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The chief importance of that able monarch's [Philip's] reign lies in his having called forth the mighty eloquence of his Athenian antagonist. It is not the armies of Macedonia nor the victory of Cheeronea that gives a real significance to the life of Philip; it is those Philippic and Olynthiac orations fulmined against him which have made the heart to throb in forty generations of men since born. — Felton.
The steps by which Athenian oratory approached to its finished excellence seem to have been almost contemporaneous with those by which the Athenian character and the Athenian Empire sunk to degradation. At the time when the little commonwealth achieved those victories which twenty-five eventful centuries have left unequalled, eloquence was in its infancy. . . . And it was when the moral, the political, the military character of the people was most utterly degraded; it was when the viceroy of a Macedonian sovereign gave law to Greece, that the courts of Athens witnessed the most splendid contest of eloquence that the world has ever known. — Macaulay.
Looking back on the history of Athens, three majestic figures stand before us: Solon, the founder of her Constitution; Pericles, who stands on the pinnacle of her renown; Demosthenes, the last and greatest, who, like the sinking sun, sheds his glory upon her fall; — the beginning, the middle, and the end of the greatest historical tragedy ever enacted on the theatre of the world. — Felton.
In 338 B. c. Philip overthrew the Athenians and Thebans in the battle of Chseronea, and Greece was now practically .a province of Macedonia.
Certainly it became a proverb, that not Philip, but his gold, took the cities of Greece. — Plutarch.
That dishonest victory
Had they remained contented with their lot, and had not the Athenians and Lacedaemonians fallen into dissension and strife for the supremacy in Grecian affairs, foreigners would never have been masters of Hellas. — Zosimus (fifth century).
The odds were all against Philip in his early years ; they shifted and became more and more in his favor, only because his game was played well, and that of his opponents badly. The superiority of force was at first so much on the side of Athens, that, if she had been willing to employ it, she might have made sure of keeping Philip at least within the limits of Macedonia. — Grote.
This was the most brilliant time of Greek oratory, which reached its perfection in the contest between JEsiuteiiect cn^nes' wno advocated the cause of Macedonia, uai state and Demosthenes, who opposed the designs of Philip. It was also a period of great mental activity in the region of scientific inquiry and speculative thought. Plato, whose birth fell in the preceding century, founded the Academic school, which took its name from the groves of Academus in the vicinity of Athens, where the philosopher was accustomed to lecture. Aristotle (called the Stagyrite, from his birthplace, Stagyra, in Macedonia) was the instructor of Alexander the Great, and founded, at the Lyceum in Athens, what is known as the Peripatetic school, from his habit of walking about while conversing with his disciples. Aristotle was the first to formulate the system of & priori, or deductive, reasoning, which held almost absolute sway in Europe till it was supplanted by the Baconian system of inductive reasoning.
The centre of the power and outward activity of Greece was to be found in Macedon, while Athens still remained the well-spring of its intellectual vigor. —Arnold.
The philosophical celebrity of Greece is altogether due to Athens. It is a popular error that Greece, in the aggregate, was a learned country. — Draper.
Socrates and Plato are the double star which the most powerful instruments will not entirely separate. — Emerson.
He alone [Plato] of all the Greeks reached to the vestibule of truth, and stood upon its threshold.- EUSEBIUS.
against Philip in his early years ; they shifted d more in his favor, only because his game was it of his opponents badly. The superiority of nuch on the side of Athens, that, if she had been , she might have made sure of keeping Philip at its of Macedonia. — GROTE.
See there the olive grove of Academe,
Thence to the famous orators repair,
most brilliant time of Greek oratory, 5 perfection in the contest between Æswho advocated the cause of Macedonia, mosthenes, who opposed the designs of
It was also a period of great mental region of scientific inquiry and speculaPlato, whose birth fell in the preceding d the Academic school, which took its
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edonia), at the Lycol, from hoges. Aris
It may be doubted whether any compositions which have ever been produced in the world are equally perfect in their kind with the great Athenian orations. ... The singular excellence to which eloquence attained at Athens is to be mainly attributed to the influence which it exerted there. In turbulent times, under a constitution purely democratic, among a people educated exactly to that point at which men are most susceptible of strong and sudden impressions, acute but not sound reasoners, warm in their feelings, unfixed in their principles, and passionate admirers of fine composition, oratory received such encouragement as it has never since obtained. ~ MACAULAY.
hile conversing with his disciples. Arist to formulate the system of à priori, or ing, which held almost absolute sway in s supplanted by the Baconian system of
to Peripatetic with his discreta priori, or
hile conversate the syste absolute swam of Et to Porich held alm Baconian sys
Nearer and dearer to the poet's heart,
power and outward activity of Greece was to be hile Athens still remained the well-spring of its ARNOLD. celebrity of Greece is altogether due to Athens. that Greece, in the aggregate, was a learned
One branch of intellectual energy there was, and one alone, which continued to flourish, comparatively little impaired, under the preponderance of the Macedonian sword, — the spirit of speculation and philosophy. - GROTE.
are the double star which the most powerful tirely separate. -- EMERSON,
THE CONQUESTS AND EMPIRE OF ALEXANDER
As when, the banded powers of Greece were tasked,
'Twas at the royal feast for Persia won
On his imperial throne.
Having thus made Greece subject to his power in 338 B. c., Philip planned to unite all the forces of that country in an aggressive war against the great power of Persia, but was murdered in 336 B. C.
This stone to Mars must grief to Athens bring,
I, Philip, who first raised the Emathian name
Philip's son and successor, Alexander the Great, one of the greatest commanders of any age, then invaded Persia with a small army of about thirty-five thousand. He defeated the Persians in the battle of Granicus (334 B. a), and in 333 B. c. won a great victory at Issus over an immense Persian army under Darius. He then reduced Tyre, Gaza, and Egypt (where he founded the seaport of Alexandria), and in 331 B. c. encountered Darius near Arbela, in Assyria, and obtained, with less than fifty thousand men, a complete victory over that monarch and the full force of the Persian Empire.
The fatal blow was struck at Arbela; all the rest was but the long death-agony. ,— Rawlinson.
The Persian Empire, which once menaced all the nations of the earth with subjection, was irreparably crushed when Alexander had won his crowning victory at Arbela. — Creasy.
At the age of twenty-five Alexander was thus master of the whole Persian dominion (including Egypt). He then pushed his explorations and partial conquests still farther eastward, even beyond the Indus. He planned new undertakings, which he did not live to carry out. He died at Babylon in 323 B. c. The impression made upon Asia and Africa by his conquests was lasting, and long survived the dismemberment of his empire, which followed his death.
During the period of Alexander's conquests, no other events of importance happened in any part of the civilized world, as if a career so brilliant had claimed the undivided attention of mankind. — Arnold.
High on a throne with trophies charged, I viewed
And as I was considering, behold, a he-goat came from the west on the face of the whole earth, and touched not the ground : and the goat had a notable horn between his eyes. And he came to the ram