puts counters on the pool-cards, or "garnishes," putting one counter on the lowest, two on the next, etc.

Sometimes the "extra hand " is dispensed with. Beginners had better do so.

Sometimes the Seven of Diamonds is an " arbitrary" stop-card, that is, can be played whenever its holder pleases, he thus seizing the lead.

Sometimes the Nine of Diamonds is also made an arbitrary stop-card. In this case, when one arbitrary stop-card is played, the holder of the other can follow with it if he sees fit. The use of the two arbitrary stop-cards is recommended.

Sometimes the choice of suit for arbitrary stop-cards is auctioned off, the dealer acting as auctioneer, and the eldest hand making first bid.

If no bids are made, diamonds remain the suit. If another suit is bid for, diamonds may then be bid for also. After the auction:

(a) The successful bidder places the counters he bids, in the centre of the table.

(b) The player first "out" takes the aforesaid counters.

(c) If the players adopt that form of the game in which the pool-cards are all hearts, the other suit of the same color as the one chosen by auction, is entitled, as played, to the counters on the pool-cards.

The skill shown in this game is in knowing what to lead, and in remembering what has been played, so as to know when any card becomes a stop-card. The preferable leads are from suits in which the leader holds a stop-card. When the lead cannot be kept in this way, aces and the cards just above those in the extra hand should be led. Arbitrary stop-cards should not generally be played early in the hand.

History. Newmarket is derived from an old form of the game called Pope Joan, in which the Nine of Diamonds was called the Pope, and entitled the holder to certain priv

ileges. In the play "A School for Scandal" Sir Peter Teazle speaks of "playing Pope Joan with the Curate." Pope Joan is the heroine of a legend of the Middle Ages, which tells how a woman, dressed as a man, became a priest and was finally elected Pope. The name Newmarket is probably from the English town of the same name.

NIGGER BABY. See Roi.v Poly.

NINE HOLES. See Roly Poly.

NINE MEN'S MORRIS, a game played by two persons, each of whom has nine pieces, or men on a board like that in the illustration.

None of the pieces, which are of two colors, are on the board at the opening of the game. The players take turns in placing their men, one at a time, on the places marked with numbers in the diagram, and afterward in moving them from one spot to the next, in any direction, along the lines. Each player's object, both in placing the men and in moving them, is to form a row of

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also on a board with diagonal lines at the corners, and sometimes, when either player has had all his men captured but three, he is allowed to "hop," that is, to play a man to any vacant spot on the board.

The player must avoid crowding his men together, and try to place them on the corners. He should devote himself to blocking his opponent, as well as to getting his own men into lines. When possible, it should be arranged to make more than one line in successive moves. When by moving one man backward and forward two lines can be alternately made and broken, the player is said to have an "open and shut."

Thus, if a player has pieces at 17, 20, 23, 21, and 24, by moving that at 17 to 18 and then back again, he can continue to make rows of three till his opponent can bring up a piece to block him.

History. Nine Men's Morris was played at least five hundred years ago, and the board then in use was exactly like the one in the illustration. In France, it was played with pawns or men, but in England commonly with stones. Shepherds in England sometimes cut the lines in the ground and make holes for dots. Shakespeare, in describing a stormy season,says:

"The Nine Men's Morris is filled up with mud." The game was called also Five-penny Morris, and Nine-penny Marl. The French call it Merelles, which is from a Greek word meaning divisions or partitions. Morris may be from the same word, but it is also the name of a dance, and some think that the game was so called from moving the pieces backward and forward as in a dance.

NITRIC ACID, Etching with. Nitric acid is described in C. C. T. To etch with it on copper or brass, warm the metal, and then rub it with a piece of wax so that the metal will be covered with a thin

layer of wax. After it has cooled, draw in the wax the design to be etched, with the point of a knife, a needle, or any other sharp instrument, taking care to reach the surface of the metal. Then cover the metal with strong nitric acid. Soon bubbles will appear along the scratches made by the knife. Let the metal stand a few minutes longer, and then wash it in water and remove the wax, either by heating and rubbing, or with turpentine. The design will be found etched or eaten into the metal surface. This is because Nitric Acid does not act on wax, hence the wax layer protects the metal, except where the layer was scraped away with the knife.

Pour Nitric Acid on a bit of "Dutch leaf," which is very thin brass or bronze used by sign painters. The leaf will dissolve in the acid.

Put a bit of real gold leaf in each of two test-tubes or bottles, pouring Nitric Acid on one, and HydroChloric Acid on the other. Neither will dissolve the gold, but if the contents of the bottles be mixed, the gold will dissolve. This mixture of acids is called aqua regia (Latin for royal Water), because it is the only liquid which is able to dissolve gold.

NITRIC OXIDE, Experiment with. To make Nitric Oxide gas, arrange the apparatus exactly as for making Hydrogen, except that copper clippings are put into the bottle instead of zinc, and Nitric Acid poured into the water instead of sulphuric. When a jarful of the gas has been collected over water, remove the jar and turn it mouth upward. The gas, being lighter than air, will rise; but, though it was colorless in the jar, as soon as it enters the air outside it appears as a cloud of reddish brown vapor. The reason of this is that it unites with the oxygen in the air to form another gas called Nitric Peroxide, whose color is red.

NIVERNAISE, a Solitaire game of Cards played with two full packs. The player lays the first four cards played in his left hand in a vertical line, and four more on ais right, and then places six piles of four each, one pile at a time, in a row between. The Aces and Kings in the side rows, or on top of the piles, are now removed and placed in two rows below, Aces in one row, Kings in another. Any Ace or King thus uncovered in a pile is placed in like manner. The player's object is to build up families by suits, downward from the Kings and upward from the Aces. He may use, in building, the top card of any pile, or any card in the side rows. Vacancies in the side rows are filled either from the top of the piles or from the pack. When all possible cards have thus been used in building, four more are placed on each pile, and so on till the pack has been used. The piles may be shuffled and relaid till the families are completed, the number of times the player is obliged to do so being a measure of his skill.

NOBLESSE OBLIGE, a game of Cards played by three persons with a Euchre pack. The dealer, who is determined by the lowest cut, lays aside the four Aces, and then deals the other cards one by one, placing the last, or twenty-eighth card, face upward on the table. The dealer, if he can, leads a card of the same suit as the twenty-eighth card. If he cannot, the lead passes to the next, and if the next cannot, to the third player. Who ever leads thus places the twenty-eighth card in front of him and counts it as a trick. Play now goes on, as in whist, but with the following differences: If a player hold both court cards and plain cards in any suit, he cannot win a trick second or third hand unless a court card has already been played in that trick. If no court card has been played, he must play his lowest plain card, losing the trick. If he hold only plain cards,

or only court cards, in any suit, there is no limitation on his play. The winner of the last trick takes also the four Aces.

The score is one for each trick won (including the twenty-eighth card), two for the four Aces, and one for each court card held at the opening of the hand. The player with the highest score wins, each hand being a game by itself, or the players may agree on a number of points to be played for.


1. If there is a misdeal, the deal is lost, and passes to the next player on the left.

2. If a card be exposed, it is named, and the dealer takes possession of it, placing it on one side. The exposer loses one point.

3. A revoke, or attempt to win a trick where the rules forbid, loses the offender all score for honors, and the tricks gained, by thus breaking the rules.

4. The dealer must see all penalties enforced.

5. Only the trick preceding the one in play may be seen.

Noblesse Oblige is a French proverb, meaning " Rank imposes obligation," that is, more is expected of a noble than of a common citizen. The name is given to this game on account of the obligation not to take the trick which the holding of "nobles " (court cards) imposes on a player.

^JjONSENSE, a game played by any number of persons, sitting in a circle, who make a comical sentence by each furnishing one part of speech. One of the players begins by whisperingto his left-hand neighbor an article; the latter whispers to his left hand neighbor an adjective, and then in turn the others whisper in like manner a noun singulur, a verb, an adverb, a number, an adjective, and a noun plural. Each in order then tells the word whispered to him, and a sentence is thus formed; for instance, "The solemn grasshopper ate gleefully forty-three infuriated lobsters." The parts of speech may be varied to suit the players.

They are sometimes printed on cards of different colors, the nouns, for instance, being blue, the adjectives red, and so on. These are dealt to the players, and then each one reads a card of the proper color at random. A kind of Solitaire may be played with these cards, the player arranging them in rows, backs upward, in the proper succession of colors, and then turning them over.

The following are examples of other arrangements of the parts of speech. Article, adverb, adjective, noun, adverb, verb, article, noun. Adverb, adjective, noun-plural, verb, noun-plural, conjunction, verb, adjective, adjective, noun.

NORSEMAN, a game of Cards played by two to ten persons, with a full pack. Only a Euchre pack of 32 cards is used in playing the remainder, called the " Low Pack," being used only to determine the trump. The two-handed game will be described first. The deal is decided by cutting, the lowest card dealing. In both cutting and playing the cards rank as in Ecart£, the Ace ranking between the Ten and the Knave. The dealer gives each player five cards, one at a time, and then cuts the Low Pack for his opponent to turn the trumps, of which there are two, one in a red and the other in a black suit. The top card of those remaining on the table is turned for the first trump, and the next one of a different color for the other. Each of these trump suits counts as such only in its own color. Thus, if Spades and Hearts be the trumps,a Spade will take any Club, but is treated like a card of an ordinary suit with regard to Hearts and Diamonds. When the trumps are turned, each player has the privilege of discarding three

cards or less, and supplying their places from the stock. The elder hand discards first, and if he take less than three, the dealer may take what he leaves in addition to his own three. Either or both may refuse to discard at all. Both must discard before either take cards from the stock. After the discard, each of the players throws two dice, one with red and one with black spots. The sum of the spots on the two black and two red dice, respectively, determine two cards, one in the black and one in the red trump suit, which are the highest trumps in those suits for that hand. These are called Rovers, or Special Trumps. Thus, if one player throw a red five and a black four, and the other a red four and a black six. the Nine of the red trump suit and the Ten of the black trump suit are the Rovers. The Ace counts as either one or eleven, and the Knave as twelve. The King and Queen are never Rovers. If the sum of the spots in either color should be less than seven, there is of course no Rover in that color, since seven is the lowest card in the Euchre pack. When the dice of one color are Ace and Ace, or Ace and Two, the trumps of that color are degraded to the rank of ordinary cards for that hand. When Spades are trumps, the Knave of Spades is called "Norseman," and will take any card in the pack. Norseman is the only card that is a trump outside its own color.

Each player now looks at his hand, and if either has both rovers, or Norseman and a Rover, he wins the game at once, without playing a card. This is called winning " by hand." If Norseman be also a Rover, his holder also wins by hand. If no one wins thus, the elder hand leads, and the cards are played as in Euchre, or any ordinary two-handed game of cards.

Suit must be followed if possible; if not, a trump of the same color as the card led must be played. If neither of these things can be done, a card of the other color may be thrown away. Norseman and the Rovers may be "reneged," that is, their holder is not obliged to follow suit with them, but may play them when he pleases. Each trick taken counts one, and the same player continues as dealer till one of them has won the game, either by making five points, or "by hand," as described above.

Four - handed Norseman. Two play as partners against the other two, partners sitting opposite, as in Whist. Five cards are dealt to each. The dealer and elder hand throw the dice to determine the Rovers. The players discard in order, beginning with the elder hand. He and the next player may not discard more than three apiece; but if they take less, the others may each take what his partner left. Thus, if the best player takes two cards and the second none, the third may take four and the fourth six. In this way twelve cards, all that remain in the stock, may be taken. In other respects the game is played like two-handed Norseman.

Three handed Norseman. The

Low Pack is not used. After dealing, the dealer places the stock before the player on his right, who is called Poney, and cuts. Poney turns up the top card of those remaining on the table, as first trump, and the next of the other color as the other trump. The intermediate cards, if there be any, he takes into his own hand, where they are called Reserved Cards. Each player must discard his whole hand, or none at all, and if Poney discard, he must reckon the Reserved Cards as part, or all, of the cards he takes in. Should there be more than five Reserved Cards, he may return which he pleases to the stock. If Poney does not wish to discard, he must lay aside all his Reserved Cards.

The holder of a Rover, or Norseman, must lead it at the first opportunity. Norseman as a Round Game.

Any number less than ten may play, and five cards are dealt to each from the full pack. Each player has two dice, one with red and one with black spots. To determine the dealer, the cards are thrown around, and he to whom the first Ace falls, deals. The trumps are determined before dealing, the player on the dealer's right cutting while the dealer turns them up. After the deal, each player throws his dice, and each one's dice, with those of the dealer, determine the Rovers for his own hand. Before playing begins, each one in turn, beginning with the eldest hand, either lays his Rovers face upward on the table, securing one for each, or declares that he has none. Rovers thus laid down remain so till played. In play, the Rover last played is always considered the highest. Thus, if one player put down the Ten of Hearts, it being a Rover, and the next the Three of Hearts, it being also a Rover, the latter takes the trick, unless some one else plays another Heart, Rover, or Norseman, afterward. Each trick counts one point, except the last, which counts two. Whenever Norseman is played, its holder scores two at once. The first player to score ten wins the game. The elder hands thus have an advantage, which is offset by that given the younger hands in allowing the later Rover always to take the earlier. The deal does not pass to the left, but is determined anew each hand, as at first.

Instead of turning trumps before the deal, there may be no trumps at all, in which case the sum of the red spots, for instance, on the dice thrown by any player and the dealer makes a red card of either suit in that player's hand a Rover. In this case, two Rovers of the same color

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