teams of five players in a rink or other large hall. The ball is of rubber, and the sticks, which are curved at the end, are about five feet long and one inch in diameter. The goals, set ten feet from the ends of the rink, are cages six feet wide, three feet deep, and three feet high, and to count as a goal, the ball must be struck into the cage and remain there.


1. To start the game, the ball is placed in the middle of a straight line joining the centresof the goals, and at the whistle of the referee is charged upon by a player on each side, who shall start, without aid, from a point on aline with his goal and 18 inches to the left of it.

2. The side scoring most goals in a half hour's play wins the game.

3. To count as a goal, the ball must remain in the cage. It must not be removed thence by any person but the referee. Should any player touch the ball in the cage either with his person or stick, or anything else that indicates his intention to remove the ball, the referee shall decide a goal for the other side.

If a ball go out of bounds, the referee shall blow his whistle to call game, and place the ball at a point opposite where it went out, at least four feet from the rail. In recommencing play, the players who do so must stand in position to knock the ball up or down, not across, the rink with their backs toward the sides, the ball to be midway between two players.

5. Game shall be called by the referee whenever a foul occurs, or whenever one is claimed, unless the referee is satisfied that no just claim exists. Upon claim of foul, if game is to be renewed, the ball must be placed where the foul occurred.

6. It shall be deemed a foul: 1. If any player stop or strike the ball when any part of his person is

touching the surface. 2. If any player catch or bat the ball with his hands or arm. 3. If any player (save the goal-tend, who may do so) kick the ball with his foot or skate, though he may stop the ball with either. 4. If any player strike down the stick of his opponent, or if any player trip or strike another intentionally with stick, hand, or skate.

5. If any player throw his stick in the pathway of a player or at a bull.

6. If a player raise his stick above his hip in striking a ball. But in case the ball is in the air, above the hip, he can raise his stick to stop it.

7. Any act by any player that is manifestly intended as an interference with another may be declared a foul by the referee, upon complaint of the captain of the offended side.

8. Three fouls (other than when the ball leaves the bounds) made by either side during a contest for a goal, shall constitute a goal for the opposite side.

9. If the referee decide that a foul made by the goal-tend prevented a goal, one shall be adjudged for the opposite team.

10. All games shall be played on rink skates with plain boxwood revolving rollers, without the use of additional appliances to hinder the free running of such rollers. Any woods, rubber, or any other material attached in any manner to any skate, shoe, or boot, is positively prohibited.

11. The ball must not be struck hard, but may only be " nursed" or "coached."

12. No person, except the players and referee, shall be allowed on any part of the surface during a game.

13. If the rusher, whose place it is to charge upon the ball to start the game, tries to start before the whistle is blown, or does not start from the designated spot, the referee must warn him once; and if he persists, the referee has the

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Parlor Polo, a game founded on Polo, played by two persons on a board like that in the illustration. The squares are colored alternately white and blue, except those occupied by men at the.beginning of the game, which are red. Each player has six pieces or men, like CheckErs, called Goal Tend, Cover Point, two Rushers, and two Half Backs, whose positions at the opening of the game are shown in the figure. A small figure of a polo player on horseback, called the Ball, is placed in the middle of the board. Each player sits behind his own goal, and each plays in turn, throwing two dice to determine his moves. The colored squares alone are used. Any man may be moved a number of colored squares equal to the sum of the numbers thrown, diagonally in any direction, either in a straight or zig-zag line, provided he does not pass over any other man in so doing, nor retrace his steps in the same move. The Rushers must move first, and the Goal Tend must not leave the goal; but aside from this the men are all alike. When a man moves exactly into the square occupied by the Ball, he is said to "have the Ball," and it is placed on

him. He can now take the Ball with him in his moves (called "carrying" it), or he may "throw" it, that is, move the Ball like a man. The thrown Ball can pass over the heads of as many men as necessary, but it can be thrown only in a straight line. A player may take the number on one of his dice as a move, with or without the ball, and the other as a " throw," but he can divide them in no other way. Thus, if he throw six-three, he can move up six squares and throw the Ball three, or vice rwrsa, but he cannot, for instance, moveseven squares and throw two. He wins who first plays the Ball, either by throwing or carrying it to one of the squares in the opposite goal. The Ball should usually be carried as far as possible, and then thrown over the heads of the opponent's men.

History. Polo has been traced back as far as the 8th century, when it was played in Persia and called Chugdn, the name of the longhandled mallet used in the game. There is a story that Darius sent Alexander a ball and Chugdn, as an insulting hint that he was more fit to play polo than to go to war. It is undoubtedly the equestrian game called "Tennis" in the Arabian Nights. The Byzantine Greeks played it with a stick somewhat like a Lacrosse stick, having at the end a network of gut strings. The game was played both on foot and on horseback. The foot game (our Hockey) was carried to France under the name of Chicane (probably a corruption of Chugdn) and from this we get our word chicanery, meaning trickery, from the tricks employed in the game. Equestrian Polo was introduced into England by some cavalry officers about 1865, and the first game was played near Folkestone. There are now many Polo clubs in Great Britain and several in the United States. The first club in this country was the Westchester, which played on the grounds at Fifth Avenue and noth Street, New York City, still known as the Polo Grounds, though they are not now used for the purpose, the club having removed its headquarters to Newport, Rhode Island, where frequent matches are played every summer. A kind of Polo has long been played by the Indians of Arizona, who use any kind of a stick they wish, and strike to and fro any object, as a stone or piece of wood. There are no sides, each player acting for himself. POOL. See Billiards. POPE JOAN. See Newmarket. POP-GUN, a toy gun worked by compressed air. The simplest kind is the Potato Pop-gun, which is made as follows: Fit loosely to a piece of goose-quill about three inches long, cut off squarely at the ends, a wooden piston or ramrod. flourishes, and as much ink, as possible. Each then folds his paper once, the fold running lengthwise through the middle of the name, and passes it to the right. The person who receives it presses his A finger on the fold at A, then draws it from B to B C, from B to E, and from C to D. He thus makes c a series of blots within, and when the paper is unfolded, a rude and comical resemblance to a human figure will be found. This is supposed to be the portrait of him whose name was written on the paper. As a general thing, the more ink used in writing, the more amusing will be the portrait.

Cut a raw potato into slices about as thick as a silver dollar, and press each end of the quill on a slice, so that both ends will be plugged with little pellets ofpotato(^). Hone of these be now pushed in with the piston (s), the other will fly out with a popping noise. The air within is first compressed and then, expanding, drives out the bit of potato before it. The remaining piece is now pushed forward to the end of the quill, the vacant end pressed again on a slice of potato, and the gun is ready to be fired once more.

A larger gun can be made of a tube of brass or glass, with a piston made by winding twine around a stick till it will exactly fit the bore. A cork is inserted at one end of the tube and driven out by suddenly pushing the piston in at the other. Pop guns of all kinds are sold at toy shops. In one

Pop-gun. the end

kind the piston is in the middle, and there is a cork at each end, so that it can be fired either by pulling or by pushing the piston. In another, a piece of paper fastened tightly over one end is broken by the force of the compressed air.

POROSITY, Experiment on. Porous substances are those which are filled with minute holes, or pores. Half fill a glass with boiling water, and lay over the top a piece of pasteboard, over which invert an empty dry glass. The moist vapor arising from the water will soon be seen also in the upper glass, having passed through the pasteboard. In this way many kinds of substances may be tried: wood, cloth, Indiarubber, glass, etc., and it will be found that some of them are porous enough to let water vapor through them, while others are not.

PORTRAITS, a game played with pen, ink, and paper by any number

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The picture shows an "autograph portrait" thus taken. The game is sometimes called "Smudgeographv."

PORTRAITS AND SENTIMENTS, a game played by any number of persons, who sit in a row. Each whispers to his right-hand neighbor the name of some person, and to his left-hand neighbor some sentiment, original or quoted, supposed to be written under the portrait of that person. Each then announces aloud whose portrait has been presented to him, and what is inscribed under it. For instance, a player may be given the portrait of Bluebeard with the inscription: "He was an indulgent husband, and an estimable gentleman." The names chosen may be those of the players, or those of famous characters, real or fictitious, ancient or modern.

POTASSIUM, Experiments with. Potassium is described in C. C. T. 1. Throw a piece of potassium on water as described in C. C. T.

2. Throw a piece on a large sheet of blotting-paper which has been wet with red litmus water (see TestPAPERS). The potassium will run about the paper, leaving a blue track caused by the formation of potash (see C. C. T.)

3. In a block of ice about six inches square, bore a hole half an inch wide and two inches deep, enlarging the bottom of the hole to form a cavity. Drop into it a piece of potassium the size of a pea. It will take fire and burn beautifully. The experiment should be tried as a warm, dark room.

4. To Fire a Cannon with an IcicU. Load a toy cannon, and on the gunpowder on the touch-hole put a piece of potassium as big as a pinhead. When this is touched with a piece of ice it will blaze up. setting fire to the powder.

POTATO RACE, a running game played by any number of persons. A circle about forty feet in diameter is marked out as a racecourse, and across it at any point is marked a straight line A B ten feet


Course for Potato Race.

long, half outside the ring and half inside. On this line spots are marked at intervals of six inches. Each contestant must take a potato from a basket placed near the ring at C, opposite the line, and running around the circle place it on the first spot on the line. As he goes on past the basket he takes another potato, which he places on the second spot, and so on till ten minutes have passed. After placing each potato the runner must return to the ring without stepping over the line, and each potato must be placed exactly on its proper spot. Three

judges are appointed, one of whom stands at the potato basket, one at the line, and one in the middle of the circle to call out the runners' names in order and keep the time.

Any runner who takes more than one potato, or fails to take any, who skips a spot, or does not place his potato properly, is declared out of the race at once. Instead of potatoes, apples, or any small objects can be used. The course and line may be marked with lime or flour on grass, and the spots for the potatoes with dark earth, or by short cross-lines.

POUND PARTY, an entertainment to which each guest is required to bring something weighing exactly a pound. These may be eatables, toys, useful articles, or whatever the giver pleases. Each package is numbered and laid aside as it is received. When the guests are ready for the distribution of the parcels, numbered cards, or slips of paper, are passed around and each draws one. Some one then takes the packages one by one, calling its number aloud; the holder of the corresponding number becomes its owner, and must open it in the presence of the company.


PREFERENCE, or SWEDISH WHIST, a game of cards, played with a full pack, generally by four persons, but sometimes by five or six. The four-handed game will be described first. The pack being placed face downward on the table, each player draws a card from it. The holders of the highest two play together as partners, the other two playing against them. The one who draws the lowest card is allowed to select his place at the table, and deals first. Ace is considered the lowest card in thus drawing, but in playing the cards rank as in Whist. The game resembles ordinary Whist, but differs in the following points: The trump is determined by bidding

thus: the eldest hand names the suit he prefers, and then the others, in'order, to the left; but each must name a suit higher in rank than the preceding player, or say "I pass." Hearts ranks as the highest suit, and after it, in order, Diamonds, Spades, and Clubs. The highest suit bid is taken for trump, unless some one bids "Preference," or says " I Prefer," when the game must be played without any trump. Preference is higher than any other bid, and as soon as it is bid, play begins at once.

In practice, the bids of Clubs and Spades are now used as an invitation to the player's partner to demand Preference, Spades being the stronger invitation. If all pass, the party may agree to play " Millissimo," the object then being to avoid taking tricks. Honors and tricks are scored as in Whist, but the score is multiplied by 3, if Clubs are trumps; by 4, if Spades; by 5, if Diamonds; by 6, if Hearts; and by 8, if Preference or Millissimo has been played. In the case of Millissimo, not those who take the tricks, but their opponents, score. In addition, a Little Slam (12 tricks) counts 10 points, a Grand Slam (13 tricks) counts 20; the first game in a rubber counts 10, and the second (if won immediately after the first), 20. All these points remain the same, no matter what the trump is.

A game ends when one party has made 20 points in tricks alone. A rubber ends when two consecutive games have been won by the same side. After the first rubber, the dealer and the player at his left keep their seats, and the others change. After the second, the player opposite the dealer changes with the one who has not played with the dealer. This series of three rubbers constitutes what is called a "complete game." Each player keeps his own score, crediting himself with all points made by himself and each of his partners.

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