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Germany. The Emperor Frederick II. wears the three crowns of Germany, Italy, and Sicily, but is engaged in many contentions ; and after his death in 1250 the empire ceases to be the leading power of Europe. The third quarter of this century is a time of great confusion in Germany.
The kingdom of France increases in strength during this century at the expense of the German Empire and of the English possessions, and is rapidly becoming one of the leading powers of Europe.
England loses a large part of its possessions on the Continent. Wales is united to England.
The Eastern Empire, near the beginning of this century, falls into the hands of the Crusaders or Latin princes, but later, in 1261, the old Greek Empire is restored in a measure.
Spain. The Mahometan power in Spain is reduced in this century to the single kingdom of Granada, the rest of the peninsula being held by the Christian kingdoms of Portugal, Castile And Leon, Aragon, and Navarre.
The Moguls, or Tartars, break loose from their ancient seats in the obscure regions of Asia, and under Genghis Elan overrun the greater part of Europe and Asia. They establish a powerful dynasty within the dominions of Russia, which greatly checks the progress of that country. In 1258 they take Bagdad, when the Abbassidian Caliphate of Bagdad comes to an end. They also seize the kingdom of Roum, overthrowing the power of the Seljuk Turks.
In Italy the cities continue as independent republics, but with a tendency towards consolidation into larger states. In this century Florence becomes one of the chief commonwealths.
Roum is seized by the Moguls, and the power of the Seljuk Turks overthrown. See under Moguls.
Seljuk Turks. See under Roum.
Russia. See above, under Moguls.
Portugal. See above, under Spain.
Castile. See above, under Spain.
Leon. See above, under Spain.
Aragon. See above, under Spain.
Navarre. See above, under Spain.
Caliphate Op Bagdad. Ended by the capture of Bagdad by the Moguls in 1258. See above, under Moguls.
Jerusalem. The Christian kingdom of Jerusalem comes to an end in 1291, passing into the hands of the Mahometans.
A.D. 1800—A. D. 1300.
1204. The Crusaders take Constantinople. Establishment of the Inquisition by Innocent III. English loss of Anjou, Normandy, etc., which pass into the hands of Philip Augustus of France.
1209. Crusade against the Albigenses (Simon de Montfort).
1209. The order of Franciscans founded.
1215. Magna Charta signed by King John. The order of Dominicans founded.
1237. Origin of the kingdom of Granada.
1240. Origin of the Ottoman Turks.
1240 (about). Hanseatic League formed. 1256. The order of Augustines founded. 1258. Bagdad taken by the Moguls. End
of the Caliphate of Bagdad. 1261. The Greeks recover Constantinople. 1265. Beginning of English Parliament 1270. The last Crusade. 1282. The Sicilian Vespers. 1299. The Ottoman Turks Invade Asia
Crusades. There are various Crusades (differently enumerated) during the century, the last being in 1270.
PROMINENT NAMES OF THE CENTURY.
Kings. — Philip II. (Augustus), St Louis IX.
Kings. — Henry III., Edward I.
Mogul (tartar) Empire. Khan. — Temujin (Genghis Khan).
Pope Innocent III., Matthew Paris, Alexander Hales (Irrefragable Doctor), St Thomas Aquinas (Angelic Doctor), Roger Bacon, Cimabue, John Duns Scotus, Dante, Giotto.