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is a bluish black solid. The liquid iodine used in medicine is really iodine dissolved in alcohol.
1. Take a piece of iodine and heat it in a bottle. It will not melt, but give off a beautiful purple vapor.
2. Powder some iodine fine, and put a very little of it (about as much as will lie on quarter of an inch of the small blade of a knife) into a small saucer. Pour in enough strong ammonia water to cover it, and let it stand for about 20 minutes. Then either stir the powder up, and filter it (see ChemIcal Experiments) orpouroffmost of the ammonia, and then pour the powder on a piece of blotting-paper. Place the filler-paper or blottingpaper where it will dry in the sun. When it is perfectly dry, rub a stick on the powder, or even brush a feather over it, and it will explode with a crackling noise. Though it has not changed in looks, the iodine has been made by the ammonia into a very explosive substance called Nitrogen Iodide. The reason why so little iodine was used, is that otherwise the explosion might be dangerous.
IRON BURNED IN A CANDLE. Take any piece of iron, as a bit of wire, or a nail, and scrape it with a knife above the flame of a candle. Very small bits of the iron are scraped off which, although they cannot be seen with the naked eye, take fire as they, fall into the flame, and burn with beautiful sparks.
I SPY, an out-door hiding game played by any number of persons. One of the players, who is usually chosen by Counting out, remains near the goal (which may be a tree, stone, or other object) and, shutting his eyes, counts a number previously agreed upon, generally one hundred. Meanwhile, the others hide, each where he pleases, and when the player at the goal has finished counting, he goes out in search of them. When he sees one he names him, saying, "I spy James Smith,"
or whoever it may be. Both now run for the goal. If the hider touch it first, without being touched himself, he is safe. If the seeker can not catch any of the players he spies, nor touch the goal before them after he spies them, he must close his eyes again while they all hide as before; but if he has caught or touched the goal before one or more players, the first one of them must take the seeker's place in the second game. The hiding players need not wait to be spied, but may run in and touch the goal whenever they think they can do so safely.
This game is sometimes played in England by dividing into two parties, one of which hides and the other seeks. If the seeking party spy two of the hiders before two others reach goal, they hide in the next game, otherwise the same party hide again.
Hide and Whoop or Hide and Seek, a kind of I Spy played by little children. Those who hide call out "Whoop!" when they are ready. and the seeker then looks for them. In the simplest form of the game there is no goal, and the one that is found first becomes seeker in the next game. Another game sometimes called Hide and Seek, is called in this book Hide The HandkerChief.
The Greeks played a game of Hide and Seek called Apodidraskinda (The Shunning Game), where one sat down and closed his eyes, while the others hid. He who was found first took the seeker's place.
IMPERIAL. See Piquet.
I SUSPECT, a game of cards played by any number of persons with one or more full packs. The cards are dealt one by one, so as to be as evenly distributed as possible. The eldest hand leads a card, face downward, calling out at the same time the name of a card, which may be the one he laid down or some other. The next player to the left now plays in like manner. and must call the name of the card next higher than the one named by the eldest hand. The others in turn do the same. Thus if A leads, calling " Six," the others in turn, as they play, say "Seven," "Eight," "Nine," " Ten," " Knave," etc. or iron Jack-stones are commonly used. In England it is called "Dibs." "Cockall" was an old name for it, and the French call it Osselefs (little bones). Sometimes, also, it is played with marbles, and the jack is often of a different size or color from the rest. The name "Jack-stones" is probably a corruption for "Chuck Stones." In Scotland small pebbles are called "chuckie-stanes.' In Germany it is called Handtopsen or Knochelchen, and the Jack receives in various parts of that country different names.such as Hecker, Dopser, and Hopper.
When King is reached the next player begins at " One " again. This goes on till some one suspects that the card played is not the same as the card called, when he must say "I suspect." The suspected person then shows the card he played. If the suspicion is correct, the offender must take into his hand all the cards on the table; if it was unfounded, the accuser receives the cards. He who first gets rid of all his cards is the winner.
A just accusation may always be avoided by playing the proper cards in order, but this is impossible with a small hand, hence it is always safe to suspect the holder of a few cards. The last card should always be suspected, since there is only one chance in thirteen of its being right. If a player can get all four cards of the same name into his hand, he is
of course, certain to suspect rightly any one whose turn it is to play one of those cards. A skilful player rarely plays the right card unless he thinks some one is watching him, and saves as many kinds of cards as he can, getting rid of duplicates. When his hand is small, he tries to hide the fact by diverting the attention of the company to some one else.
RULES OF THE GAME.
1. No player can be suspected after the next in order has played his card.
2. A player may conceal his hand as he pleases, to hide the fact that it is small, but he must always show it on demand of any one of the company.
3. The game may be continued after one player's cards are gone, till all the cards are in one hand. In this case any one out of the game may suspect, and if he suspect wrongly he must enter the game again.
This game is called also "I Doubt it," and " You Lie."
JACK'S ALIVE. See Robin's Alive.
JACK-STONES, a game played by one or more persons with five small pebbles, or little i pieces of iron shaped as in the illustration. These are thrown up and caught in various ways, and if more he wins who first succeeds in going through in order with a certain number of exercises. These exercises differ in kind and number in different places; but some of them are given below.
Jack-stone, than one plays,
1. The five Jack-stones are thrown into the air and caught all together on the back of the hand.
2. One of the Stones is tossed up and caught in the hand and on its back alternately. At the successive catches the player calls out " Five!" "Ten !" " Fifteen !" "Twenty!" and so on by fives up to One Hundred.
3. Ones. The Jack-stones are held in the hand, and one, called the "Jack," is thrown into the air, while the four others are laid on the floor or table in time to catch the Jack as he comes down. These are then picked up, one by one, each one while the Jack is thrown into the air. When all have been taken into the hand they must be laid down
Oti dama, or Japanese Jack-stones, the game of Jack-stones played with little bags about an inch and a half square, partially filled with rice. Some of the figures of Chi- dama differ from those of ordinary Jack-stones. Seven bags are often used, and the Jack is sometimes made of a different shape. The name is in Japanese O-tidama, from O te tama (The Hand-balls). The game is common in Japan, and pebbles also are used in playing it there, as with us.
JACKSTRAWS, a game played by any number of persons with little sticks of ivory or wood of equal length, generally between four and six inches. Some of these sticks, called Jack-straws, and usually twenty to one hundred in number, are plain, and some carved to look like various objects, as weapons, tools, garden implements, and the like. The players sit around a table, and the one who begins takes up the Jack-straws in one hand, in a bundle, and then holding them upright and touching the table, suddenly lets go, so that they fall outward in all directions. Each in turn then tries to pull from the pile with a little hook, made for the purpose, as many of the straws as he can, one at a time, without shaking any of the others. If he shakes any Jack-straw ever so little, he must stop, and the turn passes to the j
next. When the pile is gone, he who has the most Straws wins. Sometimes the Straws are marked with different numbers, and then at the close of the game each adds his numbers, and he who has the highest wins. The game is sometimes called Jerk-straws, and perhaps the common title is a corruption of this. The English often call it Spillikins, and the Germans Fcder Spiel (the Pen Game). The French call Jackstraws Ionchets, or Honchets (from Joncher, to strew), and name particular pieces the King, the Queen, and the Knight. These are of different shapes from the others, and being more difficult to extract from the pile, count more than the common straws, the King being valued at 20
Saints, the Queen at 10, and the knight at 5.
Jacob Y, a game of cards played by three persons with a full pack. Four hands are dealt, as in Whist, with a Dummy. The cards in Dummy's hand are sorted in sequences, the highest first, beginning with Clubs, followed in order by Hearts, Spades, and Diamonds. The cards are played as in Whist, except that each player is for himself. Dummy follows suit when he can, always playing his highest card, and when he cannot follow suit he plays the first card in his hand, arranged in the order described. He is never allowed to take a trick, and therefore never leads. If he play a card that would ordinarily take the trick, it goes to the next highest card played. The object is to get rid of the Jacks. Each trick counts one, but for each Jack taken a number must.be deducted from the score. Thus, for the Jack of Clubs, 4 is deducted ; for the Jack of Hearts, 3; for the Jack of Spades, 2; and for the Jack of Diamonds, 1. He who first makes ten points wins the game.
JUSTICE IS BLIND, a game played by any number of persons, one of whom, representing Justice, is blindfolded. Justice is given a seat in the middle of the room, and then a second player leads up the players, one by one, and asks Justice's opin
ion of each. Whenever the opinion is correct, as decided by a majority of the company. Justice changes places with the person judged.
KALEIDOSCOPE. The ordinary toy kaleidoscope is described in C. C. T. A large one, to furnish amusement at an evening party, may be made thus: The lid of a piano is opened and rested on piles of books, so that it forms an angle of 60 degrees with the top, and the whole is then covered with the piano-cloth, or with a large table cover. The polished top and lid of the piano take the place of the glass mirrors in the small kaleidoscope, and when objects are held or moved at one end they will appear in beautiful and complicated designs to any one looking in at the other. The cover should hang down over the end at which the observer stands, so that he may put his head under it. The objects at the other end, which may be anything bright or colored, must be shaken about and changed rapidly. Thus the exhibitor may first twirl a bouquet of artificial flowers in front of the kaleidoscope, then shake his fingers there, then dangle two or three silver spoons at the end of a string, then look in and make a face, and so on. The objects should be brightly lighted, but the lamp or gas fixture should be placed so that it does not show in the kaleidoscope. The reason why the reflections appear in a regular design in a kaleidoscope will be understood by looking at the figure, which, if looked at from the left, may represent a section of the piano-hd and top, M and M'. The top M will be reflected in the hd M', appearing as the dotted line just beyond, and this reflection behaves like a real mirror, so the lid is reflected in it.
Principle of Kaleidoscope.
surfaces. Thus eight objects, a, 6, a', V, etc., are seen arranged in a regular design, of which only one is real, the others being reflections The centre of the design is always the angle between the piano top and lid. By varying this angle, the number of reflections, and therefore the shape of the design, will be changed, there being more images as the top and lid are brought nearer together. A kaleidoscope for use with the Magic Lantern can be made by placing two mirrors against the screen, at an angle, and throwing between them the image of a slide made of two pieces of glass having heads or fragments of glass between them. The image can be varied, as in the ordinary kaleidoscope, by shaking the slide.