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leave a trail when walking, so that they are easily tracked by a dog, but they are so timid that it is hard to get within range in this way. They are often shot at their roosts, the hunter surprising them at dawn before they have flown.

The Upland Plover, or Bart ram's Sandpiper. This bird frequents inland pastures, and is much esteemed as food. It is very shy and difficult to appoach except by some trick. In Rhode Island it is hunted from two-wheeled chaises, in the bottom of which the huntsman sits, while the chaise drives around the bird in gradually narrowing circles. The huntsman has his leg on the step ready to spring out and fire the moment the bird rises. Success depends largely on the skill of the driver. Another trick is to use trained ponies, which move closer and closer to the bird while feeding, the huntsman standing concealed by the animal's forelegs and shoulder. Some sportsmen build houses of boughs, in which they wait for the birds to alight near by.

The Rail. This small bird frequents the rice flats on the seashore of the Southern States, and the borders of tidal rivers like the Delaware, or the New Jersey flats. The rail runs swiftly, and though it has a strong scent, can with difficulty be forced by dogs to take flight. The birds fly slowly, and for short distances. The best method of hunting them is from boats, at flood tide, the birds being forced to take wing by running them down. They must be killed at the first shot, as otherwise they dive, hide in the thickest reeds, and are very hard to find. The skill lies more with the man who " poles " or pushes the boat than with the huntsman, for the birds fly so slowly that they can hardly be missed by any one who is a fair shot. One sportsman has sometimes killed more than one hundred of these birds during a single tide. Rail-bird

shooters also find on the same grounds the reed-bird or rice-bird, which is the bobolink of northern meadows in spring and summer. In September the reed-birds are found in immense numbers in the wild-oat fields; and many thousands of them are killed for market. In the South, where they are known as rice birds, they do great damage to the rice crops.

Pigeons. (See C. C. T.) These birds, once so numerous, have now almost disappeared from the eastern United States, owing to the way in which they have been killed in pigeon-shooting contests (see Shooting).

Cranes. (See C. C. T.) Cranes are found in the South and West. Whooping cranes are hunted in the Mississippi Valley for their plumage. In Oregon the sandhill crane is called "Chinese Snipe." because it is eaten by the Chinese.

Deer. The different kinds of deer are described in C. C. T. They are found chiefly in wild regions. In the Eastern States, the best regions for deer-hunting are the Adirondack Mountains, the Maine woods, and the western part of Pennsylvania. They abound in the Blue and Alleghany Mountains, in Arkansas, Michigan, the Rocky Mountains, and on the Pacific slope, but they are being killed so rapidly that there is danger that they may be exterminated. Many States have passed laws regulating deer-hunting. Deer are hunted in various ways. In the South the sportsmen usually ride on horseback, and dogs are put on the trail, who chase the deer past the huntsmen. In some parts of the South there are hunting clubs, organized expressly to hunt deer in this way. In Georgia and Florida, deer are often shot by torch-light in the swamps, and in Kentucky and Tennessee hunting parties often camp in the woods for several weeks. In Arkansas the game is hunted chiefly on foot, the sportsman being careful not to get to windward of the deer. Sometimes the hunter, by pinning a red handkerchief across his breast, so excites the curiosity of the deer that the animal keeps still until he is very near him. The deer in the Adirondacks are fast decreasing in number, though the time for killing them is limited by law. The methods used there are still-hunting over freshly fallen snow, the hunter tracking the deer until within range; "Jack hunting," where a lantern called a "Jack" is carried on a pole in the bow of a boat, or on the sportsman's head, to dazzle the deer and make him stand still for a moment; and hunting with dogs. In the last-named method, the dogs drive the deer past the hunter, who is stationed on a " runway," or drive it into the water where it is shot swimming by huntsmen from the shore or in boats. Rifles and shotguns loaded with buckshot are used for deer-hunting.

Bears. The bear is described in C. C. T. Bears are found throughout the United States in wild places, such as the Catskill and Adirondack Mountains in the East, the mountains of North Carolina and West Virginia, the swamps of South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida, the "bottom lands" of Arkansas, and the mountains and forests of the far West. They are usually hunted with rifles and by the aid of dogs. The black or brown bear, unless it be a mother with cubs, is apt to be inoffensive till wounded. The grizzly, though formidable, is hunted for sport quite extensively.

Fox. The fox is described in C. C. T. He is found wild chiefly in the Southern States, especially around the Blue and Alleghany Mountains. In some parts of the country, especially in New England, he is hunted with a gun like other wild animals, hounds being employed to drive the game to the hunter, who stations himself where the fox is

likely to pass; but in some other parts of the country sportsmen think that the proper way to hunt him is with a pack of hounds. The hounds follow the trail of the fox till they overtake and kill him, and the huntsmen follow on horseback, each striving to be " in at the death." The fox adopts many kinds of tricks to deceive the dogs and throw them off the scent, and the trail often leads over very rough country, so that to follow it requires great skill in riding. In some of the Southern States Targe packs of hounds are kept for fox-hunting, and women as well as men are fond of the sport. There are fewer foxes in the Northern States, but near some of the large cities are associations called "hunts " for the purpose of hunting the animals. Where foxes cannot be found, one is brought from a part of the country where they abound, and sometimes instead of following a fox, the hounds are made to trace the scent of a bag filled with anise seed, which has been dragged over the ground. The first one of these hunting clubs was formed in Hackensack, N. J., in 1875. Some of the chief ones are the Rockaway Hunting Club and the Meadow Brook Hunt on Long Island, the Essex County Hunt in New Jersey, the Radnor and Rosetree Hunts near Philadelphia, the Myopia near Boston, the Elkridge Hunt of Baltimore, and the Prince George County Hunt, most of whose members live in Washington, D. C. These hunts, in addition to the usual society officers, have a Master of the Hounds, who has charge of the horses and dogs, and appoints places for the meets.

Hares or Rabbits, Hares are usually hunted with dogs, which drive out the game to the hunter. The beagle is the best dog for this purpose. In the West the large hare, known as the jack rabbit, is coursed with grayhounds, which chase the game on the prairies, the huntsmen following on horses. The Jacks, as they are called, are exceedingly swift runners, but are often overtaken by the hounds.

Squirrels. Of all game animals no one furnishes more sport to the young hunter than does the black or gray squirrel. For squirrel-hunting a dog is useful to point out the tree where the game is in hiding; and for this purpose almost any dog with a good nose will do. The proper weapon is a small bore-rifle, though the shotgun is often used; but the rifle calls for the most skill and gives better satisfaction in every way. Other animals hunted in the United States are the Raccoon, the Wolf, the Lynx, the cougar, and the Opossum, and sometimes the Alligator and the Eagle. These, all of which are described in C.C.T., are usually shot with the rifle.

Game Laws. Most States have passed statutes for the preservation of game.

Methods. In New York deer cannot be taken by traps, springguns, or similar devices. They must not be hunted with dogs in St. Lawrence and Delaware counties, and in other counties only in certain prescribed seasons. It is forbidden to kill fawns. In New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania, wild fowl must not be killed with swivel or punt-guns, or by any other device except such a gun as is ordinarily raised to the shoulder and fired. In New York it is unlawful to hunt wild fowl at night or with a " floating battery " or to use a decoy more than twenty rods from shore, except in certain bays in Long Island, in Lake Ontario, and in Hudson River below Albany. In New York it is unlawful also to shoot wild fowl from any steam or sailing vessel. Game birds in general may not be trapped in any of these States. In New York hares and rabbits may not be hunted with ferrets, except in orchards or nurseries by their owners. In New Jersey non-resi

dents of the State are not allowed to hunt in certain counties without becoming members of one of the Game Protective Societies. Robbing the nests of wild birds or killing song-birds is unlawful in all the States mentioned.

Trespassing. In most cases it is necessary for the sportsman to hunt 01 land belonging to other people. The best plan is to obtain permission, which in this country is usually given readily, but often huntsmen have become so accustomed to kill game in a certain spot without hindrance, that they think they have a right to do so. Courts, however, have decided that, no matter what the custom is, sportsmen cannot claim a legal right to hunt on other people's land, nor even to stand on the public road and shoot over the fence, or send in a dog. In any such case the sportsman is really trespassing, and although the owner of the land usually does not care, the sportsman should always remember that the owner has a right to order him to leave. If he refuse, and do not leave after a reasonable time, the owner may then use necessary force, but not till then. The owner has no right, for instance, to set a savage dog on the trespasser whom he finds on his land. In some States special laws have been made against sportsmen who enter land when they are forbidden by a printed and posted notice.

The owner of a piece of land does not own the live game on it, in the same way that he owns his horses, dogs, or chickens, but he has the exclusive right to kill it so long as it is on his land. This right is called his property in game. But game is the property of no particular person till he has killed it. The question as to who owns game killed by a trespasser has never been settled in the United States.

Some States allow hunting privileges to its own citizens which they deny to those of other States. Their right to do this has been denied by some people, but the Supreme Court of the United States has decided that it is allowable to make such laws with regard to oyster-fishing, and probably all similar laws would be supported in like manner.

Seasons. Most of the States have laws regulating the times when the several species of game may be killed. See Tables following, The black lines show months the game is "in season." A short black line in the columns means first half of month, when printed toward the left; and last half, when toward right. Figures to the left of short lines mean in season from that date, and to right, to that date. These times are only approximately correct, as legislatures are constantly changing them. The sportsman to be absolutely safe should therefore make special inquiry in each case. The intent of these laws is to protect the game during its breeding season, so that birds may not be killed while nesting and rearing their young nor before the young birds shall have grown large and strong enough to care for themselves. The time when game may lawfully be killed is called the "open season," and during that period the game is said to be " in season." The period when it cannot be killed is called the " close season," and the game is then said to be "out of season." In most States it is forbidden also to have in possession or to sell game in the close season.

History. The pursuit of wild birds and animals was probably undertaken at first to obtain food, or for protection; but it must have begun very early to be thought of as a sport, for the oldest nations whose history we knew so considered it. In the great eastern kingdoms the Kings and their courtiers were very fond of the sport, and the sculptures on the ruins of Nineveh and other great cities of Assyria and Persia often represent hunting scenes. The

kings of Persia owned many vast hunting parks, in which were kept wild animals. These parks were called by the Greeks paradeisos, from which we get our word Paradise. The Greek and Roman legends are full of hunting stories. The Greeks were fond of the sport, and Xenophon and other Greek authors wrote books about it, from which it appears that hares, boars, stags, lions, panthers, and bears were among the game hunted.

In Egypt the huntsmen formed A class by themselves, either hunting on their own account, or acting as the attendants of the nobility. Sometimes trained lions were employed by them instead of dogs, just as the cheetah, or hunting leopard, is used in India at the present day, and the huntsman sometimes rode in a chariot, discharging arrows at the game when he came within range. Allusions in the Bible to huntsmen and their nets and snares show that in Palestine trapping was a favorite mode of securing game; but spears and arrows were also sportsmen's weapons. The horse and dog were not used in hunting by the Jews. King Herod was a successful huntsman, and is said to have killed forty boars, wild asses, and deer in a single day. The Romans viewed hunting, like other sports, less as an occupation for gentlemen than as a spectacle, and exhibitions of hunting were often given in the great amphitheatres. Sometimes the beasts were killed by attendants, and sometimes the people were allowed to rush in and carry away what they could get, in which case no dangerous animals were brought in. Sometimes large trees were taken up and planted in the arena, to make it look like a forest. In one of these hunting spectacles, which were called Venationes, there were 1000 ostriches, 1000 stags, 1000 boars, 1000 deer, and numbers of wild goats, wild sheep, and other smaller animals

[graphic]

Deer.

Alabama, all counties

'' some counties

Arkansas (doe and fawn)

California

"Siskiyou and Nevada Counties

Colorado

Dakota

Florida

Georgia

Idaho

Illinois

Indiana and Iowa

Kentucky (female deer)

louisiana

Maine

Massachusetts (Tuesdays, Wednesdays Thursdays and Fridays)— Michigan, upper peninsula

"lower peninsula

Minnesota.

Mississippi

Missouri

Montana

Nebraska

Nevada

New Hampshire

New Jersey

New Mexico

New York

North Carolina

Ohio

Oregon (male deer)

Pennsylvania

South Carolina.

Tennessee

Some counties

Texas

Utah

Virginia

Washington

West Virginia

Wisconsin

Wyoming

Wild Turkey.

alabama, all counties.

'' some counties

Arkansas

Georgia

Indiana

Iowa

Kentucky

louisiana

Michigan

Mississippi

Missouri

New Mexico

North Carolina

Pennsylvania

Ohio

South Carolina

Tennessee, all counties

"some counties

Texas

Virginia, West of Blue Ridge

"elsewhere

West Virginia

Quail.

alabama, all counties

"some counties ..

Arkansas and California

Colorado

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