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dignified birth, and lending him a sentiment which has inspired authors and painters, old and new.

And grander still as we see him stooping, with muzzle pressed to earth, and ears trailing in the dew, billows of loose skin rolling over his face, body and legs speaking of strength and power, and his long, tapering stern lashing to and fro among the heather and the fern; while from his deep, full throat he gives a short, sharp note, which deepens into a full, resounding bay, like the note of an organ, as he hits off the line of his quarry, and breaks into a gallop.

My ideal bloodhound stands at least 27 inches at the shoulder. Rather heavy in build, he denotes great power, with more endurance than speed. His wide, deep chest, and well-rounded body are carried on the straightest of legs-great with bone and muscle, with feet well knuckled up, and toes close together. The loins wide and powerful, the hocks well bent, stern long and tapering, and neck rather short and muscular. The head, the great characteristic of the breed, is lofty and dome-shaped ; the forehead covered with heavy folds of skin ; the ears, set on low, are long and full; the eyes deep set, with the haw very evident and V-shaped ; the muzzle large, full, and deep, with heavy flews, and, below the throat, two heavy folds of skin forming the dewlap. I would emphasise the importance of avoiding a wedgeshaped head ; the sides of the head, as well as those of the muzzle, should be nearly parallel.

My ideal colour is black, with rich, red tan neck and loins, and a bright tan head and legs. In character the bloodhound is dignified and undemonstrative, fond of having his own way, and resentful of chastisement.

The following are the opinions of experts on the type of the breed as it exists to-day :

MR. S. H. MANGIN.--In my opinion the breed requires more bone, size, and general indication of power. In fact, I consider they should be in all respects thorough working hounds, of heavy type with fancy points well developed. They should be bred for endurance rather than speed.

MRS. OLIPHANT.-I think that breeders, as a rule, do not give sufficient consideration to the body properties of a hound. In-breeding and insufficient work has led to serious deterioration in the physical powers and constitution of the breed. Some years ago I came to the conclusion that this accounted for their lack of perseverance and timidity, which I found a great drawback. I

also found it necessary to breed faster hounds, as, for practical purposes, they must be able to gain on their man. The longer hounds take to hunt the line, the more risk there is of the scent failing owing to atmospheric changes, and of the line becoming more foiled, which is the more likely to end in failure to find the man. The length of start given the hunted man depends upon atmospheric conditions. A good trained hound, bred from hunting stock, will often hunt a line eight to twelve hours cold. Last September Chatley Rocket hunted a man (who started at 10 P.M.) right into his cottage at 7 A.M. the next morning. Mr. Oliphant and myself are both certain that the bloodhound hunts a body scent as well as a foot-trail. To show the speed these hounds are capable of I may mention that at some trials in which my hounds were engaged they accomplished twelve miles in an hour and six minutes. On this occasion the pack carried the scent down the main street, on the pavement, of the town of Andover, and ran into their quarry in the livery yard of the Star and Garter Hotel at 7 o'clock in the morning, and trotted home five miles, quite fresh and keen after their walk.

MR. A. CROXTON-SMITH.—The type of the breed as exemplified in the leading hounds is, I consider, correct ; but we see a good many about that are too light in bone, undersized, flatribbed, and lacking many of the qualities which are so characteristic of this noble breed. The show bloodhound should be a well-balanced hound all through, and it is quite erroneous to think (as has been said) that the chief breeders are sacrificing legs and feet for head. We believe-a belief based on scientific dicta — that long, narrow heads, with great depth through, indicate much better scenting properties than heads broad at the brow. Most of the best hunting hounds we have come from Mr. Brough's kennels, and his strain, as every one knows, has produced an abnormal number of winners. I am convinced that if it had not been for dog shows the breed of bloodhounds would practically have become extinct, but I do not believe in over-showing them.

MRS. CHARLES CHAPMAN.-I am not satisfied with modern type. I consider too much attention has been paid to head, and the various good qualities which go to make a good working hound have been sacrificed to that. Also there has been too much in-breeding, and, if possible, fresh blood should be introduced. The trials promoted by the Bloodhound Hunt Club seem to have given fresh life to the breed, which, at one time, was in the hands of very few persons. Continual inquiries are being made for adult hounds and puppies, and it is much to be hoped

that the authorities will, eventually, see their way to employing these hounds at convict prisons to track escaped prisoners, instead of shooting at them, as the warders are now often compelled to do.

MR. HENRY EAST.-I am satisfied with the type of the few champion hounds, but not at all with the general run of bloodhounds, for, as a rule, they require greater stamina, better feet and legs, and much more typical heads, especially peak, eyes, and flews. I prefer the standard of points as given by Stonehenge to those laid down in later books. Stonehenge gives more value to working qualities than to appearance, which is right.

MR. F. E. SCHOFIELD.-I am fairly well satisfied with type. Still I think there is decidedly room for improvement in quality of heads. Bodies, legs, and feet have decidedly improved in recent years, but heads have deteriorated. The chief defect of the breed is want of constitution and stamina. That will, in my opinion, be best remedied in course of time by importing dogs of pure blood from America and other countries, whither we have exported them. To resort to out-crossing, as has been seriously proposed, would be disastrous.

MR. C. J. B. MONYPENNY.-I think a little more attention might be paid to legs and feet. One of the most important points about any hound is its ability to gallop as well as scent. If a hound has crooked legs I do not see how he can gallop really fast, any more than a man with crooked legs can run, and in the course of my experience on the path I never saw a man with crooked legs who could run decently. Also a little less inbreeding might be cultivated; a suitable out-cross would do a lot of good. It is a pity the breed is such an expensive one to keep, otherwise it might become much more popular, but high stud fees give small breeders no chance.

The recommendations of the breed, with universal accord, quote its nobility of character as a leading virtue. Omitting repetition of this trait, the eulogiums run: “In appearance the grandest breed of dogs; much interest is to be obtained from the development of their wonderful instinct of tracking, although on this account they are not, perhaps, such good companions as some other breeds." —“I admire the bloodhound because of the sport he is capable of giving in hunting

VOL. II

the clean boot. A man of moderate means, possessed of a couple of bloodhounds, may get a vast amount of enjoyment out of them at very little cost beyond their keep."-"I love these hounds because of the extraordinary intelligence so many of them display in working out the trail of their quarry—man. I find them faithful companions and good guards, but they require to be kept under control, as they are very disobedient.”— “My greatest pleasure in keeping bloodhounds is to hunt them myself, and watch them work. Their power of discrimination in owning the line of a hunted man, let the trail be hours old, or ever so badly foiled, is something marvellous. This, added to their loving disposition, great beauty, and deep-toned musical voice, places them far away in front of any other breed of hunting hound.”—“I admire the unequalled grandeur of the breed, and think their working qualities should be utilised in the service of the country.”—“Cleanly in the house, and very magnanimous to smaller dogs, though it can hold its own when roused. It rarely goes savage or snappy, which cannot be said of all big breeds. Its faithfulness and companionability is exemplary.”

The Association of Bloodhound Breeders, founded in 1897, devotes its attentions to the cult of the bloodhound. The annual subscription to this institution is a guinea, and members have to contribute 10 per cent of all prize monies won by them during each year at shows and trials held under Kennel Club rules. The points and characteristics of the bloodhound, or sleuthhound, were drawn up by Mr. Edwin Brough and Dr. Sidney Turner, and form the standard which guides this Association, and are reproduced here.

The Bloodhound Hunt Club is an institution started in 1903 by some of the leading fanciers, and it bears on its committee list such well-known names as Mrs.

Oliphant, Mrs. Chapman, Mr. Henry East, Mr. Harold Stocker, and Mr. C. J. B. Monypenny. It is under the Presidentship of the Earl of Cardigan, and its objects are to encourage the breeding of typical, wellbalanced hounds; to develop the hunting instincts of the breed ; to hold field trials once every year; and to promote the interests of bloodhounds generally. Mr. G. A. S. Oliphant is the Honorary Secretary, and the subscription is one guinea.

The Bloodhound Hunt Club has fixed the following
point values for the breed :-
Point Values-
Head (including ears, eyes, jaws, peak, haw, flews,

and wrinkle).
Neck, shoulders, and chest
Legs and feet
Back, loins, ribs, and girth
Hindquarters · ·
Stern .
Colour, coat, and symmetry

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STANDARD OF POINTS OF THE BLOODHOUND GENERAL CHARACTER.—The bloodhound possesses in a most marked degree every point and characteristic of those dogs which hunt together by scent (Sagaces). He is very powerful, and stands over more ground than is usual with hounds of other breeds. The skin is thin to touch and extremely loose, this being more especially noticeable about the head and neck, where it hangs in deep folds.

Height.—The mean average height of adult dogs is 26 inches, and of adult bitches 24 inches. Dogs usually vary from 25 to 27 inches, and bitches from 23 to 25; but in either case the greater height is to be preferred, provided that character and quality are also combined.

Weight. -The mean average weight of adult dogs, in fair condition, is go lbs., and of adult bitches 80 lbs. Dogs attain the weight of 110 lbs. and bitches of 100 lbs. The greater weights are to be preferred, provided (as in the case with height) that quality and proportion are combined.

EXPRESSION.—The expression is noble and dignified, and characterised by solemnity, wisdom, and power.

TEMPERAMENT.-In temperament he is extremely affectionate, neither quarrelsome with companions nor with other dogs. His nature is somewhat shy, and equally sensitive to kindness or correction by his master.

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