The audience must sit on the opposite side of the screen from the lantern.

Diffraction Kaleidoscope, a toy

depending on the principles explained under Diffraction GratIngs. It has one of these gratings, ruled with a diamond-point on glass, for an eye-piece, and for objects disks of pasteboard with needle holes in various patterns. These can be arranged to suit the fancy of the observer. The light passing through these holes, when viewed through the grating, produces various beautiful colored patterns.

Tube Kaleidoscope, Paint a glass tube (for instance the straight part of an Argand lamp chimney) black on the outside. Look through this at a pin-hole in a piece of paper, and several circles of light will be seen, one within another. Any design or figure looked at will in like manner be reflected in circles, making a curious effect. The tube may be closed at one end by two pieces of glass, between which are placed beads or other small colored objects, as in an ordinary kaleidoscope.

KENO. See Loto.

KEY OF THE KING'S GARDEN. See Repeating Games.

KING AND QUEEN, a game or trick in which any number of persons may take part. All who have never played the game before are sent out of the room. A boy and girl are then selected as King and Queen and seated on a throne made of two chairs, placed about two feet apart and covered with a shawl or rug. The covering is stretched while the King and Queen take their seats, and their weight keeps it smooth, so that the throne looks like a solid bench, covered with a shawl. The other players are then asked to come in one by one. As each appears, one who is chosen for the purpose, introduces him to the King and Queen and says that they wish him to sit between them. Just

as he is about to take his seat the King and Queen rise and allow him to fall between the chairs. He then takes his place among the other spectators, and witnesses the reception of his companions. The King and Queen must rise exactly at the right moment. If they do so too soon, the victim will have time to save himself; if they wait until he has rested his weight on the shawl, he will discover the trick and get up quickly.

KING ARTHUR WAS KING WILLIAM'S SON, a singing game played by boys and girls. A row of hats is placed on the floor, and the leader of the game, putting the first one on his head, marches about and sings to the tune of "Maryland, My Maryland":

"King Arthur was King William's son,
And when the battle he had won,
Upon his breast he wore a star,
And it was called the sign of war."

He then picks up the next hat and puts it on the head of any one he chooses, who must then follow him while they sing the same verse. This goes on till all the company are in line. Sometimes the first line is "King William was King James's (or King George's) son." A kissing game is played by adding to this stanza, or a similiar one, the lines,

"Star of the East. Star of the West,
Star of the one you love the best,
Down on the carpet you must kneel.
As the grass grows on the field.
Salute your bride and kiss her sweet,
And rise again upon your feet."

This game is played in this and other ways in Ireland, and is common in the Middle and Southern United States.

KING CAESAR. See Peelaway.

New castle, a game in which several players try to dislodge one from some position he has chosen. It is called in France Le Roi Detroni (The Dethroned King). The King selects for his castle a hillock or mound, and the other players try to dethrone him by pushing or pulling him down. Sometimes only pushing is allowed. During the civil war in England between the Parliament and Charles L, the Puritans besieged Hume Castle, and the commander, when ordered to surrender, replied,

"I, William of the Wastle,
Am now in my castle,
And a' the dogs in the town
Winna gae me gang down."

This rhyme is supposed to have been quoted from a boy's game of the time, probably the same as that just described. In Pennsylvania the defender of the castle says:

•' Hally, hally, hastle,
Come into my new castle."

In a variation of the game all the

players act as defenders except one,

who tries to gain entrance, saying:

"Hally, hally, hastle.
Get off my new castle."

KING'S LAND, See Tag. KITE-FLYING. The article Kite in C. C. T. describes several forms of

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points in which skill is especially shown in making a kite are the arrangement of the string and the tail. Two or more short strings are fastened to the kite frame and these are joined in a knot, to which the kite string is afterward tied. The kite (without its tail), if lifted by this knot, should hang with its sides perfectly even and the point where the tail is to be attached a little lower than the top. If, in flying, the kite is probably because this knot is too high; if it whirls around, the knot is too low.

The tail should never be less than twelve times, and may be even twenty times, the length of the kite. It may be made of string with stuff "bobs " of folded paper three inches long placed at intervals of three inches, or it may be of strips of cloth tied together, in which case it should be somewhat shorter, To fly a kite, one person must hold it in the air as high as he can, while the other stands about fifty feet distant in the direction from which the wind is blowing, with the string in his hand. At a signal from the latter, the former releases the kite, while the latter runs towards the wind till the kite has mounted a little way. He then lets out string till the kite is as high as he wants it to go. The running is for the purpose of increasing the force of the air striking the kite, as near the ground the wind is apt to be light. In a strong wind it is often unnecessary to run at all. When a kite has reached such a height that the weight of string attached to it is all it can carry, it will go no higher by itself, but the end of the string may be attached to a second kite which may be sent up in the usual manner. One kite after another may thus be sent up till their combined pull is all that the flyer can hold. Two kites sent up in th is way can be made to pull a carriage, the main kite being pre

ceded about 100 feet by a smaller one, called a pilot kite, which can be turned to one side or the other by strings, and the carriage can thus be guided somewhat. Benjamin Franklin once allowed himself to be drawn across a river by a kite, when he was bathing.

While the kite is in the air, if little pieces of paper with holes in the middle be strung on the string, the force of the wind will carry them up to the kite. These are called " messengers." Messengers made like a toy paper windmill will twirl around as they rise.

Kite-fighting, a contest between two kite-flyers to see which can capture or disable the other's kite. With ordinary kites this is done by entangling the tail of one in the string of the other. The kite whose tail is thus entangled is said to be captured. To capture a hostile kite, the flyer must make his own kite pass under the string of the other and then let out twine; when his kite has fallen behind that of the enemy he pulls it in rapidly. Kites with broken glass or knife blades fastened to the tail are sometimes used in these contests, the object in this case being to cut the opponent's string by sweeping the tail across it. They should be six-sided. The pieces of glass for the tail are obtained by chipping them from a thick glass bottle. Pieces with one edge sharp and the other thick and blunt are selected, and three are Kite-cutter. fastened to the string at one point with wax, so that they

all point outward. Strips of wood are now bound to the string lengthwise between the knives to keep them in place. Kite-fighting originated in China, where it is a favorite sport.

History. Kites appear to have been brought into Europe from China or Japan, where they were first used. The English name is from a supposed resemblance to the bird called a Kite. The French call the kite cerf volant (flying stag), the Scotch name it Dragon, and the Germans call it Drache which means the same thing.

KNAVE'S DIAL, a SOLitairegame of Cards, played with one or two full packs. All cards of the suit of the first one played are placed, as they appear, in a circle to represent the numbers on a clock dial, the Queen counting as 11 andtheKingas


Knave's Dial.

12. The Knave is placed in thecentre. On this dial is placed another of a differently colored suit, and so on till all the cards are used. Cards that cannot at once be put in place are laid aside to form stock, and the stock can be shuffled and relaid twice. If the four dials can thus be formed, one above another, the player wins.


trick, which the victim supposes to be a game. The person who is to be duped is told that the game consists in passing a whistle around a circle of players, while one, standing in the middle, is required to find it by its sound, as it is blown from time to time. Whoever "counts out" for the game must arrange that the player in the middle is some one who does not know the trick, which will now be explained: The whistle is fastened to one end of a string about two feet long, at the other end of which is a bent pin. The pin is hooked into the clothes of the player in the middle of the ring, so that the whistle always hangs behind him. It is blown by some one, and the seeker turns quickly to find it, thus carrying it in front of some one else, who blows it again. The victim of the trick is thus kept turning from side to side till he discovers the deception. The pin can be hooked into his clothes without his noticing it by making him kneel down and close his eyes, and then, after going through a mock ceremony, declaring him a " Knight of the Whistle," and striking him on the back. While this is going on, the whistle can be attached to him unobserved. The players should pretend to pass the whistle from one to the other so as to increase the deception.

KNIGHTS OF SPAIN, a game played by three boys, representing Spanish knights, and any number of girls, representing a mother and her daughters. The mother and daughters sit in a row, and the knights advance to ask the hand of one of the latter in marriage. A dialogue is carried on in verse, of which there are many varieties. The following is one common form:


"Here come three lords out of Spain, A courting of your daughter Jane/


"My daughter Jane is yet too young To be ruled by your nattering


"Be she young or be she old,
'Tis for the price she may be sold.

"So fare you well, my lady gay,
We must turn another way.


"Turn back, turn back, you Spanish Knight. And scour your boots and spurs so bright."


"My boots and spurs they cost you nought. For in this land they were not bought/'


"Turn back, turn back, you Spanish Knight, And choose the fairest in your sight.1'


"I'll not take one nor two nor three. But pray Miss (Mary) walk with me."

The knight then takes the hand of the girl named and walks around the room with her. On his return

he says:

"Here comes your daughter safe and sound. In her pocket a thousand pound.

1 On her finger a gay gold ring,— ""(tni

I bring your daughter 1

Sometimes the girl runs away and is pursued by her mother or the knight.

History. This game is played in many different forms throughout Europe. The English and Scotch versions are similar to ours, but in Spain the "knights" represent an embassy from the Moorish king. The verse probably dates from the middle ages. In the last century the game was very popular in the United States, and it is still played somewhat. Another version of the game begins " Here comes a duke a-roving," sometimes corrupted into "We are three ducks a-roving."

KNITTING NEEDLE, Experiment with a. Heat a knitting-needle to redness in an alcohol flame, holding it by a cork on one end so that the fingers may not be burned. Dip the red hot needle into cold water, and then hold it again in the flame. It will change

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