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CORRESPONDENCE. SIR,„If the following method of giving a Dictation Lesson, is worth putting in your Periodical, you are quite at liberty to use it; I would add that I have found it very successful, and that it curtails the time generally used for the correction of mistakes; I would advise that the children be allowed to take home the book containing the next Dictation Lesson before that Lesson is given.

First a passage is given out as distinctly as possible (and the shorter it is the better) to the whole class, to write it on their slates; then follows another and another until sufficient is given out; when the whole class change their slates with each other i.e. No. 1 takes No. 2, and No. 2 takes No. 1. &c. Then the whole that has been given out is spelt word for word round the class exactly as it is on the slate which they have in their hands; if a word is spelt wrong the Master or Monitor tells the whole class that it is wrong, when the children put a mark thus - under that word; if a word is left out a mark thus | will come between the words where that word should come in; if a capital where there should not be one, a line is drawn through it; if there is no capital where there should be one, a mark thus under it = Thus the children are made to correct their fellow scholar's mistakes, and ultimately their own.

As soon as the whole lesson has been spelt through, they show slates; and at one glance the Master or Monitor can see the mistakes without taking each slate and finding out the errors which it contains. If I am not sufficiently understood by your correspondent I shall be glad to answer any questions through your valuable Periodical. Maenturog School, Merionthshire.

W. P. WARNER.

SIR, -Seeing that your Periodical (which I have taken in from its commencement) is made a channel for correspondence, may I be permitted to send the following report for insertion, which I have no doubt will be serviceable to many “Pupil Teachers” in the first period of their apprenticeship, or to Masters with Pupil Teachers under their tuition, as it comes from one who has already passed that period.

SPECIMEN OF SCHOOL REPORT. The school consists of a large room 50 ft. by 21 ft. adjoining, to which is a smaller one, called the Class Room, about 12 ft. square, in which there is a gallery. It has a very healthy situation, is pretty well ventilated, and surrounded by a Play Ground, in which are two poles, one for swinging, the other for Gymnastic Exercises. The boys at nine in the morning and two in the afternoon are assembled in lines in the Play Ground, unless prevented by the weather; and being orderly arranged, walk quietly in to the school, after which are prayers, singing, &c. The average attendance of the boys is about 140 (the total No, on the books being 170) and they are divided into six classes. The first four do their work in parallel desks and are separated by curtains. The school is conducted by a trained and certificated Master, assisted by four Pupil Teachers. The first class consists of 32 boys, and is generally taken by the Master, who at times takes the others. The second and third classes each contain 32; the fourth 30; and the fifth and sixth about 44, which are generally taken together by one of the Pupil Teachers. Seripture, Grammar and Geography, are taught to the first four classes ;-English History to the first and second ;-Arithmetic, Reading and Writing to all. To these particulars might be added many others respecting school management, books, apparatus, &c., if you should consider them worthy of insertion.

T. H., A PUPIL TEACHER.

SIR,“I was very much pleased and edified in reading the second article on Education ; its province and instruments,” in the last number of your truly valuable Papers for the Schoolmaster; inasmuch as my own mind has lately been awakened to a livelier consideration of the subject from the perusal of the following passage in Archbishop Whateley's little book on English Synonyms. “Education includes the whole course of moral and intellectual teaching. One who gives occasional lessons is not said to educate. To educate agreeabiy to its derivation from educo not in duco, includes the drawing out of the faculties, so as to teach the pupil, how to teach himself; which is one of the most valuable of arts. Moral training, considered by itself, is called teaching ; its object is to enable us-not to know-but to do what is right, we see an example of this in Bishop Kenn's well

known evening hymn, Teach me to live, that I may dread," &c. I transcribe the passage, in the hope, that, should you deem it of sufficient importance, to appear in the next number of your paper, it may awaken a wish in the breasts of some of my fellow teachers to become indeed, Éducators of the children committed to their

care.

Gloucester.

F. T.

SIR, ---Being a subscriber to your excellent Papers, might I take the Uberty to request through them a brief explanation of the different methods of teaching designated respectively by the terms—individual, class, simultaneous, and collective teaching. Old Cleeve, Taunton.

A. C. KEEN.

SIR, -Would you, or one of your correspondents, favour me with the title of the work on Mental Science, most suitable for a schoolmaster's study.

E.

SIR,-Would one of your correspondents furnish me with some suggestions on the best mode of organization for a school of 80 children, very young, exceedingly irregular in attendance, with only one Pupil Teacher, and not one other capable of acting as MonitorI should be glad to be informed also which is the best historical and explanatory treatise on the Common Prayer Book. Kingsbridge, N. S.

W. MILLER.

SIR, --Permit me to lay before you the following method of teaching Grammar which I have for some time past successfully pursued in my school, and which, should you think it likely

to prove beneficial to my fellow labourers, I will thank you to insert, in your valuable Papers for the Schoolmaster."

Having prepared two boards A. and B. the one blank, the other divided into sections numbered, &c., as under :

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I proceed to take some subject for consideration e. g. a portion of History, or an Object, and proceed to give a lesson upon it.

Perhaps I shall render my method of proceeding more clear by illustrating it with an example-take for instance a shilling.

Teacher. Now, children, I have a piece of money, can you tell me what it is made of ?" Child : “ Silver." 1 eacher: “Now I will write the word silver on the board A. and you tell me to which of the classes in the board B. it belongs ?" Child: “1." Teacher: “Why?" Child: because it is the name of a thing and the names of all things are nouns." Teacher : Now children you have told me that silver is dug out of the earth and is therefore a-mineral. (Teacher to write it on board A. and remove it when told by. children to B.) Teacher : Now children you must tell me some of its qualities. Child: “White, hard,” &c. These words to be written on board

A. and removed to B. as before.) Teacher : Now children from what particular place do we obtain it? Child: A very little from the mines in Cornwall, from Austria, but the greater quantity from America. As soon as these answers are drawn out, take the words “obtain,” "'from," " very,” and “but,” and place them as before under their respective heads.

This being done write the subject Silver at the head of board A. and cause your pupils to dictate the lesson to you from board B. whilst you write it on A. and then proceed to

The following are the advantages which I expect the pupil to derive from the adoption of this system ; first, a knowledge of the subject referred to ; secondly, a practical knowledge of Grammar ; and thirdly, assistance

in that all important work--composition, by causing them to give in a connected form the

detached portions which had before been drawn from them.

Rowley Regis, N. S.

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GENERAL EXAMINATION OF TRAINING SCHOOLS,

CHRISTMAS, 1851.
ARITHMETIC.

supposing them to work by the piece, Sect. I.—Work one of the following and to divide their earnings equally? sums so that the reason of each step in 3. A manufacturer having a capital the working may be apparent: of £5000, on which he can realize by 1. Multiply 4507 by 3006.

hand labour 10 per cent profit, buys a 2. If 9 things cost £13, what will 48 machine for £1000, by which his profit cost at the same rate.?

on the remainder of his capital is raised N.B. This sum is to be so worked as to 20 per cent. This machine lasts 5 to be intelligible to children who have years. How much is he by that time no knowledge of fractions.

the gainer, supposing him to draw 3. What is the value of of off of £300 a year for the support of his 6, and what decimalfis 38. 6d. of 8s. 93. : family?

Sect. II.-1. How many pieces of SECT. V.-Prove one of the following cloth, 9 yd. 2 qr. 3 nl. long, can be cut rules of mental arithmetic in such a out of a piece 52 yd. 1 qr. 1 nl. in way as to make it intelligible to a class length ?

of children : 2. Find by the rule of practice the 1. To find the value of 144 things value of 227 qr. 3 bu. 2 pk. of wheat at in shillings. Multiply the price in

farthings by 3. 3. How many ounces of silver, at 2 To find the interest of any sum of 5s

. 6d. an ounce, are equivalent to 6 oz. money for any number of months at 12 dwt. of gold at £3 17s. 10d. an any rate per cent. Count one penny ounce?

for each £10 in the principal; then SECT. III.-1. The sun's diameter multiply by the number of months and is 111.454 times the equatorial diameter by donble the rate per cent. of the earth, which is 7925.648 miles. 3. To find the interest at 5 per cent Required the sun's diameter in miles. for any number of days. Multiply the

2. Extract the square root of 7 to principal by the number of days; cut five places of decimals.

off the right-hand figure of the product, 3. Extract the cube root of 617 to and consider the other figure as pence, four places of decimals.

deducting 1d. for each 6s. in the result. SECT. IV.-1. A shopkeeper who

BOOK-KEEPING. sells sugar which cost him £2000 in a What are the books commonly used year at a profit of 10 per cent., and tea in the keeping of a tradesman's acwhich cost him £1000 at a profit of 20 counts, and for what purposes ? per cent., finds at the beginning of the Give examples of the entries in these next year that he must reduce the books severally. profit on his tea 5 per cent. By how HIGHER MATHEMATICS. much

per cent must he raise the price SECT. I.-1. Find the 7th term of of his sugar to cover the loss, supposing the series- *, - }, -, &c. him to sell tea and sugar of the same 2. What is that arithmetical series cost in that year?

having 29 terms, whose first term is 3, 2. There is a division of the labour and the last 17? of a certain manufacture between two 3. Given the first term, the last term, sets of men, neither of which can do and the sum in a geometrical progresthe other's work The one set consists sion; it is required to find an expression of 39 men, and the other of 5; and for the number of terms. when they work in this proportion, SECT. II.- 1. In how many different both sets are just fully employed. One ways can the letters a, b, c, d, e, f, g be man of the first set stays away for a written after one another? How many week: by what fraction are the earn- of these begin with f, g! ingu of each man thus diminished, 8. Å farmer proposes to lay out £88 10s. in purchasing two kinds of of the Roman troops. The establishsheep, the average price of one kind ment of the Heptarchy. The accession being 21s., and of the other 31s. per of Alfred. The Norman Conquest. head. In how many different ways The accession of Edward the VI., of can he make up his flock of these two Queen Anne, and of George the III. kinds of sheep so as just to lay out that 2. State what sovereign was reignmoney?

ing in England at the commencement 1 + x

of each century from the eleventh to 3. Expand

into a series to the nineteenth. (1 — 2) 3

SECT. II.-1. Give some account of ascending by powers of x, by the method Britain under the Romans. of indeterminate coefficients.

2. What were the dominions of SECT. III.-1. What will a capital Canute? Who divided the sovereignty of £a, invested at r per cent compound of England for a time with him? interest, amount to in n years, supposing Who was Edgar Atheling? Under £b to be taken from it annually? what circumstances did the claims of

2. A usurer lent 600 on good security, Harold and William of Normandy to on condition of being paid back £800 at the throne of England respectively the expiration of 3 years. What interest arise? In whom, and through what did he take per cent., allowing com- line of descent, were the Norman and pound interest !

Saxon races of kings united ? 3. Prove the binominal theorem in 3. What institutions of the ancient the case in which the index is a positive Germans, brought to England by the integer, and apply it to determine the Saxons, remain ? What was the middle term of the expansion of Whitenagemot of the Saxons ? State

some particulars in which it differed (a + b).

from our present Parliament. In whose SECT. IV.-1. Define the logarithm reign, for what reason, and by whose of a number, and show that the loga- influence, were Knights of the Shire rithm of the quotient of two numbers and Burgesses first sent to Parliais equal to the difference of their ment ? logarithms.

SECT. III.-1. Give some account 2. Shew that cos. (A - B) = cos. of the reign of Edward I. A cos. B + sin. A sin. B.

2. Give some account of Lord Straf3. Shew that if a, b, c be the sides of ford. What principal battles were a plain triangle, and Ś half their sum, fought in the reign of Charles I., and and if A be the angle opposite to a, then under what circumstances ? 2 (8—5)(S-C)

3. What wars was England engaged (tan. à A)

induring the reign of George III., and SS — a)

under what circumstances Give some SECT. V.-1. Explain fully what is account of the Peninsular Campaign. meant by the differential coefficient of SECT. IV.-1. Under what circuma function, and show how to differen- stances was Canada acquired by the tiate the quotient of two functions. English 2. Prove Taylor's theorem.

3. What is the history of the settle3. Investigate expressions for the ment and progress of the British coloarea of parabola, and for the solid con- nies in Australia ? tent of a spheroid.

3. Give some account of the lives of

Lord Clive and Warren Hastings.
HISTORY.

SECT. V.-Give some account of one Sect. I.-1. Give the dates of the of the following eminent persons of following events :--The invasion of antiquity: 1. Miltiades. 2. 'Hannibal. Britain by JuliusCæsar. The withdrawal' 3. Cicero.

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PAPERS FOR THE SCHOOLMASTER.

No. 15.

May 1, 1851.

Edaration; its serond Periad. The second period of school life includes the term between the ages of five and seven. The child at this period, whether found in the upper class of the Infant School—which, perhaps, is his proper place or in the lower class of the Juvenile School-where, as schools are now organised, he should never be—is an important object of regard. For the teacher of the one must seek to discover at what he should aim with some likelihood of its attainment; and the future success of the other depends on right culture bestowed at this period. Ignorant of the requirements of this stage of school life, the Infant teacher too often aims at results which the child cannot produce; while the Juvenile teacher as frequently neglects him altogether. By the one he is subject to misdirected energy; by the other he is regarded as an intolerable nuisance. To force him is the labour of the one; to neglect him is the practice of the other. Either process

is unwise. The intellectual character of the man depends on right treatment in these early periods. Undue development may still prove injurious to the brain ; while complete neglect may make the conceptions of the child so vague and indefinite as to modify or impede future intellectual advancement. We should steer a middle course. We should ascertain what faculties are now in course of development, and adopt suitable means of culture.

During infancy the senses are incessantly conveying impressions to the brain, and the young mind, gradually acquiring power from experience, begins to perceive the association between these and external objects. But soon an effort of a more purely mental character succeeds; an idea, recalled by some means, is recognised as not altogether unfamiliar; and we have the budding of the conceptive faculty. This exercise is purely mental. It is the recall and recognition of ideas previously formed in the mind by perception.

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