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count only one point, though they must both be laid on the table.

RULES OF THE GAME.

1. A misdeal loses the deal, and one point is deducted from the dealer's score.

2. No hand can be altered after all have discarded.

3. A revoke or a neglect to play a trump of the same color, where it is possible, loses the offender one point.

4. The dice must remain on the table, as thrown, throughout the hand.

5. A card played out of turn cannot be taken back.

6. Any player may count the stock, or ask about exposed or played Rovers (This rule applies particularly to the Round Game).

NORTHERN SPELL. See Knurr And Spell.

NOUGHTS AND CROSSES. See

TlT-taT-TO.

NOVELS. A game played by any number of persons, with pencil and paper. The players usually sit around a table, and after they have agreed on the title of the novel they are to write, one of them begins it, writing a given number of lines. He then folds over the paper

so as to hide what he has written, and then hands it to the player on his left, telling him only the last word he wrote. That player must continue the story as well as he can, and then each in turn takes it up, each writing the same number of lines and each telling his neighbor the last word. The last player must write an ending to the story, which is then unfolded and read aloud. If it is desired, more than one story can be written at the same time, each beginning and ending at different players from the others. Besides the subject of the novel, the names of its hero and heroine can also be agreed upon beforehand.

NUMBER ELEVEN, a SOLITAIRE game of Cards, played with one or two full packs. The cards are played so as to form two rows, six in one and and five in the other. Any two cards on the table, the sum of whose pips is 11, are now laid aside, and their places filled from the pack. If King, Queen and Knave are in one 'row, or of one suit, they also may be removed. This goes on till the pack is out, or there are no cards I on the table which can be removed. : If the former is the case, the player has won.

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hands; and in the fourth, each turns around. Then joining hands again, they circle about as before and sing to the same tune.

Waiting for a partner,
Waiting for a partner,
Open the ring and take one in,
And kiss her when you get her in.

The circle then stops and the boy within selects a girl from the players, whom he kisses, and who must then stand beside him in the ring. Joining hands again, the players circle about them, saying:

Now you're married you must obey,
You must be true to all you say,
You must be kind, you must be good,
And make your husband chop the wood.

The boy now joins the other players in the circle, leaving the girl alone within, and the game begins anew, the only difference being that a boy is chosen from the circle instead of a girl.

This game is said to be unknown in Great Britain, but it is common in most of the other countries of Europe. It is mentioned by the chronicler Froissart in the 14th century. In France, Spain, and Italy, there are also verses telling how the farmer reaps, and describing his other labors. Some people think the game was originally played by peasants in seed-time, in the belief that it would make the corn grow.

OBSERVATION, a game played by any number of persons, each with a pencil and paper. Any number of articles, of any kind are placed on a table in the centre of a room, and the players, forming in line, march into the room, around the table, and out again. Each then writes on his paper the names of as many of the articles on the table as he can recollect. The longest list is then read, and the reader scores for each article as many points as the number of players who have not its name on their lists. As each article is read, its name is crossed off by all who have it, and, when the longest list has been exhausted, any remaining names on other lists are

read in like manner. When a dispute arises as to whether any article has been sufficiently or properly described, it may be decided by a majority vote, or by an umpire, not one of the players, especially chosen for the purpose.

Unconscious Counting, a kind of Observation, in which each player tries to tell at a single glance the number of dots on a piece of paper. The dots, from 10 to 15 in number, are made in irregular order, and the paper is then shown quickly to each player for so short a time that it is impossible for him to count them one by one. The best plan is to make large dots and hold the paper up for an instant where all can see it at once. If it is shown to each separately, it is hard to make the intervals of time exactly equal, and therefore strictly fair to all. He who comes nearest to the right number scores a point; or if the nearest guess is made by two or more players, each scores a point. Another group of dots is then made and shown to the players.

After this has been repeated a number of times agreed on beforehand, he who has made most points is declared winner. The one who makes and shows the points does not take part in the guessing, and is chosen from among the players for each game. Another method of scoring is to give each player the difference between his guess and the real number of dots. The one who has the fewest points at the end of the game is then the winner. To avoid the influence one player's estimate might have on the others, each must write his guess on a piece of paper before any of the guesses are announced.

The power of thus estimating, or unconsciously counting a number of objects, is largely increased by practice. An English arithmetician named Dase could thus give the number of sheep in a flock, or of books on a shelf, up to thirty, at a single glance. Nearly any one is able thus to count three or four, and sometimes more, and the number is easily extended. In practising unconscious counting, the number of dots should be gradually increased, and arranged at first in regular order, the arrangement being made more and more irregular.

ODD AND EVEN, a game played by two persons, one of whom holds any number of small objects, while the other guesses whether that number is odd or even. If he guess correctly, he wins. The objects are usually such as can be held in the closed hand, such as pennies, beans, or pebbles, but fingers may be held up instead. s

History. This amusement "is very old. The Romans called it Par Impar (Odd-Even) and the Greeks named it also Zuga / Azuga (Yokes or no Yokes), for what reason is unknown. The name may be a corruption, since the similar Sanskrit words yuj and ayuj mean odd and even.

OLD MAID, a game played by any number of persons, usually not more than six, with a pack of cards, from which three of the Queens have been taken. The remaining Queen, usually the Queen of Hearts, is called the Old Maid. The cards are dealt one by one, and then each one throws on the table all the matches or pairs of like cards that he has in his hand. Each then, beginning at the dealer's left, draws a card from the hand of the player at his right. If the card so drawn matches any that he has, the two are thrown on the table; otherwise the turn passes to the player at his left. When all the cards have been matched excepting the Old Maid, the player holding that card is said also to be the Old Maid. Much of the amusement of the game is caused by the efforts of the player who finds the Old Maid in his hand so to place her that she will be drawn by his neighbor. Sometimes the matches.

instead of being thrown out all at once, are played in turn, one at a time, so that, if one player begins to draw before his neighbor, he may break one of that neighbor's pairs in drawing. Sometimes, instead of taking out three Queens at the beginning, a card is drawn from the pack at random and laid aside, and at the end of the game one of the mates of that card is left in a player's hand, the other two having been matched. This form of the game is not so interesting as the other, as in it no one knows what card is Old Maid.

Packs of special Old Maid cards are sold at toy stores, bearing all kinds of comic figures, including one of the Old Maid. With these the game is played in the same way as with ordinary playing cards, save that no cards are thrown out of the pack at first, as there is but one Old Maid.

In Germany this game is called Schwarzer Peter (Black Peter), though it is not like our game of that name. Instead of a Queen, one of the Knaves is used, and the player left with it has his face blackened with soot. OLD SLEDGE. See All Fours. OLD STAGER, THE, a Solitaire game of cards played with two packs. Three rows of thirteen cards each are first laid down. Whenever a King falls directly below a card of the same suit, it may be removed to the adjoining place and the space left is filled with the next card. The Aces, as they come, are laid in a row, and families are piled on them in order, by suits, ending with the Kings. For this purpose only, the lowest row of cards can be used, except when there is a free space below some other card, when that card may be taken. Cards allowable to play thus are called free cards. Any free card can also be placed on any other free card just above or just below it in value, following suit. Useless cards are laid aside to form stock, of which the top card can be used to build, or to fill a space in the rows. The next card on the pack can also be used for these purposes, except when the vacancy is in the top row, when only the stockcard may be used. If the families are not formed by the time the pack is gone, the three bottom cards of the stock may be taken in hand and played as before.

OLD WITCH, a game played by not more than ten children, one representing a mother, one a witch, and the others daughters, of whom the eldest is often called Sue, and the others are named after the days of the week, Sunday, Monday, Tuesday, etc. The mother, going out, charges her eldest daughter to take care of the rest. The witch then calls, and steals one of the children. This is repeated till all the children are gone. The witch then names each child after some eatable (often after different kinds of pies), and offers them to the mother to eat. The latter recognizes her children one by one, and sends them home. There are many varieties of this game, some of which are played partly in verse. Instead of Sue, a servant is left in charge in some versions of the game. The witch gets the servant out of the way by telling her that the kettle is boiling over. On the mother's return, the eldest daughter, or servant, when asked where the stolen child is, offers all kinds of excuses, suggesting that he is down cellar or under the table. The methods of playing the game are many, but its main features are the same everywhere. Sometimes the witch is named "Old Mother Cripsy Crops," or "Hipplety Hop."

History. The game of Old Witch, in various forms, is common in Europe, and is probably many centuries old, being a sort of drama founded on a fairy tale. There are many German forms, of which one, "Old Urschel," corresponds nearly

to ours. In Sweden the mother is called Lady Sun. In some countries a hen and her brood are substituted for the mother and children. Sometimes the children represent pots of honey, as in the game of HoneyPots.

OLIVE OIL, Experiment with.

Pour a little oil into a glass of water. The oil will float on the surface of water. Pour some into a glass of alcohol, and the oil will sink. The object is now to make such a mixture of alcohol and water that the oil will neither rise nor sink in it, but stay wherever it is placed. This is done by trying various proportions. When the right one has been obtained the oil willsink just below the surface and form a perfect globe. By pouring more of the mixture above it, the globe of oil is made to float motionless in the centre of the fluid. The reason the oil forms a globe is that that is the natural form of any mass of liquid when there is nothing to pull it out of shape.

OLIVER TWIST, a game played by any number of persons, with a pack of cards on which are pictures representing the characters in Charles Dickens's story of "Oliver Twist." Each character is on two cards, except Oliver Twist and the Artful Dodger, who have but one each. All the cards are dealt to the company, one by one, and then the holder of Oliver shows it to the company and returns it to his hand. Each now places on the table all the matches, or duplicates, in his hand, and then each in turn, beginning at the dealer's left, draws a card from his right-hand neighbor and throws on the table the match, if any, that it makes with a card in his own hand, as in Old Maid. When anyone draws Oliver, he shows it and calls "More," whereupon each of the others gives him a card. The holder of Oliver need not match unless he chooses. The holder of Artful Dodger is allowed to draw two cards at a time, save when he is also the holder of Oliver. The game goes on till no cards are left but Oliver and Artful Dodger, when the latter must be thrown on the table, and the holder of Oliver wins.

ONE OLD OX. See Repeating

Games.

ONE, TWO, AND THREE, a game played by any number of people, one of whom leaves the room, while the others agree on three objects or persons. These are numbered, and the player outside is then called in and asked what he will do with one, two.and three. If he decides to do what is possible under any circumstances, another person takes his place; but if one or more of his wishes are impossible, he pays a forfeit for each and goes out again.

For instance, the company may decide on the steeple of Trinity Church (one); the president of the United States (two); and a goat (three). On being called in, the player who left the room says, " I will paint One sky-blue; I will enclose Two in a dry-goods box and ship it to Australia; and I will hold a conversation in Latin with Three". The first two, though absurd, are possible, but the third is not, under any circumstances whatever, so the player pays one forfeit and leaves the room again.

OPERA GLASS, Experiment with an. It is an interesting experiment to find the magnifying power of an opera-glass, which can easily be done as follows: Hold one tube of the glass in front of one eye and nothing before the other eye, so that two images of the object looked at will be seen at once, one natural size and the other magnified. It can then be easily estimated how much higher one is than the other. In ordinary opera-glasses the height is magnified from two and a half to three times. Field-glasses sometimes magnify as much as seven times. To tell the magnifying

power still more exactly, a tapemeasure should be looked at through the glass in the same way- If one foot on the magnified image is as long as two feet eight inches, for instance, on the natural image, the glass magnifies two and two-thirds times. Instead of a tape-measure a brick wall may be looked at, or anything having regular divisions.

OTI-DAMA. bee Jack-stones.

OXYGEN. Experiments with. (Names and processes merely alluded to in this article are fully explained in CHEMIcal EXPERIMENTS. Oxygen gas is described in C. C. T.) To make it, equal quantities of powdered chlorate of potash and black oxide of manganese are mixed, and a glass phial about two inches long is one-third filled with the mixture. The neck is closed with a cork, through which passes a tube, whose other end is arranged to collect the gas under water. The bottle is supported on its side by two blocks of wood so that it can be heated by an alcohol lamp or Bunsen burner placed under it. Heat first the part of the mixture nearest the deliverytube. If the gas is made too rapidly, remove the flame for a moment. The oxygen can be stored in a gasholder, if desired, and kept for future use. The oxygen made in this way comes from the chlorate of potash (see Potash, C. C. T.), and is separated from the other elements in that substance by the heat applied to it. The only use of the oxide of manganese is to cause the gas to escape slowly and regularly, thus preventing an explosion; but how it does this has not been satisfactorily explained.

Another way of making oxygen is to heat red oxide of merourv in the apparatus just described. Oxygen is a little heavier than air. so if the jar in which it has been collected over water be turned right side up very carefully, the gas will not escape if the air is still; but it is better to lay a piece of glass over the

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