12. 5-1 ; one from the opposite 12 to the player's 8, and one from the opposite ace point to 2.

13. 4-3 ; two from the opposite 12; one to the player's 9, and the other to his 10.

14. 4-2; one from 8 to 4, and one from 6 to 4 in the player's tables.

15. 4-1 ; one from the opposite 12 to the player's 9, and one from the opposite ace point to 2.

16. 3-2; two from the opposite 12; one to the player's 10, the other to his 11.

17. 3-1; one from 8 to 5, one from 6 to 5 in the player's tables.

18. 2-1 ; one from the opposite 12 to the player's II, and one from the opposite ace point to 2.

Russian Backgammon, or Trie Trac, a kind of backgammon in which the men are not set on the board in the beginning, but are entered, as if they had been taken up. Both players enter in the same table and move in the same direction. The player may move before entering all his men, but if a man be taken up, it must be entered before any other play can be made, and if this is impossible its owner loses his turn. If doublets are thrown, after playing them the numbers on the opposite sides of the dice are also played, and then the player is allowed another throw; thus he can keep on playing so long as he throws doublets and can make his moves. But if he cannot make any move his play must stop. The privilege of playing the numbers on the opposite side of the dice is sometimes not given to the first throw of doublets. It is sometimes extended by letting any one who throws an ace and a two play doublets of them and both of the opposite numbers (six and five), and then, after playing them, throw again. The rules are the same as for ordinary backgammon.

Spanish Backgammon, or Jacquet. In this form of the game there is no taking up, and a single man there

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the form at that time is plainly shown. There is no bar on the board and there seem to be but eight points. In the 14th century the board was divided like ours, but the points were of only one color. There were many ways of playing, in some of which three dice were used and the men all set in the opponent's inner table. Tables was one of the indoor games that James I. recommended to his son Prince Henry in his book of advice called "Basilikon Doron" (The Royal Gift). The word backgammon is thought by some to be from the Welsh and to mean little battle. Others think it is Saxon and means back-game, from the setting back of the men when taken up; and others still that it is Danish and means the tray game, from the shape of the board. In Germany it is called Puff (Clatter), probably from the rattling of the dice or the pieces on the board. The French TricTrac, which is the same in German, and was anciently called tick-tack in English, is named in the same way. In Germany, backgammon is also called Brettspiel (board-game), and so is draughts.


BADMINTON. See Lawn TenNis.

BAGATELLE, a game played by any number of persons with cues and balls like those used in Billiards, but smaller, on a table something like a small Billiard table, cushioned only at the sides, or on a cloth covered board, which can be laid on an ordinary table. Nine balls, two of which are colored, are used. At the lower end of the table are nine holes, numbered in order, and in front of the holes is a spot a on which one of the colored balls, often called the King Ball, is placed. At the upper end of the table is another spot, b, and between it and the holes a line called the string line, as in Billiards. Each player in turn plays his eight balls one by one, the colored one first, by


Bagatelle Board.

placing each on the spot behind the

string line and striking it with his

cue, as in Billiards,

toward the holes.

The object is to

place the balls, including the King

Ball, in the holes,

and the player scores

the numbers of such

holes as he can fill,

the colored balls

counting double.

Thus the highest

score would be 62,

made by filling all

the holes, the colored

balls being in the

Nine and Eight

holes. Such a score

is very unusual. He

wins who scores most

points in a number

of rounds agreed upon before the game.

If any ball rebounds

beyond the string line, it must be

removed from the board till the next player's turn. At the end of each turn the board is cleared, and the King Ball placed on its spot, as in the beginning. The three-ball game of Billiards may be played on a Bagatelle board, caroms counting one each, and each hole its proper number as in ordinary Bagatelle.

Mississippi, a kind of Bagatelle played with a bridge or row of stalls which is placed on the board lust in front of the holes. The stalls are numbered from one to nine, but no ball is allowed to hits the side of the


Mississippi Board.

score unless it

board before entering them.

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interfere that of the ball from the right hand is made higher than the other.

8. Triple Pass. (Fig. 8.) The same as the last, with the addition of a third ball,which simply follows in the path of the others. The in

1 troduction of a third ball will complicate matters and require even more practice than the preceding exercises.

9. Triple Over and Under Pass. Like the last (Fig. 9), except that one of the balls from the left hand to the right is sent higher than either of the others, so


Fig. 6.

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Single Fountain (Fig. 11), a ball is used by each hand and with each the outside fall is performed. In the Double Fountain (Fig. 12), each hand showers two balls, and the balls do not pass from one hand to the other.

The natives of the South Sea Islands are said to be very skillful at ball juggling, using small round fruits, or balls made of rolled leaves, and keeping as many as five in the air at once. Sometimes, also, a sort of bat, made of a stick of wood with a short cross-piece at the end, is used to strike the ball, instead of tossing it up with the hand.

BALLS AND BALL GAMES. Games in which a ball is used have been played since the most ancient times. Greek and Roman writers tell different stories about the invention of such games, but probably none of these are true. The ball is such a simple toy, and so easily made, that it has doubtless been used by all nations from the earliest times, and it is not necessary to suppose that it was derived by them all from one tribe or people. It was known to the Egyptians, and the picture, from an old wall-painting, shows a ^game played by them, in which two ot the players sat on others' backs. Homer describes in the " Odyssey" a game of ball played by a Greek princess and her companions to the sound of music. The Greeks called the ball Sphaira, from which we get the word sphere, and the Roman name for it was Pila. Both nations were very fond of playing with it, and both had many games, in most of which a small ball was thrown from one player to another. The Greeks valued it so highly that they had special teachers of the game in their gymnasiums; and the Athenians erected a statue to a skillful ball-player named Aristonicus. The Emperor Augustus was fond of the sport, and after his time it was commonly played just before taking a bath, in a room attached to the bathing house, The Romans also played with a large ball

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or Rome, and this kind of game seems to have originated in the East. The bat and ball games, such as CRICKET, BASE BALL, and cat, seem to be still later, like the various Tennis games, including Racket, Fives, and HAND BALL, where the ball is sent against a wall. But all these forms of Ball have so many points in common that it is difficult to trace their history, and authorities generally differ as to the exact course of their development. What is known of each is told in the separate article treating of it. The illustration, from a painting in the baths of Titus, shows four persons playing some kind of a ball game before entering the bath.

BANDILORE, a toy consisting of two discs joined at the center and having a string wound between them. The player takes one end of the string and allows the bandilore to fall, revolving as the string unwinds. Just before it reaches the end of the

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