on the centre, than a fair and proportionate mould of modesty, affection, respectfultemple, which is to be the residence ness; and contentment, which are so of God in time and eternity. There essentially features of the Christian are too many illustrations of the truth character. With his own hands full, of this all around us; and whether he sends for a schoolmaster from a in the education of the rich or the poor, training institution; he is pained, the university, the public school, or perhaps, at the first interview with an the training-college, we are continually appearance of conceit and independence called upon to witness the result of a in his future assistant which creates one-sided education, in the great want alarm. In a short time a strong conof elevated tone in those that come viction seizes his mind that while the from them.

children are being taught the higher Our public school-boys, in two many flights of grammar, geography, and cases, affect that position of superiority arithmetic, while the clever are made and indifference to those around them precocious and the forward tyrannical, which the whole experience of the there is a lack of anything like moral longest life does not enable the man tone or social regard; and those amongst to realise as his true position. Courtesy them who show a tendency for modesty to the passing stranger, deferential or reserve cower neglected in a corner, respect to the aged or holy, gentle their affections unappreciated, and their forbearance to the faults of others, hidden feelings disregarded. These high-minded generosity, reserve and phases of character are attributable to almost unconscious self-denial, and the the strong tendency around us bold recognition of the homage due educate the intellectual, to the neglect to God, are the essential virtues of a of the social, moral, and religious porperfect man, and describe all but the tions of the human being; to the contradictory of the common type of developement of the rational part at the public school-boy amongst us; and the expense of the imaginative, the yet no one in his senses could imagine pathetic, and the sensitive. The that any system of education was a | Christian Student.

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EXTRACT.

For å hundred men whose appetite | tions, of cultivating many pursuits, of for work can be driven on by vanity, bringing himself, and those around avarice, ambition, or one, who is him, in contact with the universe, on desirous of expanding his own nature, many points,—of being a man, and and the nature of others, in all direc- not a machine. Friends in Council.

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