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passed his decree of exile, says Athenaeus, he "filled cities and islands with grammarians, philosophers, geometers, musicians, painters, teachers, doctors, and many other professions." From Alexandria, it was said, are all teachers among Greeks and Barbarians. Every population and every faith was free to share its ample and cosmopolitan domain. Both Grecian and Egyptian gods had been honored with temples by its founder. Oriental mysticism and Western culture met in the equal hospitality of its schools. As the political power of Greece declined, her intellectual eminence continued undisputed here. — J. H. Allen.

Had the empire of Alexander continued to stand, Greek science and art would have found a state worthy and capable of containing them. Now, when the nation had fallen to pieces, a learned cosmopolitanism grew up in it luxuriantly, and was very soon attracted by the magnet of Alexandria, where scientific appliances and collections were inexhaustible, where kings composed tragedies, and ministers wrote commentaries on them, and where pensions and academies flourished. — Mommsen.

Aspiring, o'er the Western main her towers
The imperial city lifts, the central mart
Of nations, and beneath the calm clear sky,
At distance from the palmy marge, displays
Her clustering columns, whitening to the morn.

Damascus' fleece, Golconda's gems, are there.
Murmurs the haven with one ceaseless hum;
The hurrying camel's bell, the driver's song,
Along the sands resound. Tyre, art thou fallen?
A prouder city crowns the inland sea,
Raised by his hand who smote thee; as if thus
His mighty mind were swayed to recompense
The evil of his march through cities stormed,
And regions wet with blood! and still had flowed
The tide of commerce through the destined track,
Traced by his mind sagacious, who surveyed
The world he conquered with a sage's eye,

Meantime, more high

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SECOND CENTURY BEFORE CHRIST.

(200-100.)

The great movement of the century is the growth of the power and glory of the Eoman dominion.

Home completes the conquest of Cisalpine Gaul about 191 B. c.; conquers Macedonia and Greece, the former becoming a Eoman province in 168 B. c., and the latter in 146 B. c., under the name of Achaia. (See page 79.) Koine destroys Carthage in 146 B. C, and the Carthaginian territory becomes the Eoman province of Africa. (See Puiic Wars, page 75.) In the latter part of the century Eome begins the conquest of Transalpine Gaul, and also begins to interfere with the affairs of Asia, and forms of the dominions of Pergamus the province of Asia in 133. 129 B. c. Nearly all of Spain becomes, after 133 B. c., a Eoman province.

Cartiage becomes in 146 B. c. the Roman province of Africa. (See Punic Wars.)

Macedonia is overpowered by Rome and becomes a Roman province in 168 B. C.

Greece remains nominally independent for a short time after the subjection of Macedonia by Rome in 168 B. C, but in 146 B. c. is overcome by Rome, and becomes a Roman province under the name of Achaia. (See page 79.)

Egypt continues under the Greek dynasty of the Ptolemies.

Jodjea throws off the yoke of Syria, and becomes independent in 166 B. c, under Judas Maccabseus.

Stria (kingdom of the Seleucid.e), Parthia, and the other countries of the East, present no movements of general interest.

Pergamus. (See above, under Rome.)

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