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guesses whether its number is odd or even. If the guess be correct he takes the fish into his own pond, and the same pair fish again as before, but in the large pond. As long as one of them is successful, the same pair continue to fish, alternately in each other's ponds and the large pond. When there is a wrong guess, the fish is put into the large pond, if it has been taken from a private pond, and into the opponent's pond if from the large pond, and the next two players begin to fish. If the players catch fish at the same time, the one who first calls out "Caught," is given the preference. If both call at once, he who guesses correctly is preferred, and if both guess correctly, the fish are returned to their respective ponds for another trial. The game is ended when any pond, large or private, is empty, and he wins who has most fish. If two have the same number, the sum of the numbers marked on the fish decides the game. When only two play, each private pond should contain ten fish.
Angling is much played as a ProGressive GAME. When it is thus played, an increased number of fish is needed; each player may be provided with a rod and line, or there may be two for each table.
ANIMAL, VEGETABLE, AND MINERAL. See Twenty QuesTions.
ANORTHOSCOPE. An optical toy which distorts figures viewed through it. It consists of two discs, on one of which the figure to be viewed is painted, while in the other there are slits through which the observer looks, as in the Zoetrope. The discs are so arranged as to revolve in opposite directions, and the disc bearing the figures is made transparent, so that it may be seen by holding it up toward the light. The figures are usually so drawn that when viewed by the unaided eye they are unrecognizable, but when placed in the anorthoscope they are restored to their proper shape. The
arrangement and results of the toy depend somewhat on the relative velocity of the disks. We will suppose that the disk bearing the slit is made to revolve once, while that with the figure does so four times. Then there must be four slits in the front disk, arranged thus -|-, and, whatever figure may be drawn on the other disk, five distorted figures, all alike, will be seen by looking through the slits. The illustrations on page 14 show the appearance of two designs, first as seen with the naked eye, and then through the slits.
The reason why the toy produces this effect will now be given. First suppose there is only one slit in the front disk, and only a dot, instead of a picture, on the other. Suppose the disk to start with the dot just behind the slit. As the back disk turns four times as fast as the front one, the dot will pass behind the slit four times before they get around into the same position again. Thus the eye will see five dots on the rear disk instead of one. If there are four slits at right angles the result will be the same, for each will pass the dot in the same place as the others. But therecannot be more than four. The same will be true of a large figure as of a dot, but each of the multiplied figures will be shut together like a fan, so as to extend only one-fifth as far around the circle as before. That is, supposing the circle to be divided into 360 degrees, if the picture extended around sixty degrees, it will appear in the anorthoscope to extend over only twelve degrees. This shutting together is a consequence of the rapid movement of the rear disk past the front one. If this reduction in size took place in all directions, the figure would be the same shape, only smaller, but it takes place in only one direction, that is, around the circle, hence the figure is twisted out of shape.
Any figure may be drawn on the disk so that it will appear in its proper shape when viewed through the an be taken that the original figure does not take up more than one-fifth of the disk; otherwise the adjoining figures, as seen in the anorthoscope, will overlap.
and measure the distance, from the Join all the dots so made by a curved center, of the point where it crossed line, and do the same with all the each of the radii first drawn, and other lines of the figure. Care must
Anorthoscopes can be made which will multiply the figure seen as many times as desired, shutting it together to a corresponding degree. The number of figures seen is always one greater than the number of revolutions the back disk makes while the front one is going around once, and the number of slits, always one less than the number of figures, must be disposed at equal distances around the disk. Thus, if it makes eight to the front disk's one, nine figures will be seen, each of which reaches only one-ninth as far around the circle as the original. In this case there must be eight slits.
The anorthoscope may be made to work in many other ways besides the one described here. If the disks revolve in the same direction the number of revolutions can be so adjusted as to combine several figures into
Plan for Drawing.
one, instead of expanding one into several. By slightly varying these figures an effect is obtained like that of the ZOEtrOPE.
The anorthoscope is not commonly sold at toy stores. The disks can easily be made as above described,
Wheels for Anorthoscope.
times as fast. The number on the crank-wheel is immaterial. The arrangement can be made at any machine shop.
The anorthoscope is the invention of Prof. Plateau, a Belgian scientist. The name is from the Greek anorthos, crooked, and skopein, to see.
ARCHERY. The best bows are made of a single piece of Italian or Spanish yew, or of two pieces joined at the handle, but good bows are made also of lancewood or ash. A good bow is largest in the middle and tapers toward the ends, which are usually tipped with horn with notches to hold the cord. The force required to draw a 28-inch arrow to its head in any bow measures that bow's strength, which is expressed in pounds. The distance to the head of such an arrow is 27 inches, so if a 40-pound weight, tied to the middle of a bow string, will pull it just 27 inches below the bow (held horizontally), the latter is a 40-pound bow. The best arrows are made of red deal wood with a piece of harder wood fastened to them at the point or " pile." At the opposite end three strips of feather are glued, to make
guard the fingers. Other forms of protection for the fingers may be substituted. Many archers wear also a " bracer," or arm guard of hard leather, fastened by straps to the left arm near the wrist, to protect it from the bow-string. A leather or tin case called a quiver may be fastened to the archer's belt to hold his arrows, and a tassel of worsted is appended to wipe the dirt from them. The targets used in archery matches are made of a pad of straw covered on one side with cloth, and hung on a tripod so that its middle is about four feet from the ground. In the center is a gilt or yellow spot, called the gold (or sometimes the "bull's eye "), and around this in order are bands of red, blue, black, and white. The archer scores a larger or smaller number as he strikes one or another of the colors. Thus:
An arrow in the gold generally counts o.
blue " "5
"" "" black" "3
'* " "" white" "1
The score is sometimes kept by pricking the shots on a card shaped like a target, as shown in the illustration on page 17.
The targets most used in England were formerly supported on Butts,— walls of sodded earth serving as backing for discs of paper. Butts should be 6 feet high and 8 feet long. Instead of the backing of straw sold at toy stores, a box filled with earth may be used. Another simple kind of target is a "clout," or disc of pasteboard, stuck in the cleft end of a stick, the other end of which is pushed into the ground.
An archer's equipments are often kept in a cupboard called an Ascham, after Roger Ascham. a writer on archery. It is shaped like a small wardrobe, about six feet high and three wide. About three feet from
the bottom is a shelf with holes in it, in which are supported the bows and arrows, while hooks on the sides bear the bracer, gloves, and other necessary articles.
Rowing.—Instead of firing from the same point, archers sometimes move about and shoot at improvised targets, which is called "roving." One of the party of archers selects a tree, or other object, to be shot at, and he who hits it is allowed to choose the next one. If no one hits it, he whose arrow falls nearest is allowed the choice.
Hunting.—Expert archers say that hunting with a bow and arrow is a more fascinating sport than
hunting with a gun. The shooting makes no noise, and so does not frighten the game. Shooting at wild game requires more skill than shooting at an ordinary target. Good practice for shooting at birds may be obtained by using a black rubber ball, about four inches in diameter, suspended by a string from the limb of a tree.
The rules governing archery matches or "meetings" are given below.
The first thing for the beginner in archery is to learn to "string" his bow properly; that is, to fit the bow string to it so that it will be ready for use.
When unstrung the bow is nearly straight. The bow-string has a loop at each end like that in the illustration. Slipping the larger loop over one end of the bow held uppermost, and sliding it down below the "nock " or groove for the string, the archer fits the smaller one into the lower nock, and then taking the middle of the bow in his right hand presses the lower end of the bow on the ground in the hollow of his right foot, the back of the bow next to the foot, as shown in the illustration. By then pulling with the right hand and pushing with the left, near the upper end of the bow, it will be bent, and