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ing his head forward, and then, ducking, gives a heavy left hand bodyblow, so an upper cut should rarely be tried against a clever adversary.
Side Step. This is executed by ducking smartly to the right as the opponent steps in, passing rapidly under his left arm by a movement like a run and jump combined, and facing him again by turning sharply to the left. This is an effective way of avoiding furious rushes, but must be as quick as lightning, and requires long practice. In Fig. 12 the boxer on the right is just getting out of reach by the side step.
In-Fighting. This takes place when a boxer succeeds in getting both his arms inside his opponent's, when he can give several blows in rapid succession, striking by swinging the shoulders forward and not by drawing the arm back (Fig. 13).
ponent, and should try to tell by his movements what his intentions are. He should never do the same thing twice in succession. In some boxing contests wrestling forms a part, but in others it is forbidden. In general a boxer should avoid getting to close quarters with a heavier adversary, and with a taller opponent should direct his blows at the body.
Supplementary Exerciset Practice with Indian clubs and dumbbells (see Gymnastics) is good for the boxer, but his special exercise is that known as " punching the bag." Three kinds of bags are commonly used; the first or heavy bag, weighs 10 to 20 pounds and is made of chamois skin or kid stuffed with horse-hair. It is suspended from the ceiling by a rope. The method of using it is to set it swinging and then follow it about, hitting it as it moves away from the boxer. The heavy bag should not be used by a beginner. The light or flying bag is of inflated India rubber. The object is never to let the bag get past without hitting it, and as it flies about very rapidly, this is excellent training for quick movement. The third bag is the one most generally in use. It resembles the flying bag, but is attached to the floor as well as to the ceiling and does not require quite as much agility to hit.
Boxing is valued highly as an exercise and also because it trains the learner to use his fists in his own defence, which he may at some time or other have occasion to do. Thomas Hughes, in his story of "Tom Brown's School Days at Rugby," says: "Learn to box then, as you learn to play cricket and football. Not one of you will be the worse, but very much the better for learning to box well. Should you never have to use it in earnest, there's no exercise in the world so good for the temper, and for the muscles of the back and legs." Boxing matches now form part of many of the indoor meetings of athletic associations.
The following are the boxing rules of the National Amateur Athletic Union:
1. In all open competitions the ring shall be roped, and of not less than 12 ft. or more than 24 ft. square.
2. Competitors to box in light boots or shoes (without spikes) or in socks.
3. Weights to be bantam, 105 lbs. and under; light, 135 lbs. and under; middle, 158 lbs. and under.
4. In all open competitions the result shall be decided by two judges, with a referee. A timekeeper shall be appointed.
5. In all competitions the number of rounds to be contested shall be three. The duration of the rounds in the trial bout shall be limited to three minutes each. In the " finals" the first two rounds shall be three minutes each, and the final round four minutes. The interval between each round shall be one minute.
6. In all competitions, any competitor failing to come up when time is called shall lose the bout.
7. Where a competitor draws a bye, such competitor shall be bound to spar such bye for the specified time, and with such opponent as the judges of such competition may approve.
8. Each competitor shall be entitled to the assistance of one second only, and no advice or coaching shall be given to any competitor by his second, or by any other person, during the progress of any round.
9. The manner of judging shall be as follows : The two judges and the referee shall be stationed apart. At the end of each bout each judge shall write the name of the competitor who, in his opinion, has won, and shall hand the same to an official appointed for the purpose. In the cases where the judges agree, such official shall announce the name of the winner, but in cases where the judges
disagree, such official shall so inform the referee, who shall thereupon himself decide.
10. The referee shall have power to give his casting vote when the judges disagree, to caution or disqualify a competitor for infringing rules, or to stop a round in the event of either man being knocked down, provided that the stopping of either of the first two rounds shall not disqualify any competitor from competing in the final round. And he can order a further round, limited to two minutes, in the event of the judges disagreeing.
11. That the decision of the judges or referee, as the case may be, shall be final.
12. In all competitions the decisions shall be given in favor of the competitor who displays the best style and obtains the greatest number of points. The points shall be: for attack, direct clean hits with the knuckles of either hand on any part of the front or sides of head, or body above the belt; defense, guarding, slipping, ducking, counterhitting, or getting away. Where points are otherwise equal, consideration to be given the man who does most of the leading off.
13. The referee may, after cautioning the offender, disqualify a competitor who is boxing unfairly, by flicking or hitting with the open glove, by hitting with the inside or butt of the hand, the wrist or elbow, or by wrestling or roughing at the ropes.
14. In the event of any question arising not provided for in these rules, the judges and referee to have full power to decide such question or interpretation of rule.
History. Boxing was said by the Greeks to have been invented by Theseus; and Pollux, Hercules, and other Greek heroes are described as excelling in it. It was one of the important features of the Olympic games (C. P. P., article Olympia.) I nstead of boxing gloves, the ancients
the best English boxers, whose guards, though perfect against a blow from the fist, would often be no defense at all against one from the foot. The sailors of the French navy are trained every day in Savate, in which they are very expert.
BREATH FIGURES, Experiments on' 1. Trace a figure with the finger on a pane of glass. Nothing will be seen until the plate is breathed on, when the figure becomes visible.
2. Lay a coin on a freshly polished plate of glass or metal. After several minutes remove the coin and breathe on the metal, when an image of the coin will appear. The result will be the same if the coin is polished instead of the plate on which it is laid.
3. Breathe on the surface of a pane of glass which has been in contact for several years with an engraving. In many cases the lines of the engraving will become visible on the glass.
Explanation. On the surface of all solids gathers a layer of gas, vapor, and fine dust, which is removed by polishing and altered by the contact of other solids. If the object be breathed upon the breath will condense more easily on some parts than others, according to the state of this layer, and any marks made on it will hence become visible.
BREATH PORTRAITS. To finely powdered fiber spar add enough sulphuric acid to make the mixture of the proper thickness to be used as ink. With a quill pen, write or draw with it on the surface of plate glass. After the fluid has been on the glass five to ten minutes wash it off with water. The surface of the glass under it will be slightly eaten away, but so little that it will not be noticed unless the glass is breathed upon, when the design or writing will stand out clearly. The effect is very striking.
BROTHER, I AM BOBBED, a trick, in the form of a game, in which any number of persons take part. Two persons, to act the part of "brothers," are selected, of whom one must not have played the game before.. The brothers are blindfolded and kneel back to back, and the other players stand around them in a circle, each with a knotted handkerchief. The " brother" who does not understand the game is told that the players are to hit one of the brothers with a handkerchief from time to time, and the one hit is to cry out "Brother, I am bobbed!" The other must then respond, " Who bobbed you?" and the first must guess who hit him. He is told that if the guess be correct the person who struck him will have to change places with him. When the game has begun, however, the "brother" who knows the trick removes the handkerchief that covered his eyes, and, knotting it, strikes his companion. When asked, "Who bobbed you?" the latter of course makes a wrong guess. This is kept up till the victim suspects that he is deceived. The " brother" who knows the trick should occasionally cry out "Brother, I am bobbed," to keep up the illusion.
In France this game is called "Frire, on me bat" (Brother, some one strikes me).
BRUNETTE AND BLONDE, a
Solitaire game of Cards, played with two packs. The first eight cards played are laid in a row, and on each of them are placed others in descending order, but of different color alternately. Thus, on a red nine a black eight must be placed; on this a red seven, and so on. Whenever the Aces appear they are placed in a row by themselves, and on them are built families in ascending order, without regard to suits, except that no card must be placed on one of the same color. The families may be built up by using cards as they come from the pack, or the top cards of the piles. All cards that cannot at once be used are laid aside to form stock, which can be shuffled and relaid twice. If the families can be completed thus, the player wins.
BUCK, a game played by two person, one of whom places his arms across his breast, or rests them on his knees, and bends forward, resting his head against a fence, tree, or wall. This is called " giving a back." The other player sits astride the back of the first, and holding up one or more fingers, says, "Buck, Buck, how many horns do I hold up?" The first player guesses, and if his guess is correct the two change places ; but if the guess is wrong, the rider gets down, leaps on again, and holds up one or more fingers again with the same question. So the game goes on as long as the players choose. The " buck " is sometimes blindfolded, and a third person often acts as umpire, to see that there is fair play.
History. This game is very old. Petronius Arbiter, a writer in the time of the Roman Emperor Nero, describes a man playing it with a boy. The boy " mounting as on horseback, smote his shoulders with his open hand, and laughing said, 'Bucca, Bucca, quot sunt kief" (Bucca, Bucca, how many are here ? )
In another form of the game, a child hides his head in another's lap, and the latter says:
"Mingledy, mingledy. clap, clap, clap.
or some similar rhyme. The game, in all its forms, is probably related to Mora.
In France a game resembling this, called Les Metiers (The Trades), is played. The player who makes the back chooses a trade and the name of something connected with it, for instance, shoemaking and wax. The trade is announced, but the article kept secret. Each player in turn must then say, as he mounts the back, "A good shoemaker must have good leather," or "good pegs," or anything else he pleases. Whoever mentions the word chosen by the player who makes the back must take his place.
BURIED WORDS, a game played by two or more persons, one of whom gives a sentence in which a word is concealed by being formed partly of one of the words in the sentence, and partly of one or more immediately following. Thus the word "London " is concealed or " buried" in the sentence, " Do not let the rain fall on Don Carlos," as will be seen if the proper letters be capitalized, thus, " Do not let the rain falL ON DON Carlos." The one who gives out the sentence must state that the buried word is the name of a city, person, flower, article of food, or whatever it may be, and the first one who guesses it correctly scores a point. The guesser then gives out another sentence, and the game goes on for any length of time agreed on, or till some one has scored a certain number of points. After a little practice words can thus be buried very skillfully. The hardest ones to guess are those in which pronouncing the words gives no clew. Thus in the following," buried fruits," the former can be guessed by pronouncing the sentence slowly, while the latter cannot:
"Some fairy OR ANGEL must have done this." "The baboon and aPE ARe both curious animals."
The best plan m burying a word is first to see whether it contains another word within it. Thus in burying the word "Orange" it is seen that the word " rang " is so contained. A sentence must now be constructed with the word "rang" in it, while the word just before must end with "O," and that just following begin with " e." Thus: "They danced a fandango, rang Edward's door bell, and behaved very wildly." It will be seen that the word is thus" buried" much more deeply than in the other example given.
A somewhat similar game, played in Germany, is there called Worte Verbergen (Word-hiding). The title or first verse of some well-known song or poem is selected by one of the players, who, in answer to any question, returns a reply including its first word. To a second question he gives an answer containing the first two words in succession, and so on, till the line is guessed. Thus, suppose the song " A life on the ocean wave" be chosen. The following may be the questions and answers:
Q. How do you do?
A. A little better, thank you.
Q. Where do you spend the summer?
A. In the country. I enjoy a life spent outdoors.
Q. Who was your grandfather?
A. He was the celebrated Dr. Bobus, who sacrificed a life on the altar of science by visiting the North Pole.
By this time the title will probably be guessed by the repetition of the word " life." The most difficult lines to guess are of course those containing small and frequently used words at the beginning.
BUTTON, BUTTON, a drawingroom game, played by any number of persons. The players sit in a circle around the leader, who stands holding a button between his hands, the palms