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boats have two sets of runners, sharp ones for smooth ice and strong winds, and duller ones for rough or soft ice.
A Tom Thumb ice-boat holds only one person, and can be made by nailing boards together as in the diagram. The runners are made of skates. The rear one, or rudder, is screwed to the end of a stout wooden upright which passes through a hole at the rear of the main plank. To this upright a horizontal handle is fastened, forming the tiller. The steersman sits just forward of the tiller with his feet on the crossplank. The rudder may be omitted, the rear skate being fixed, like the others; but in this case the steersman must have on skates and steer with his feet. Any simple sail may be used.
The chief ice boat clubs in the United States are on the Hudson River and the Shrewsbury River in New Jersey. A silk challenge pen
Tom Thumb Ice-boat.
any organized club in this country or Europe. A list of winners of the pennant, with their times, is given in the appendix.
The following are the chief sailing rules of the Hudson River Ice Yacht Club:
Rule I.—The following sailing rules and regulations shall govern and control all the regattas and all the races of this Club, and all contests sailed under its auspices, unless otherwise specified between parties making a match.
Rule II.—Classification. Yachts shall be divided by sail area into four classes as follows: First class, measuring 600 square feet of sail area and over: Second class, measuring 450 and under 600 square feet; Third class, measuring 300 square feet and under 450; Fourth class, measuring less than 300.
RULE III.—Objections. If any objection be made with regard to the starting of any ice-yacht in a race, such objection must be made in writing to the Regatta Committee at least one hour before a regatta.
Rule IV.—Entry of the Yachts. Unmeasured or unrecorded yachts,
or yachts in arrears to this club, cannot be entered for any race.
RULE V.— Touching Buoys, etc. An ice-yacht touching any mark, boat, or buoy, used to mark out the course, shall forfeit all claim to the prize, except as in cases specified in Rules VII, IX, X.
RULE W.—Rule of the Road. When two yachts have to cross each other on the opposite tacks, the one on the starboard must invariably keep her course, and the one on the port tack must keep away and pass to leeward, or tack short, when the smallest doubt exists as to her being able to weather the other. All expenses of damages incurred by yachts on opposite tacks running on board each other, fall upon the one on the port tack, unless the one on the starboard tack has kept away with the intention of passing to leeward, in which case the expense of damage falls upon the yacht on the starboard tack, because, by her keeping away, she may have prevented the other passing to leeward. Should a vessel on the port tack attempt to weather one on the starboard tack when it does not seem possible to do so, the latter, rather than keep away, should put her helm down. Nothing should induce a vessel on the starboard tack to keep away.
RULE VII.—Courses. Any iceyacht purposely bearing away or 1 altering her course to leeward, and thereby compelling another iceyacht to bear away to avoid a collision, shall forfeit all claim to the prize, and pay all damages that may ensue—unless, when two ice yachts are approaching the windward shore, a buoy or stake boat, together with a free wind, and so close together that the weathermost cannot bear away clear of the leeward most, and by standing further on would be in danger of running on shore, or touching a buoy or stake boat; then such leewardmost ice-yacht, on being requested to bear away, is immediately to comply, and will forfeit all claim to the prize by not doing so. The weathermost ice-yacht must, however, bear away as soon as the one she hails, if she can do so without coming into contact.
Rule VIII.—Rounding Buoys, etc. When rounding a mark, boat, or buoy, the ice-yacht nearest thereto is to be considered the headmost ice-yacht; and should any other ice-yacht in the race compel the ice-yacht which is nearest to any mark, boat or buoy, to touch said mark, boat, or buoy, the iceyacht socompelling her shall forfeit all claim to the prize; her owner shall pay for all damages that may occur; and the ice-yacht so compelled to touch a mark, boat, or buoy, shall not suffer any penalty for such contact.
Rule IX.—Courses, Ice-yachts going free must invariably give way For those by the wind on either tack.
Rule X.—Courses. When two ice-yachts (by the wind) are approaching the shore, a mark, boat, or buoy, together, and so close to each other that the leewardmost cannot tack clear of the weathermost, and by standing further on would be in danger of running on shore, or touching a mark, boat, or buoy; such weathermost ice-yacht, on being requested to put about, is immediately to comply, and will forfeit all claim to a prize by not doing so. The leewardmost iceyacht must, however, tack at the same time as the one she hails, if she can do so without coming into contact.
RULE X I.—Pushing. Unfair pushing is strictly forbidden in any race for a prize; any ice-yacht infringing upon this Rule, in the opinion of the Regatta Committee, shall forfeit all claim to the prize.
Rule XII.—Ballast. No iceyacht shall increase or diminish ballast during a race.
Rule XIII.—Time of Performance. Section I. In case the
distance assigned for the race shall not have been performed in the time specified by the Regatta Committee, the race shall be repeated at such time as the Regatta Committee may appoint.
Sec. 2. If any ice-yacht, however, shall perform the distance in time specified for her class, it shall be deemed a race for that class.
History. Ice-boats have been used in the north of Europe for several centuries, but they have never been brought to such perfection there as in the United States. In Holland and Russia they are hardly more than sleds with sails, and sometimes they are sail-boats mounted on runners. The principal improvements in ice-boat building have been made by the clubs on the Hudson River, the first of which was formed in Poughkeepsie, N. Y., in 1861, but the sport is practised on harbors, lakes,and streams throughout the northern United States and in Canada.
IDENTIFICATION, GAMES OF, games in which part of the players try to guess the names of the others from the appearance of their eyes, ears, noses, or fingers. The players are divided into two parties, and stand in adjoining rooms, in the doorway, between the posts of which is stretched a sheet of cloth or paper with a hole in the middle. Each of one party now puts a finger through the hole, and each of the other party guesses who its owner is. As the guesses are made, they are recorded, and when all have guessed, he who has made the most correct guesses is declared the winner. The parties then change places. Instead of fingers, noses, ears, or hands may be put through the hole, or each may apply one eye to it. There may be only one guesser, and as soon as he makes a correct guess the person guessed may take his place.
In another game those whose names are to be guessed kneel down
eyes through the holes in the paper funnels, guesses who each one is. When all have guessed, the paper funnels are removed. Another method of identification is by the voice. French Blind Man's Bluff is a game of this kind.
ILLUSTRATED BALLADS, ballads illustrated by Pantomime or TabLeaux. The ballad is read or sung by a concealed person. If it be illustrated by pantomime, the action should accompany the ballad from beginning to end; but if by tableaux, they may be shown at intervals, when required. Any ballad telling a simple story may be thus illustrated. Instead of a ballad, a narrative poem may be taken, such as Longfellow's "Evangeline," or "Miles Standish."
I LOVE MY LOVE, a game played by any number of persons, who usually sit in a circle. The one who begins says, for instance, "I love my love with an A, because she is amiable; I hate her with an A, because she is avaricious. I took her to the sign of the Antelope,
and treated her to apples and ate Her name is Anna, and she lives in Andover." The words in italics may be varied as the speaker chooses, but must always begin with A, and if the player is a girl, she must of course speak of her love as a boy. When the first player has finished, the one on his left repeats the sentence, and so on till all have done so, but the words in italics must be entirely new in each case. When a player mentions any one of them a second time, or cannot think of a suitable word, he must pay a forfeit. When all the players have used the letter A, the sentence is repeated again by all in turn, using words that begin with B, and so on through the alphabet, except that X, Y, and Z, and sometimes U, V, and W, are omitted. When a large number play the game, it is often difficult for those whose turns come last to think of words that have not been used, and the turns should therefore be taken alternately in different directions; that is, to the right for A, to the left for B, and so on. The sentence given above is very commonly used in the game, but it may be varied at the pleasure of the company.
History. The game of I Love my Love was formerly very simple, and consisted in saying " I love my love with an A, because he is agreeable, amiable, attentive," and soon, using all possible adjectives beginning with an A, while the next player took up B in the same way. The game is called in France "Lejeu de l'alphabet" (The Alphabet Game). It is sometimes called "Alphabetical Compliments." The game can be varied in many ways. For instance, each player may represent a merchant, the first saying " My name is Atreus, I come from Attica, I deal in Antiquities, and am going to ^Etna;" the second, " My name is Byron. I come from Barbary, I deal in Bananas, and am going to Boston ;" and so on through the alphabet. Games of this kind are called in Germany Spielen mit gegebenen Anfangsbuchstaben (Games with Given Initials).
INDIAN CLUBS. See GymnasTics.
INITIALS, a game played by any number of persons. The leader begins by addressing to any player a remark whose words begin with the initials of that player's name in their proper order, or some epithet beginning with those initials. The others, one by one, address the same player in like manner. Whenever the player so addressed can answer one of the others with a sentence or epithet beginning with the latter's initials, before the next player can speak, the players must all address the one so answered, and so the game goes on. For instance, if the player's initials are A. E. B., he may be addressed with "An exquisite beau!" "Are eggs breakable ?" "Apples excite boils." "An early bird,' etc.
A similar game is known in Germany as Namenspiel (The Name
Game). In it the names or epithets are given one by one by each player to his neighbor, who must guess to whom they refer. They may apply to some one in the company or to some well-known person or historical character.
INK, Experiment with. Dissolve one half teaspoonful of salt in a tumblerful of water. Dip a pen in ink, filling it not too full, and touch with it the surface of the water. The ink will descend into the tumbler in curiously shaped drops.
INTELLECTUAL SALAD, a guessing game played by any number of persons. Any number of cards are first prepared, on each of which is written a quotation, with its author's name. The cards are decorated with green leaves of tissue paper, and placed in a salad bowl. One of the company takes them out one by one and reads the quotations, while the others guess the authors' names. The first one who guesses correctly, in each case, is given the card to keep as a memento.
IODIDE OF MERCURY, Experiment with. Mix together solutions of iodide of potassium and corrosive sublimate (the latter should be used with care, as it is very poisonous). A bright scarlet powder will be formed, which may be separated by filtering (see Chemical ExperiMents). This powder is iodide of mercury. When rubbed on paper it leaves a beautiful scarlet stain, but on heating the paper over an alcohol lamp, the stain turns yellow. If the stain be rubbed over with the fingers it will turn scarlet again. The change takes place gradually if the yellow stain be scratched with a pin. The reason is that iodide of mercury crystallizes in two forms, one of which is red and the other yellow. The red form is changed to the yellow by heat, and the yellow crystals are broken up into red ones again by rubbing,
IODINE, Experiments with. The iodine used in these experiments