Eushing off competitors, must keep ehind the mark from which the competitors actually start. Should any part of the attendant touch the track in front of the mark, the competitor may be disqualified. Unless excused by the referee, every rider who enters in a handicap race must start in same.

Finish. The finish of all races shall be judged by the first part of the front wheel which touches the tape fastened flat on the ground at the winning post, and no rider shall be allowed a finishing position who abandons the track and afterward returns and crosses the tape.

Riding. Riders shall pass on the outside (unless the man passed be dismounted), and must be at least a clear length of the cycle in front before taking the inside, but on entering the homestretch in the last lap of a race, the foremost rider or riders must keep to that part of the track first selected; and the hindmost rider or riders, when there is sufficient room to pass on the inside or anywhere on the homestretch without interfering with others, shall be allowed to do so. A rider shall not change from the inner to the outside of the track during any part of a race when another rider is so near that in altering his position he interferes with or impedes the progress of the rider. No rider shall touch another.

No rider during a race shall turn his head to look backward, remove his hands from the handle-bars, or otherwise ride in a careless or unskillful manner, thereby imperiling the safety of other riders.

Competitors may dismount during a race at their pleasure, and may run with their cycles if they wish to, but they must keep to the extreme outside of the path whenever dismounted. If a rider be dismounted by accident, or to change his machine, an attendant may hold his machine while he mounts it, and he

shall so mount at the extreme outside of the path.

Time Limits. The referee may place a time limit on any race except handicap, team, and lap races. The time limit shall not be announced to the contestants until their arrival at the tape, preparatory to the start of the race. If the competitors finish within the limit, they shall receive the prizes. If they fail to so finish, and the referee is convinced by their riding and the time that they endeavored to reach the limit, he may award the prizes.

Pacemaking. A general pacemaker may be put in any race by the race promoter, having previously notified the referee of the fact. He shall assist no single rider, but shall act to increase the speed of the race in general. He shall, if a single rider only, be entitled to any place or prize he may win, if he starts from the scratch, or may be rewarded by a special prize, within the limits of the class.

Tandems, or pacing machines carrying more than two riders, may be put in to pace competitions only by written consent of the member of the Racing Board in charge of the district.

Track Privileges and Decorum. No person whosoever shall be allowed inside the track except the officials of the meet. The handicappers of the meet shall at all times, however, have track privileges. Authorized persons shall wear a badge. Competitors or pacemakers not engaged in a race actually taking place shall not be allowed inside or on the track. No one shall be allowed to "coach" competitors on the track. No shouting or remarks by trainers or attendants to encourage certain riders or disconcert others shall be permitted.

Choice of Machines and Costumes. Choice or change of machine and choice of costume shall not be limited except that shirt shall not bare shoulders, and breeches must reach to the knees.

In races distinctly stated on the programme of events to be for a particular class of machine, this rule shall not apply so far as choice and change of machine are concerned. Safety bicycle races shall be limited to machines whose driving wheel does not exceed thirty-six inches in diameter.

Competitors to Wear Numbers. Every competitor shall receive in the dressing-room a number corresponding with his number on the programme, which must be worn on his back or right shoulder during the race. He shall inform himself of the times at which he must compete, and wait the call of the clerk in the dressing-room.

Definition of Races. A novice race is open only to those who have never won a prize in a track race, and shall be the first race of the meet. A novice race is a class race.

A class race is only open to those who, up to date of the closing of the entries, have not won the first position in a track race or trial heat in the same or better time than the class under consideration. In all class races the time limit shall be the time of the class. If the competitors fail to finish within the limit, and it is a good day, good track, and there are pacemakers, the referee shall declare it no race. If they fail to finish in the time limit, and there are no pacemakers, or it is not (in the judgment of the referee) a good day, or it is not a good track, and the referee is convinced by their riding that they endeavored to reach the limit, and were not able to do so because of the absence of any one or all three conditions, he may award the prizes.

In a lap race the position of the first three men shall be taken at the finish of every lap. The first man shall score three points, the second man shall score two points, and the third man shall score one point, and

no others shall score. The contestant who crosses the line first at the finish shall, for that lap, score four points. The competitor who scores the greatest number of points shall be declared the winner, but any contestant, in order to secure a prize, must ride the entire distance and be within 150 yards of the finish when the first man crosses the tape at the end of the last lap. The 150 yard mark must be marked by a flag.

In a team race the positions of all the riders starting shall be taken at the end of the race.

The first man shall count a number of points equal to the number of men starting, the second one less, and so on.

The team scoring the greatest number of points shall be declared the winner.

A team shall be limited to three riders, each of whom shall have been a member of the club entering the team for at least three months previous to date of event. Each team member must also have resided within five miles of the city or town where the club has its headquarters for at least six months previous to the date of contest.

In a heat race the position of each rider must be taken at the finish of each heat. The first man shall count a number equal to that of the contestants in the first heat, the second man shall count one less, the third two less, and on on. The competitor who scores the greatest number of points shall be declared the winner.

Or, as an alternative, which must be stated on the programme as rule or alternative, in running a heat race, such event may be conducted under the rule outlined below:

When the race is best two out of three heats, the winner is not reached until one rider has won two heats, either through virtue of finishing first or by the disqualification of a competitor or competitors who may finish in front and lose such Since the introduction of the bicycle proper (about 1876), so many improvements have been made in it that it is now a very important machine and has found many uses which were once scarcely thought of. One of the greatest differences between the modern bicycle and the old velocipede is in the construction of the wheels. They were formerly made like those of a carriage, with stout wooden spokes, the weight resting on each spoke in turn as it came underneath the hub. Now the spokes are of steel wire, and the weight is supported by the spokes above the hub, which is hung, as it were, from the rim of the wheel. Thisplan, which is called the "suspension principle," by enabling the builders to make light wheels, has done much toward perfecting the modern bicycle. Many grown people use cycles now for health as well as recreation;

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many travel long distances on them; they are used in delivering letters and parcels, and in England and


Fig. 15.—Military Cycle.

Germany soldiers are trained to ride the military cycle. Cycling has become a very popular pastime, and has grown to be something beyond mere boy's sport. Bicycles were first made in the United States in 1878, and hundreds of bicycle manufactories are now situated in this country.

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DANCING IMP. Join tightly with sealing wax the halves of a walnut shell from which the kernel has been removed. Fasten a little wooden doll, three or four inches long, by threads to the nut, weighting the doll with shot or otherwise, so that the nut will float in water with as little of its shell above possible. Make a

hole with an awl in the lower side of the nut and float it in a jar of water, filled within an inch or two of the top. Tie a piece of India-rubber cloth tightly over the top of the jar. If the India-rubber be now pressed with the finger the doll will sink, and when the pressure is removed it will rise again. This is because the pressure forces some water into the nut through the hole in the bottom, and the additional weight is just enough to sink it. This toy is called also Ludion or Bottle Imp, and small ones were sold on the streets of New York in 1889 under the name of "McGinty," being supposed to illustrate the popular song "Down went McGinty to the Bottom of the Sea."


Flying Cone.

DIBS. See Jack Stones.

DICE (plural of die), small white cubes of ivory, bone, or celluloid, used in gaming. Each of the six faces or sides of a die is marked by a different number of black spots or dots, from 1 to 6. The dots are so arranged that the sum of the dots on opposite sides is always seven; that is, the One and Six, the Two and Five, and the Three and Four are opposite each other. As in cards, the one, two, and three-spots are often called respectively, the Ace, Deuce, and Tray. In playing, one or more of the dice are shaken and thrown from a dice-box upon a table. This is called a throw, and the numbers on the uppermost faces of the dice are said to have been thrown. The throw is unfair if a die rolls on the floor; if any one touches it while it is rolling on the table; if it is tilted on edge against some obstacle; or if one die rests on the top of another.

Dice are used to determine the moves in games like Backgammon and Parchesi, but several games may be played with them alone.

Raffling or Raffles, a game of dice, played by any number of persons with three dice. Each in turn throws till he throws two numbers alike, called a Pair. When all have thrown, he who made the highest throw wins. Pairs rank according to the number of spots on the paired dice, and a triplet, or three of a kind ranks higher than any Pair. Thus, a pair of Fives is higher than a pair of Fours, but three Twos is still higher.

Centennial, a game of Dice played by two or more persons, each for himself, or by partners, two or three on a side. The players use three dice at a time, and not only the numbers thrown, but the sum of any two or of all of them counts toward the score. The object is to score the numbers from 1 to 12 in order, and

then the numbers in reverse order back to 1. Each player may throw until he fails to score, when the turn passes to the left. Each player keeps his score by writing the numbers on paper as he makes them, and then crossing them out in reverse order. He whose numbers are crossed out first wins the game. Several numbers may be scored in one throw: thus 1, 2, and 3 score all the numbers up to 6. Partners have only one score between them, and the numbers thrown by each count toward it.

Help Your Neighbor, a game of dice played by any number of persons, with one die. Each player marks the numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, on paper. The one who begins the game then throws the die and marks out of his figures the number he throws ; and he continues throwing as long as he can mark off the number thrown. When he throws a number that he has already marked off, the' player on his left crosses it off his own score, and then takes his turn. Each player does likewise, and he whose score is all crossed off first wins. If, in the course of the game, neither a player nor his left-hand neighbor have the number that is thrown, the nearest player on the left who has it marks it off.

Draw Poker. The players use five dice, which are first thrown at one cast, and then any or all of them may be thrown again; just as in the card game each player may draw new cards. The "hands" are the same as in ordinary Draw Poker, save that there is no Flush and that there can be five of a kind, which ranks above four of a kind and is the highest possible hand. The highest hand wins the pool. As every one sees the hands of all the other players, there is no " betting."

Multiplication. Three dice are thrown by each player, who, leaving the highest on the table, throws the other two again, and then the low

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