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In the early part of the century the most influential powers are the Empire Of Charlemagne, the Eastern Roman Empire, and the Caliphates of the Saracens.

Empire Op Charlemagne. The most striking movement of the century is the breaking up of the great Empire of Charlemagne, after the death of that monarch in 814. As the result of this dismember, ment, we find the empire, in the latter part of the century, divided into the separate kingdoms of the Western Franks and the EastErn Franks (from which afterwards arose the kingdoms of France and Germany), Italy, Burgundy, and a border-land of undetermined boundaries, between the Eastern and Western Franks, known as Lotharingia. These are the elements from which sprang most of the greater kingdoms of Western Europe.

Eastern Empire. The Eastern Empire suffers losses from encroachments of the Slaves in the north, and also loses to the Saracens Crete, Sardinia, and the greater part of Sicily.

Saracens. The power of the Saracens declines. They acquire Sardinia, Corsica, Crete, and the greater part of Sicily.

Germany. See above, under Empire Of Charlemagne.

Italy. See above, under Empire Of Charlemagne.

Franks. See above, under Empire Of Charlemagne.

England. The various petty kingdoms in Britain are united by Egbert early in the century, forming the kingdom of England. England is engaged in struggles with the Danes, who invade the country.

Scandinavian Nations. In this century we have the kingdoms of DenMark, Sweden, and Norway. The ravaging expeditions of the Norsemen form a marked characteristic of the century.

Russia begins to be of importance.

Scotland is formed by the union of the Picts and Scots.

Finnish Magyars (hungarians) begin to be of importance in the last part of the century.

A. D. 800 - A. D. gOO.


800. Empire of the West, under Charlemagne.

804. The Saxons in Germany overcome by Charlemagne.

827. Egbert unites the Saxon kingdoms. Beginning of the kingdom of England.

843. Treaty of Verdun. The Empire of Charlemagne divided. Empire of Germany established.

887. Final division of the empire into the Western Franks (Carolingia), Eastern Franks (Germany), Burgundy, Italy, and Lotharingia.


Caliphs. — Haroun-al-Raschid, Almamoun.

Empire Oi The West.

Sovereign. — Charlemagne.

Western Franks (france). Under the Carolingian dynasty.

Eastern Franks (germany). Under the Carolingian dynasty.


Sovereigns (Saxon Line). — Egbert, Alfred (the Great).

Alcuin, Joannes Scotus (Erigena), Hincmar.




THE century opens with the coronation of Charlemagne, on Christmas day, 800, as Emperor of the West; and he may be regarded as the chief regenerator of Western Europe after the dissolution of the Eoman Empire.

The possessions which had descended to him from his father were small compared with those which he had won by conquest, and at the date of his coronation he was ruler of a territory not inferior in extent to that of the old Eoman Empire, being master of all Germany and Gaul, the greater part of Italy, and a little of Spain. Under him the Frankish dominion reaches its highest point.

The day of the Nativity of our Lord, the king came into the basilica of the blessed St. Peter, apostle, to attend the celebration of Mass. At the moment when, in his place before the altar, he was bowing down to pray, Pope Leo placed on his head a crown, and all the Roman people shouted, "Long life and victory to Charles Augustus, crowned by God, the great and pacific Emperor of the Romans!" After this proclamation the pontiff prostrated himself before him and paid him adoration, according to the custom established in the

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