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"Belagerungspiel" (The Beleaguer- 1 ing Game). Though it is an old game, a description of it was recently published in a New York paper as if it were a new invention.
Chinese Fox and Geese. This is played on a board like that in Fig. 3, which also shows the arrangement of the men. The Commander (corresponding to the Fox) is placed in the middle and surrounded by 26 soldiers (corresponding to the Geese). The Commander may take a soldier by leaping, as in Checkers, and all the pieces may move forward, backward, or sidewise. The object of the soldiers is to pen up the Commander in the triangular space a, c, b. As in ordinary Fox and Geese, the soldiers will always win in this game if it is played well. It is somet' called the "Chinese Rebel Gan
black piece, called an Army Corps, corresponds to the Fox, and the three pieces of a different color called Brigades of Cavalry, to the Geese. The object of the Cavalry, as in the other forms of the game, is to pen up the Army Corps so that it cannot move. The Army Corps is allowed to move in any direction along a line, but each Brigade of Cavalry can move backward only once during the game, all other moves being forward or sidewise. The Army Corps is given the first move. This game is said to have been devised by Louis Dyen, a French army officer, in 1886. It has been shown in a French scientific paper that, as in other forms of the game where there is one Fox, the Geese (in this case the Brigades of Cavalry) must win, if played properly.
II. A game played by any number of persons, one of whom takes the part of the Fox and the others stand in a double circle, facing inward. At one place in the circle there are three players instead of two as shown in Fig. 4. The object of the Fox is to
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Fig. 4.—Fox and Geese, or Tierce.
touch the outside one of three, who tries to escape by running into the circle and standing inside two of the others, thus exposing the outside player to the Fox. If any one is caught he must take the Fox's place. When the number of players is large there may be two or more groups o
three. The Fox may not enter the circle, and there should be plenty of room left between the groups of players, so that the Geese may run in easily.
In England this game is sometimes called Round Tag and Tierce. Its ancient name was The Faggots, the pairs of players, one in front of the other, being called Faggots, and the Fox and Goose the Hound and Hare. A similar game was played there in ancient times, called Trick the Rabbit.
In France it is called Deux c'est assez, trot's c'est trop (Two is Company, Three is a Crowd), and in Germany, Den Dritten Jagen (Hunt the Third).
III. An outdoor game played by any number of persons on a figure marked on the ground or in the snow, like that in Fig. 5. There may be any
FRENCH BLIND MAN'S BUFF,
See Blind Man's Buff.
FRENCH SOLITAIRE, a solitaIre game of Cards, played with one full pack. The four Aces are placed in a row, as they appear, and the other cards on these, in order, without following suit. Cards that cannot be so placed must be arranged in four piles beneath the others, without regard to suit or rank. The top card of a lower pile must be placed on one of the upper piles whenever possible. It requires skill so to place the cards in the lower piles that they will be available in making the upper piles. No cards in any of the lower piles must be looked at, except the top card.
This is one of the simplest Solitaire card-games. It is made more difficult by requiring the upper piles to be made in suits, and still easier by permitting the player to examine the lower piles.
FUN ALIVE, a game played by any number of persons with 8 large cards called "Game Cards," and 40 smaller "Forfeit Cards." The Game Cards are all blank except one, called the " Catch Card," on which the words "Fun Alive" are printed in large letters. On each of the Forfeit Cards a FORFEIT is printed. The Forfeit Cards are spread, face downward, in the middle of the table, and the same is begun by one player's taking the Game Cards, shuffling them, and presenting them to his left-hand neighbor, who draws one. If it be the Catch Card, he must at once draw a Forfeit Card, and do as it directs. Then the player who draws, shuffles the Game Cards and presents them to his left-hand neighbor, and so on. When a player draws a blank card he takes no Forfeit Card, and the next one draws at once. The game continues thus as long as the players choose.
FUNGO, a game of ball played
by any number of persons with a baseball and bat. One player takes the bat, and tossing the ball into the air strikes it before it falls. The other players, who stand from 50 to 200 feet from the batter, try to catch the ball. The batter usually holds the bat in his right hand, tosses the ball into the air with his left, at the same time raising the bat, and then, seizing the bat with both hands, strikes the ball before it falls. Fungo is generally played to give the fielders in baseball practice in "fly-catching" or catching the batted ball before it bounds, but it is often played merely for amusement. In the latter case it may be agreed that when a catch is made, the catcher shall take the batter's place.
FUSIBLE METALS, To make.
Fusible metals are alloys (see C. C. T.) which will melt at a very low temperature. Many of them are made of bismuth, lead, and tin. The fusible metal called Rose's Metal is made by melting in an iron spoon some bismuth with half its weight of lead and half its weight of tin. The resulting alloy will melt in boiling water. If the melted metal be poured into a test tube it will expand on cooling, and break the tube.
These fusible metals are made use of in many ways. For instance, many factories are now fitted with water pipes running over the ceilings of all the rooms. These are fitted at intervals with nozzles closed with plugs of fusible metal. If a fire should start in any room the heat would melt out the plugs near it at once, and the water, rushing through the nozzle, would put it out. Common solder is another example of a fusible metal, though this must melt at a higher heat, so that it will bear that of a ordinary cook stove.
GALLANTY SHOW, a kind of shadow pantomime, in which the characters are represented by figures cut from cardboard. A frame about three feet high by four wide is fixed in a doorway, and covered with white cloth tightly stretched, tacked on the side toward the spectators. The rest of the doorway is screened by curtains, and the exhibitor stands on the opposite side. A piece of tape, stretched close to the frame along its bottom, holds the figures by means of cardboard continuations of their legs. The exhibitor, by means of these continuations, which project below the tape, can slide the figures along, make them rock backward and forward, or cause them suddenly to disappear by pulling them downward. Scenery of various kinds may be fastened to the sides or top of the frame, and if a scene is desired which will fill the whole frame, the cloth may be replaced by a sheet of paper on which such a scene, cut out of thin paper, is pasted. A forest or the interior of a building may thus be represented. With some practice, scenery can be built up of different thicknesses of paper, so as to show any number of degrees of light and shade, after the mannerof the porcelain transparencies often hung in windows. The " high lights " of the scene have no paper pasted on them at all. The deep shadows should have several thicknesses, and the shades between these extremes more or less according to the desired tone. For the stained glass windows of a church, colored tissue paper may be used, and the sun, moon, or flowers may also be represented in color in the same way. If desired, the arms or heads of the figures may be made to work on pivots, and moved by
across the screen as long as the crank is turned. A great many curious effects can be produced, as in Shadow Plays. Thus, a man can be shown climbing out of a chimney or jumping into a crocodile's mouth. These effects are even more simple in a gallanty show, for the figures and scenery are both smaller and easier to manage. Care should be taken to make all the movements as naturally as possible.
History. A gallanty show is called in France Les Ombres Chinoises (Chinese Shadows). This form of entertainment is said to have originated in China; at any rate, it has long been a favorite there. It was brought thence to Germany, and in 1770 a theatre specially devoted to it was established in Versailles, France, by Seraphin, who conducted it for many years and was succeeded in its management by his nephew of the same name.
GALVANIC TASTE, Experiment on. Place a piece of zinc above the tongue and a silver coin below it, or vice versa, and after leaving them there a few seconds, to get used to the taste of the metals, touch the edges over the tip of the tongue. A singular taste, or sensation, will be at once felt in the tongue. The reason of this is that the metals, with the tongue between them, form a little Electric Battery, and when the circuit is closed, by touching the metals a very slight current flows through the tongue.
The taste is slightly different, according to which metal is above and which below, being slightly acid in one case and alkaline in another. Some people think this is because the salt fluids in the tongue are decomposed by the current into an acid and an alkali (see Electrical Decomposition).
A similar experiment may be performed with a strip of zinc and a silver spoon, by putting one as far as possible between the lower lip
and gum, and the other between the upper lip and gum, and then touching the ends. Just as they touch, a flash of light will appear to pass before the eyes.
GALVANOMETER, an instrument for showing the direction and force of electric currents. Some kind of galvanometer is needed for many of the electric experiments described in this book. The simplest kind consists merely of a magnetized sewing-needle, hung horizontally by a thread; or a pocket compass may be used. The following experiments may be tried with such a galvanometer.
1. Allow the needle to come to rest, when it will point north and south. Hold a wire, whose ends are connected with an Electric Battery, over it lengthwise. The needle will turn, and if the current in the wire is strong enough, will come to rest nearly at right angles to the wire.
2. Reverse the current in the wire by exchanging the ends which are connected with the battery. The needle will turn in the opposite direction.
3. Hold the wire just under, instead of just over, the needle. It will turn in the opposite direction.
4. Make a loop of the wire so that the current will flow in one direction above the needle and in the opposite direction below it. The needle will turn farther than before.
These experiments, which were discovered by Oersted, a Danish physicist, first showed scientists that there was a connection between electricity and magnetism, and they were therefore the beginning of the telegraph, the dynamo, and many of the wonderful inventions of our day.
To detect very slight currents it is necessary to surround the needle with many coils of wire. Thus very expensive and delicate galvanometers are constructed, but a simple one can be made by any one, as follows: