to produce the dog he had in his mind's eye. At this time Mr. Laverack's strain was carrying all before it, and Mr. Llewellin purchased some very choice dogs from that kennel. But even amongst these (Mr. Rawdon Lee tells us) he found “many unsatisfactory and inconvenient peculiarities of mind, habit, and instinct to fit them for — attaining his ideal.” So he once more set to work experimenting, and the result was the strain of setters that bears his name—"a blend of the pure Laverack, with blood from Sir Vincent Corbet's and Mr. Statter's kennels, and the characteristic of size with quality. That they possess quality and beauty of appearance their show-bench achievements have proved, whilst at the same time their field trial record as a setter kennel has never been approached.” This was in the 'Eighties, when Mr. Purcell-Llewellin carried all before him—when he refused £1200 for a dog and t 1000 for a couple of bitches of his own breeding. Having once established a strain to his fancy no cross of any sort was allowed to invade it ; and the various families in his kennel preserved and transmuted to their progeny their likeness, habits, and methods of working.

Having thus briefly carried the history of the breed to what may be called its high-water mark, I will proceed to give the observations of my contributors on the type as it exists.

MR. R. R. P. WEARING.--I am afraid English setters are deteriorating. There are too few people breeding them, and a great many of the judges do not agree as to the proper type, so that we see all kinds of type winning, very often under the same judge. As a result breeders do not know what type to breed to win. The setters of to-day have not the character they used to have fifteen to twenty years ago. The description of the English setter as defined by the Setter Club is, in my opinion, the proper one, and practically the same as that given by the late Mr.

Edward Laverack. The setter is the most handsome of all Eng. lish dogs, and, as a rule, easy to break. He makes a good companion if not required for work.

MR. GEORGE POTTER (the Honourable Secretary of the Setter Club).---The type is all right, although there seems to be a tendency to breed some too leggy, thus getting away from the Laverack type, which I consider best for staying and a long day's work. There are no values of points in the breed, which is simply judged as a whole for beauty of formation coupled with adaptability for its natural work. I enjoy nothing better than watching the development of their instinct and sagacity in dealing with game; their affection and obedience in response to kindness, and their beautiful appearance either in the field or as companions.

MR. HARDING Cox.--The type is right, but of late years bone has deteriorated, and some specimens, especially amongst Laveracks, are too small and weedy. Pasterns and feet often leave much to be desired. I should like higher point values to be allotted to size, pasterns, and feet, so that the dangerous tendency which now threatens may be counteracted. What a delight it is to shoot over a real good setter ! One bird so killed is worth a dozen driven, though the skill required is not so great. Then what an affectionate, patient, and beautiful animal he is !

MR. DONALD M‘VICAR.—The English setter type of the present day is not satisfactory. There is a great tendency to weediness, lack of courage, and endurance. This is hardly to be wondered at, considering to what an extent in-breeding has been resorted to, especially since the inception of shows. The remedy for this evil should be out-crossing with unrelated, approved strains; even to the extent of crossing with the Irish setter, in which there is generally to be found an excess of courage and hardiness. The importance of strong, muscular loins and thighs appears to be lost sight of by some present-day judges. These parts are the propellers from whence comes the setter's galloping ability, and unless loins and thighs are highly developed he cannot be possessed of those two grand qualities and essentialsspeed and endurance. All the greatest goers that I have known were noted for loin and thigh development. I do not consider the standard of points as vital in judging, and it is doubtful if many judges are guided by them. Thorough and close observation of every detail will enable any practical judge to separate according to merit. Beauty of outline, and high quality combined with substance, all harmonising with present accepted type, is the standard to be kept in view. The pleasure of observing a

setter at work on moor or manor has in itself a great fascination for the true sportsman. Pace, style, and instantaneous decision when he strikes scent of game are his leading characteristics. His sense of duty is none the less marked, as he stands rigidly and beautifully on point, until relieved by the approach of his master, who orders him forwards to flush. The English setter is undoubtedly more attractive in colour than the Gordon or Irish; his expression, also, is more pleasing, and in quality he excels. With regard to dog shows they do much good, and have undoubtedly been the means of improving most breeds. Yet how often, unfortunately, does one see undersized, flat-ribbed, lankloined setters placed at shows in preference to larger dogs, good in type, full of substance, and possessed of frame and legs that indicate endurance. It seems inexplicable that judges who patronise field trials should favour type and quality alone, and discard the other more valuable points by placing in the money dogs that could not stand the moderate strain of one hour's gallop on the moor. The high quality, undersized weed should be assigned his proper place. The setter at work is expected to gallop the greater part of the day, not ten to fifteen minutes, the time usually allowed a brace in a field-trial heat. The weed may accomplish a short spin ; such trial, however, does not establish his staying powers, from which the bag is made.


(English Setter Club's) Head.-Should be long and lean, with a well-defined stop. The skull oval from ear to ear, showing plenty of brain room, and with a welldefined occipital protuberance. The muzzle moderately deep and fairly square ; from the stop to the point of the nose should be long, the nostrils wide, and the jaws of nearly equal length, flews not to be pendulous. The colour of the nose should be black, or dark or light liver, according to the colour of the coat. The eyes should be bright, mild, and intelligent, and of a dark hazel colour--the darker the better. The ears of moderate length, set on low and hanging in neat folds close to the cheeks ; the tips should be velvety, the upper part clothed with fine, silky hair.

Neck.-Should be rather long, muscular, and lean ; slightly arched at the crest, and clean cut where it joins the head ; towards the shoulder it should be larger and very muscular, not throaty or any pendulosity below the throat, but elegant and bloodlike in appearance.

BODY.-Should be of moderate length, with shoulders well set back, or oblique ; back, short and level ; loins, wide, slightly arched, strong, and muscular. Chest, deep in the brisket, with good, round, widelysprung ribs ; deep in the back ribs—that is, well ribbed up.

LEGS AND Feet.-Stifles well bent and ragged ; thighs, long from hip to hock. The fore arm big and very muscular ; the elbow well let down. Pasterns, short, muscular, and straight. The feet, very close and compact, and well protected by hair between the toes.

Tail.--Should be set on almost in a line with the body, medium length, not curly or ropy, to be slightly curved or scimitar shaped, but with no tendency to turn upwards,--the flag or feather hanging in long pendant flakes. The feather should not commence at the root, but slightly below, and increase in length to the middle, then gradually taper off towards the end : and the hair long, bright, soft, silky, and wavy, but not curly.

COAT AND FEATHERING.–The coat, from the back of the head in a line with the ears, ought to be slightly wavy, long, and silky, which should be the case with the coat generally; the breeches and fore legs, nearly down to the feet, should be well feathered.

COLOUR AND MARKINGS. —The colour may be either black and white, lemon and white, liver and white, or tricolour—that is, black, white, and tan; those without heavy patches of colour on the body, but flecked all over, preferred.

THE IRISH SETTER The Irish setter, like the Irish terrier and the Irish water spaniel, is a red dog, or, to be more explicit, a golden chesnut, and in this respect the three purely Irish breeds present a strange coincidence in their ground - colouring. The breed of Irish setters was originally red and white, and many of this colour, now considered quite inadmissible, were exhibited in the early days of dog shows. The Irish Red Setter Club, it may be noticed in passing, goes somewhat out of its way to interpolate the word “red,” which would indicate by inference that there were Irish setters “other than red.” On the other hand, there are those who admit the existence of a red and white coloured setter in Ireland, but deny that it was the “ Irish setter," but a variety imported from England. Speculations like these are of little account in these days, when the Irish setter has been decreed a red dog. Richardson, who wrote in the first half of the nineteenth century, mentions the “ yellowish red ” Irish setters, and describes them as the

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