thirteen and there are only seven in the stock) the non-dealer may let the deal stand, if he choose, and the numbers shall be corrected in dis


2. If the elder hand have Carte Blanche, he must announce it at once, but need not show it till after the discard. If the dealer have it, he need neither declare nor show it till his opponent has discarded.

3. After a player has touched the stock he cannot alter his discard unless there has been a misdeal, or the other player wrongly announces the number of cards he takes, or fails to announce it.

4. If a player take more cards from the stock than he ought, he must play the hand through, but only his opponent may score. If he take less than his due, his opponent may reckon, as tricks won, all cards that cannot be played to.

5. The elder hand may look at any cards that he declines to take from the stock. The dealer may look at what he leaves, after the other has led a card; but if he does so, his opponent may also look.

6. A player may examine his own discard at any time.

6. If a player call a lower group than the highest he holds, he must abide by his call; but if he call a group he does not hold he must correct his mistake.

8. When the elder hand has led, or the younger played to it, neither can reckon anything that has been omitted.

9. A player may at any time require his opponent to show him all unplayed cards that have already been shown in reckoning, or may ask for any information about such cards.

10. A card once played cannot be taken up unless it has been led out of turn and the adversary has not played to it, or unless it is a revoke. In the latter case all cards played after the revoke are taken again into

the player's hands and played over again.

11. Both players' tricks may be examined by either at any time.

T errors in adding or marking the score may be made right at any time during the game.

Imperial, a kind of Piquet, in which a trump is turned. The King is the highest card in the pack, and the Ace ranks between the Knave and the Ten. The face-cards, the Ace, and the Seven, are called Honors. There is no discarding. The top card of the stock is turned for trump, and this trump-card is treated as part of each player's hand in reckoning Point and groups of cards. Of the Piquet groups, the only ones that count in Imperial are quartsmajor and groups of four Honors, both of which are called Imperials. Each player scores for whatever Imperials he has, but Point is scored only by the holder of the highest, as in Piquet. The elder hand first shows and scores his Imperials, and then calls his Point. Before replying to the call, the younger shows and scores his Imperials, and then says "Good" or "Not good" to the call of Point. If good, the elder shows and scores it; if not, the younger waits till after the lead before doing so, as in Piquet. If either have Carte Blanche, only that and Imperials are scored; there is no Point, and the hand is not played. In playing, only Honors are scored for, and always by him who takes the trick containing them.

In scoring, an Honor turned up counts the dealer one; Carte Blanche scores 12; an Imperial scores 6; Point scores 1. Each Honor won in play counts one. Each trick taken more than six counts one. When a player's score is six, no matter how gained, he is said to have scored an Imperial. When, in the course of a hand, either player's score amounts to that of one or more Imperials, his opponent's score is reduced to the next lowest whole number of Imperials, called " taking down." Thus, suppose A has 4 points and B 3; if B make 3 more, all A's are taken away, and the score is 1 Imperial to nothing in B's favor. Similarly, if A have 25 points and B 4, and B gain 2, the score is A,4 Imperials; B, 1 Imperial. But if each player has one or more Imperials in hand, neither takes down his score. The number of Imperials that shall win the game is decided on beforehand. It is usually about six (36 points).

In playing, the most noticeable difference from Piquet is due to the trump. Trumps should be led if the hand is strong in them (that is, if there are four or more). If a player is forced to trump, he should do so with a low Honor, to score it. If a player think, from the score, that he can make an Imperial, and that his adversary cannot, he should try to force the latter to make necessary points before the Imperial is scored, that it may take them down. This is called "playing to the score."


1. If the dealer turn the wrong card, or more than one card, for trump, he must show his hand to his opponent, who, without looking at his own hand, may either require the right card to be turned, or call for a new deal.

2. If a player look at any of the stock cards, his adversary may call for a fresh deal, if he have not seen his own cards. If he have seen them, he may call on the offender once during the hand to lead some particular suit.

3. All Imperials must be shown before they can be scored. If a player do not show his Imperials at the proper time, as described above, he cannot score them.

In other essential points, the laws of Imperial are the same as those of ordinary Piquet.

History. Piquet is one of the oldest of the card games still played. It is generally supposed that it originated in France, where it was also called Cent (Hundred), though the same game under the name of Cicntos was early known in Spain. It was called Sant (corrupted from Cent) in England till the middle of the seventeenth century, when the French name of Piquet was adopted. What is now called the Point in Piquet was known in old times in France as Ronfle. and some writers think that the game was developed from the old Italian Ron/a. Others think that it may have been derived from the Saxon game of Schwerter Karte (Sword Cards), which would account for the name, the French Pique (pike) as a suit mark being the same as the Spanish Estrada (Sword). Some French writers say that Piquet was so named after a man who invented it; others say that it was named from the Pique, one of its features, but without explaining the latter; while still others suggest that the name means " Le jeu piquant" (The exciting game). The word is also written Picquet, and in English Picket.

PITCH. See All Fours.

PITCHETTE. See Grommets.

PLANETS. Observations on. The planets are described in C. C. T. in the article Universe. The only ones about which anything more can be seen with an opera glass than with the naked eye are Venus and Jupiter. Planets constantly change position in the heavens, so that no directions can be given for finding them to one who has not studied astronomy. The best way is to wait until one of them is morning or evening star, which can be seen by any almanac.

Venus. It can be seen through an opera-glass that Venus has phases like the moon, changing from a thin crescent to a full disk, and then back again to a crescent; but instead of being repeated every month, as with the moon, these changes take nearly nineteen months. When Venus is full she is nearly eight times as far away from the earth as when she is new, so her apparent changes of size and shape are quite apparent.

Jupiter. This planet has four moons, which are invisible to the naked eye, but can be seen through an opera-glass. They always appear in a straight line, and change position very rapidly. If they are looked at two nights in succession, this change of position enables the observer to tell them from stars, which they resemble.

PLANK, a game played by two to four persons, with 12 cards and 24 counters. Each of the cards bears three squares, arranged as in the figure, and colored red, white, and blue, the order of the colors varying on different cards.



The counters are divided into four sets, marked respectively with the letters A, B, C, and D, and in each set there are two red, two blue, and two white counters. The cards are divided equally among the players, and each is given a set of counters. The player at the dealer's left lays down a card face upward, and places a counter on a square of the same color. The player at his left may place a counter on the same card, or lay another card close by its side, placing a counter on the second card, and the other players in turn have the same choice. When the cards and counters have all been played, each may move one of his counters to a vacant space of the same color.

He who first gets three of his counters, red, white, and blue, in a row. either lengthwise or across the cards, wins the game. No counter may be placed on a square of a different color.

PLANTING, a game played by any number of persons, in which each in order tells what he has planted and what came up. The articles planted may be objects or persons of any kind, but they must come up as plants or trees, having some punning connection with the thing planted. Thus, one player may say: "I planted Shakespeare, and Sweet William came up;" another, " I planted a pack of cards, and W(h)istaria came up."

PLATINUM, Experiments with. 1. Heat a bit of platinum wire red-ho: in the flame of a Bunsen burner. Turn off the gas, and turn it on again at once. The wire will remain red-hot, though it does not light the gas again. The reason is, that platinum condenses gases on its surface, and the mixed gas and air of the burner being thus condensed, unite and give out enough heat to keep the wire red-hot, though not enough to light the gas again. 2. Cut a star, or any other figure, from a piece of plati num. and suspend it bva platinum wire in a wine-glass by fastening the wire to a nail laid across the top of the glass. Put a little alcohol into the glass, about a quarter of an inch from the object, light it, and when the platinum is red-hot, smother the flame by placing a piece of paper or card-board on the top of the glass. By lifting the cover now and then to let air into the glass, the platinum figure will remain red-hot and throw out a bright light, until all the alcohol is exhausted. The effect is very beautiful in a dark room.

POETICAL BUTTERFLY, THE. A game played by any number of persons, one of whom, called the Butterfly, names the others after trees, flowers, birds, or insects. The Butterfly pretends to fly from one to another, asking each for his story, and then commenting on it as he pleases. Each of the players, when thus addressed, must give some quotation, or mention some tale or legend, about the tree, flower, bird, or insect he represents. Thus, the Apple-tree may allude to the story of William Tell, and the Robin to that of Cock Robin, while the Blackbird may quote:

✓ '' Four and twenty blackbirds v/ Baked in a pie.

POETS, a game played by any number of persons, with pencils and paper. Each writes on a slip of paper the name of some wellknown author, and on another slip a quotation from his works. The names are then placed in one pile, and the quotations in another, and each player draws a slip from each pile. Each, in order, then reads his slips aloud, and declares whether or not the quotation drawn is from the writings of the author. If not, he is required to give a quotation from the writings of the author whose name is on his slip, and to name the author of the quotation on the other slip. If he makes any mistake he must pay a forfeit. Another way of playing the game, which makes it entirely one of chance, is simply to exact a forfeit from those players who draw slips on which the names and quotations do not correspond. This game is called in Germany Dichter Errashen (Guessing Poets).


POKER, Experiment with. Heat a poker red hot, and then look along its side at an object ten or twelve feet distant. If the poker is held correctly, three images of the object will be seen close to the surface, one of which is upside down. These images are caused by reflection from the heated air close to the

poker. A similar reflection from the air close to the hot sand of a desert is called Mirage (a French wonl meaning reflection).

POLO, the game of Hockey played on horseback or roller skates. In the horseback game, called Equestrian Polo, the players ride on ponies not more than 14 hands 1 inch in height, usually Mexican Mustangs. The sticks, or mallets, are from 49 to 52 inches long, with heads of willow-wood and flexible handles covered with buckskin. The balls are made of light wood. The grounds are about 750 yards long and 500 feet wide, and have at each end two goal-posts, 24 feet apart. At the beginning of the game the leaders toss for goals, and the players on each side take position in front of their goal behind a line drawn about 12 yards from it. The ball is thrown into the centre of the field by the umpire, and the game begins. Sometimes the game is opened by "charging," in which case the players stand only a few feet from the ball, and rush upon it at the word " play;" but as this is hard on the horses, it is usually omitted, except in the opening game of a match. The object of the game, as in similar ones, is to strike the ball between the opposing goal-posts, called winning a goal. A match game usually consists of three innings of twenty minutes each, with two minute intervals for rest, and the side making the most goals in the sixty minutes of play wins the game. In case of a tie, the game is continued till one party makes another goal.


The following are the rules of the Westchester Polo Club:

1. The grounds to be about 750 feet long by 500 feet wide, with a ten-inch guard from end to end on the sides only.

2. The height of the ponies must not exceed 14 hands 1 inch.

3. The balls to be of wood, with no other covering than paint, and about 3 inches in diameter. The mallets to be such as are approved by the Steward.

4. The goal-posts to be 24 feet apart, and light enough to break if collided with.

5. Match games between pairs shall be for periods of 30 minutes, time between goals included, unless otherwise specified.

6. Match games between teams of four shall be three periods of 20 minutes each, actual play, time between goals and delays not counted, with 10 minutes between the periods for rest, unless otherwise specified.

7. Each team to choose an umpire, and, if necessary, the two umpires to appoint a referee, whose decision shall be final.

8. Each team shall have a substitute in readiness to play when a match is on.

9. There shall be a captain for each team, who shall have the direction of positions and plays of his men.

10. No captain shall allow a member of his team to appear in the game otherwise than in the Club uniform.

11. No person—players, umpires, and referee excepted—shall, under any circumstances, be allowed upon the ground during the progress of the game.

12. It is forbidden to touch an adversary, his pony, or his mallet, with the hand or mallet during play, or to strike the ball when dismounted.

13. The game to begin with a charge, the contestants taking their positions behind the chalk-line, which is to be 30 feet from the goalposts. When the signal to charge has been given by the referee, the first and second players must keep to the left of the ball until it has been touched.

14. In case of an accident to a player or pony, or for any other reasonable cause, the referee may

stop the game, and the time so lost shall not be counted. When the game is resumed, the ball shall be thrown between the players, who shall be lined up at the point at which the ball stopped. But if the game is stopped on account of a foul, the ball is to be thrown in at the place at which the foul occurred.

15. When the limit of time has expired, the game must continue until the ball goes out of bounds, and such over-time shall not be counted.

16. In case of an equal number of goals having been made at the end of the third period, the game to be continued until one side makes the winning goal.

17. When the ball goes out of bounds at the sides, it must be thrown in from the place at which it went out, by the referee, or by ar. impartial person, between the two sides, which shall be drawn up in line facing each other. When the ball goes out at the ends, the side defending that goal is entitled to a knock-out from the point at which it crossed the line. When the player having the knock-out causes unnecessary delay, the umpire may throw a ball on the field and call plays. No opponent shall come within 50 feet of a player having the knock-out, until the ball has been hit.

18. A player requiring a mallet during the game, must ride to the end or side line. It must not be brought on the field to him.

19. Foul riding is careless and dangerous horsemanship, and lack of consideration for the safety of others. A player in possession of the ball has the right of way, and no one shall cross him unless at such a distance as to avoid all possibility of a collision.

20. The referee may suspend a player for the match for foul riding, or he may award the opposing side a half goal.

Polo on Roller Skates, or Rink Polo, a game played by opposi-1*

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