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string he gives it a quick jerk upwards, and the spin it has acquired will then wind the string in the opposite direction, and cause the toy to ascend. It can thus be kept moving up and down as long as the player pleases.
History. The origin of the BandiIore is not certainly known, though some say it was invented to amuse an East Indian princess. It was brought in 1790 from Bengal to England, where it became fashionable under the name of the "Quiz." Thence it was taken to Normandy, where it was called "Joujou." Soon afterward it became the fashion in Paris. The toys were made of all kinds of materials, from sugar to gold, and some of them were as large as dinner plates. The Duke of Orleans gave to a French lady a Bandilore set with diamonds, valued at 2400 livres. The toy is now known in France as S Emigrant (The Emigrant), because it was in favor with the nobility at the beginning of the French Revolution, when many of them were forced to emigrate to other countries.
BANJO, Experiments with. See Violin.
BARBERRY BUSH, a singing game played by any number of children. All join hands in a ring, and circle around, singing:
They then stop, and rubbing their hands together to imitate the washing of dishes, sing:
This is the way we wash our clothes,
The players then circle as before, singing the chorus with " Tuesday" substituted for Monday. So the game goes on. the successive verses being generally as follows:
This is the way we iron our clothes,
This is the way we scrub our floor,
This is the way we mend our clothes,
This is the way we sweep the house.
This is the way we bake our bread,
This is the way we go to church.
The chorus is repeated before each verse, with the insertion of the proper day of the week.
Sometimes the Mulberry bush is mentioned instead of the barberry bush. The last line is also sung,
All of a Monday morning,
All on a frosty morning.
BAROMETER. The barometer and its history are told of in C. C. T. To make a mercury barometer, take a glass tube four feet long, and about a quarter of an inch in inside diameter, and bend it into a U shape, at about afoot from one end, so that the longer branch shall measure at least 33 inches. Make the bend gradually, allowing several inches at the turn (see directions for glass working, under Chemical Experiments).
Here we go round the barber - ry bush, the bar 'ber - ry bush, the bar-ber-ry bush.
Seal the long end air-tight by melting it. and then fill that end with mercury by pouring it little by little into the short end, then turning the tube so that the mercury will run around the bend. This will require much patience, as the long end of the tube is full of air which finds difficulty in bubbling past the heavy mercury in a small tube. The tube and mercury should both be warmed so as to be dry, and the mercury must be perfectly clean. When the long end of the tube and the bend are full, hold the tube upright and the mercury in the long end will fall a little way, leaving an empty space at the top. If it does not, pour a little mercury out of the short end. The distance between the level of the mercury in the short end and that in the long end will be about 30 inches. To measure the height readily, and so tell whether the barometer is rising or falling, fasten the tube to a smooth boar'1 by bands of cloth, tacked at ends, and nail to the board' 'he branches of the
tub rule. Then if the
.. ,nch stands at 4 ';e other at 33i inches -.i': i",if:,in 'hiscase 29^ inches, e !>'>".-: of the barometer.
BALL, a game played by . arson's, nine on a side, on marked with bases as in the -igram.
The field and implements are fully described in the appended rules.
The players on the side in the field are named the Pitcher and the Catcher (who together are often called the " battery "); the First, Second, and Third Base-keepers or Basemen ; the Short-Stop ; and the Right, Center, and Left Fielders. The three last mentioned are called the Outfield; the others, the In-field. Before the game the two leaders or captains usually decide by lot which shall have the choice of innings, and he winner may choose to go to the >at or into the field. In match ;ames the captain of the home club
has choice of the innings. The players on the side that goes to the field, who are often called the "outs," take up the positions shown on the diagram. Each baseman generally stands near his base; the other players may vary their positions considerably, except the Pitcher, who, while delivering the ball, must stand within certain limits, as shown in Rules 8 and 29 below.
The Pitcher now throws the ball toward one of the other side, called the " Batsman," who stands at home base. If the Batsman strike at the ball without hitting it, he is said to have made a "strike." If the ball is "good,"—that is, passes over the home base not higher than the Batsman's shoulder and not lower than his knee,—it is counted a "called strike," although he make no attempt to hit at it. A strike is also called, as a penalty, on the batsman in certain other cases. (See Rule 43, below.)
If the ball is not good and the player does not strike at it, it is said to be a "ball," or a "called ball." All " strikes "and " balls" are called by an umpire, who stands near the Batsman and decides each point as it comes up. (Two umpires are sometimes necessary. See Rule 56, below.) If the player strike the ball and it fall within the lines in the diagram called the "foul lines," it is said to be a "fair ball," and the player becomes a " base-runner" and immediately starts toward the "first base." If the batted ball be a "ground hit" to the infield, the player getting the ball should throw it quickly to the First Baseman. Balls hit along the ground to the outfielders are seldom thrown to First Base, because the runner would reach the base long before the ball. It is oftentimes a better play to throw the ball to some other base when there are other runners on base. This will be explained later.
If the Batsman can touch first base before the Baseman standing
ikes are called by the umpire, the striker must run for his base, and the 11, after it passes the home plate, treated just like a fair ball struck, the Catcher catches it and holds or if he can get it to first base here the Batsman, the latter is out. four balls are called, the Batsman allowed to "take his base "—that to run to first base without any ndrance.
Sometimes the batsman so h;'s the til that, although he is himself put at,he enables a base-runner to reach another base. He is then said to ive made a "sacrifice hit." When a player either has been put at or has made his base, another
ne of the same side takes his place is Batsman. The striking order is decided before the game and remains the same throughout. When a base-runner has reached first base, his object is to pass in succession second, third, and home base, and if he succeed in reaching the lastnamed without being put out, he scores one run for his side. He can be put out, after he has reached first base by being touched with the ball in the hands of one of the opposite side while he is not touching a base, and in other ways as told in Rule 50; but these do not often occur. He cannot be put out while he is standing on a base ; but as two players cannot occupy the same base
at the same time, he must leave the base before the base-runner following him reaches it. When a player is thus compelled to leave his base, he is said to be "forced." A baserunner usually keeps close to his base while the ball is near him, but when it is in the hands of the Pitcher or the Catcher he "leads off" a short distance toward the next base, so as to be ready to run to it should the Batsman strike a fair ball. When a foul ball is struck, all base-running after the ball leaves the bat is void, and the runners must return to the bases from which they started, retouching the bases they have just left. Sometimes a base-runner can make his next base by leading off and then running while the ball is being thrown by the Pitcher to the Catcher, hoping to reach the base before the latter can throw the ball to the Baseman. This is called "stealing a base." If the ball is thrown to the Baseman before the runner makes his base, he may then try to return to his former base, if it has not been occupied by another player. The basemen on each side of him then usually try to put him out by throwing the ball from one to the other, while they walk toward each other, keeping the runner between them till one is near enough to touch him. This is called "running out between bases," but it does not happen often with skillful players. Sometimes, in such a case, the runner will manage to slip past one of the basemen and make his base. In any case where there is a dispute as to whether a man has been put out or not, the umpire decides, as he does in all disputed points throughout the game. Sometimes a baseman, after putting out a man, can get the ball to another base in time to put out someone else, or a fielder, after catching a fly and thus putting the striker out, may throw out a base-runner. These and similar cases are called "doubleplays." If three men are thus put out, it is a "triple-play," but this occurs very seldom. When the Catcher lets a ball from the Pitcher pass him (called a "passed ball "), and the back-stop is placed at ninety feet back of the home plate, the runner may take as many bases as he is able. When the back-stop is not so placed, only one base is allowed. Sometimes the Batsman will strike the ball so far that he can safely run to second or third base, or even around to home base. In the last case he makes a " home run," while at the same time sending in all the base-runners ahead of him, if any are on base at the time. Thus, by a skillful hit when the bases are "full," a Batsman may enable four runners to score. As soon as three players are out, the sides change places, and, if no one has reached home base, the score for that inning of the side that has just left the bat is nothing, no matter how many men may be on bases. The game goes on as before with the sides reversed, and when three men of the second side have been put out the first inning is ended. In any inning that man goes first to the bat whose name follows, in the batting order, that of the one who last completed his time at the bat (not the one who was out last or the one who went to the bat last) in the previous inning.
The game consists of nine such innings, and the side that scores the most runs is the winner. If the same number of runs has been scored by each side at the end of the ninth inning, a tenth must be played, or more, if necessary, till the game is decided. Each inning is divided into halves, during each of which a different side is at the bat. At the end of an entire inning, when the sides have been at the bat the same number of times, the innings are said to be "even"; but when the side that struck first has been at the bat once more than the other, the innings are said to be "uneven." If the
side that would go to the bat last is ahead at the middle of the ninth or any subsequent inning, the last half of that inning is omitted, as it could not affect the result of the game, but only increase the winners' score. Similarly, if the side last at bat scores the winning run before putting out its three men, the rest of the inning is omitted.
If a player reaches his base, he does so either because he made so good a hit that the best fielding could not have put him out, or because one of the fielders did not do his duty. In the former case, the Batsman is said to have made a basehit, or a two-, three-, or four-base hit, as the case may be; in the latter case, the fielder is said to have made an "error." Likewise, a fielder that allows a base-runner to make a new base, when he might have stopped him, makes an error. A run made entirely without the aid of errors on the opposite side is called an "earned run." Errors, base-hits, and earned runs are scored, not because they count in deciding the results, but because they serve to show whether a game is won by the skill of the winners or the carelessness or bad playing of the losers; and they also show which are the best players on a side. They are more carefully considered under Scoring.
The Catcher. This player usually wears gloves, made for the purpose, to protect his hands, a cage, or mask, of strong steel wire over his face, and sometimes a padded body protector, as in Figure 1. When there are no men on bases, and the batsman has less than two strikes, the Catcher usually stands back and takes the Pitcher's balls on the first bounce, or allows them to strike the high board fence at his rear without trying to catch them. When the Batsman has two strikes, the Catcher stands close to him (called playing close to,or behind, the bat), so that at the next strike he may catch the ball on the fly, and so