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For double matches, with two persons on a side, the court was formerly So by 40 feet, but for single matches it was smaller. Of late years the standard court for both kinds of matches has been 63 by 31 i feet. The walls E, F. G, H are black on the inside, and the balls used are sometimes whitened by shaking them in a bag with some white powder, so that they will leave marks on the black wall where they strike. The front wall, K, should be 30 feet high, and is faced with planks to the height of 20 inches from the floor. The part so faced is called the "Telltale." About 10 feet from the floor is a horizontal white line called the " Service-line," or "Cut-line." A and B are called "Service-spaces," or sometimes "Rings;" C and D the Right and Left Courts; and E F the "Shortline." In the rear of the court is often a gallery for spectators, which is protected by netting. In the court there is usually an attendant called the Marker, who scores for the players and acts as umpire. The rackets used are similar to Tennis

rackets, but longer and smaller in the face, and the balls are hard, about an inch in diameter, weighing an ounce.

The players decide by lot, or in any other way they choose, on the one to begin the game, who is called the "In-player" or " Man in." He stands in one of the service-spaces, and with his racket strikes or "serves" the ball so that it bounds from the front wall above the cutline into one of the courts: C. if he served from B; and D, if from A. One of the players on the other side, called the Out-player, stands in readiness to " take the service," that is, to strike the ball either on the bound or before it has reached the ground. The Out-player may stand wherever he wishes, but in case of a double match, the two other players must stand behind the In-player till the ball is served.

If the ball is served wrongly, it is a fault, and when the server makes two consecutive faults his "hand is out." that is, he becomes the Outplayer, and his adversary serves. After a good service the ball is struck by the players alternately against the front wall above the Telltale, and may fall in any part of the court. It may be hit on the "fly," or on the bound, but if any one fails to hit it, or hit it out of the court, it counts against him, putting his hand out, if he be the In player, and scoring a point, or "Ace," for his opponent, if he be the Outplayer. The game continues till one side, by making 15 aces, wins the game.

After the service, the ball may strike one or more of the other walls of the court after it has bounded from the front wall, and a skilful player often makes very puzzling strokes by driving the ball into a corner, where it bounds about from one wall to another. This is the principal difference between Racketsand Lawn Tennis. In Rackets, as in the latter game, the player can make the ball bound in different directions by " cutting" it, and as the ball has four walls to bound from, as well as the floor, a "cut" often causes it to take a very unexpected course.

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The following rules are those of the New York Racquet Court Club, and have been adopted by the National Amateur Athletic Union:

1. The game to be 15 up. At 13 all, the out players may set to 5; and at 14 all, to 3; provided this be done before another ball is served.

[" Set to 5 " means that instead of playing the remaining 2 Aces of the fifteen, 5 Aces are played. "Set to 3," that instead of the remaining one Ace 3 are played.]

2. On commencing the game, in a double match, whether odds be given or not, the side going in first to serve shall have but one hand; but in a single match the party receiving odds shall be entitled to them from the beginning.

3. The ball shall be served alternately right and left, beginning on whichever side the server chooses.

4. The server must stand with at least one foot in the "service box," and serve the ball over the line on the front wall and within the proper service-court; otherwise it is a '' fault." Serving two faults, missing the ball, or the ball served striking anywhere before it reaches the front wall, is a hand-out.

5. All balls served or played into the galleries, hitting a beam, iron rod, the telltale, or any wood or netting, or above the cemented lines of the courts, although they may return to the floor, count against the striker.

6. A ball, to be fair, must be truck before or on the first bound,

and must not touch the floor, the galleries, the telltale, or any wood or netting, or above the cemented lines of the courts, before or after reaching the front wall.

7. Until a ball has been touched or bounded twice it may be struck at any number of times.

8. Only the player to whom a ball is served may return it.

9. A ball touching the striker or his partner before the second bound loses a hand or an ace.

10. If a fair ball hit the striker's adversary above or on the knee, it is a "let," and shall be played over; if below the knee, it counts against the striker.

11. The out-players may once only in each game exchange courts to return service.

12. Every player should try to keep out of his adversary's way. When a " hinder" is claimed it shall be decided by the marker.

13. The marker's decision, on all questions referred to him, shall be final. If he is in doubt he should ask advice; and if he cannot decide positively, the ace is to be played over.

History. Rackets is a modification of Court Tennis. It has long been popular in England and Ireland, and has been recently introduced into this country, where several clubs have been formed to play it. The New York club has a fine court on 26th Street, near the corner of Sixth Avenue.

Fives, a kind of Rackets in which the palm of the hand is used instead of the racket. There is only a front wall in the court, the others being replaced by lines drawn on the ground. In Italy is played a kind of Fives called Pallonc, in which the ball is struck with the arm, protected from wrist to elbow with a guard of heavy leather.


RAIN STORM, Imitation of. Boil Canada balsam in a flask, over an alcohol lamp. Clouds of turpentine drops will form in the upper part of the flask, and if a cold glass rod be inserted, these will condense and fall like rain.

RANK AND FILE, a Solitaire game of cards, played with two packs. The first eleven cards are laid, as they appear, in a row on the table, face upward, and the rest of the cards in similar rows below as long as the pack lasts. The object is to pile the cards in families; downward from four Kings, following suit, and upward from four Aces. For this purpose such cards as are wanted are used as they appear from the pack, instead of putting them in rows. Any card in the first row can also be used, and the two right-hand cards of each of the other rows. When there is a vacancy in the first row, it is filled from the pack, but other vacancies are not filled. When the pack is exhausted, any card can be used that has no card directly below it. When a line is clear from top to bottom, any King that can be played may be placed in it. If the families cannot be completed thus, the player, beginning at the lower lefthand corner, takes up the cards in the opposite order from that in which he laid them down, and relays them, without shuffling, as at first. The cards can thus be re-laid twice; and if the families can be completed thus, the player wins.

READER, a game played by any number of persons, each of whom assumes a trade or profession, except one, who is chosen to act as Reader. The Reader selects a passage from any book, either prose or poetry, and reads it aloud, stopping at intervals to point at one of the other players. The one at whom he points must at once substitute for the next word, which must be a noun, some one connected with his assumed trade, and then the Reader goes on. Any one who does not at once respond, or puts

in a word not connected with his trade, must pay a forfeit. Sometimes the reader copies the passage on paper, calling for the words, as before, and then reading the whole aloud.

For instance, suppose the players assume respectively the occupations of carpenter, grocer, plumber, hackman, physician, and painter, and give in order, as they are required, the words italicized in the following verse, which the reader selects from Horatius at the Bridge, with this result:

"Then out spake brave Jack-plane,
The flour barrel of the furnace.
To every horse upon this ipecac
Putty comcth soon or late.11

REFLECTION OF SOUND, Experiments on the. Experiments on the reflection of sound at a distance are described under Echoes.

1. It may be observed in a room by cutting two large holes in a card board disk about a foot in diameter. The disk is placed on a Twirler, and the experimenter, standingclose to it on one side, blows a toy trumpet so that the sound will be reflected from the disk, near the top, to a person on the other side of the room. When the trumpet is blown and the disk rotated at the same time, the listener will hear a successive strengthening and weakening of the sound, resembling beats (see Violin, Experiment 5). This is caused by the passage of the holes before the trumpet, letting the sound through instead of reflecting it to the listener.

2. Let one person sound the trumpet at one end of the room, while another, standing at the opposite end, holds a common palmleaf fan before his ear. When the fan is slowly twirled by the handle, a change in the sound is heard, because it is reflected better in some positions than in others.

3. In front of a concave mirror, r. at w (see illustration) hang a watch, or support it on a block of wood. Place the ear at e, in front of another concave mirror, r', placed at some distance. It will be found that the ticking is heard more distinctly there than elsewhere. The sound is reflected in the direction shown by the dotted lines and arrows. The point c is the centre of the sphere of which the mirror r forms a part. Ordinary choppingbowls will do very well for mirrors, as they will reflect sound, though they do not reflect light.

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REPEATING GAMES, games in which the players in turn repeat a sentence after one who is chosen leader. At each round the leader adds something, and the whole, including additions, must be repeated by all in turn, as in the child's story, "The House that Jack Built." Those who fail, either drop out of the game or pay a forfeit. Anyone may invent sentences for such a game. They should be as ridiculous as possible and contain many long words. A few collections of sentences commonly used for such games is given below.

I. The following nonsense story, composed by the English actor, Foote, is very well known: "She went into the garden to cut a cabbage-leaf to make an apple-pie, when a great she-bear, coming up the street, poked his head into the shop. What! No soap! So he died, and she very imprudently married the barber, and there were present the Pickaninnies, and the Gobillilies,

and Garulies, and the Grand Panjandrum, with the little round button at the top; and they all fell to playing Catch as Catch Can, till the gunpowder ran out at the heels of their boots." This can be divided into such parts as the leader chooses, for use in the game. In the remaining games the original sentence and additions are numbered.

II. My Aunt's Garden. 1. "I

come from my Aunt's Garden,—oh such a pretty garden! In my Aunt's Garden are four corners."

2. "In the first corner grows an elegantinc—

Give me your heart, and I will give you mine."

3. "In the second corner grows a rose so fair—

I would embrace you, but I I do not dare!"

4. "In the third corner grows a crimson pink—

Tell me of whom you most frequently think."

5. (Each player, after repeating the sentences, whispers a name to his left-hand neighbor.)

6. "In the fourth corner grows a poppy red—

Repeat to us all what just now you said."

7. (Each repeats aloud what he whispered.)

Another form of "My Aunt's Garden."

1. See my Aunt's Garden! Oh what a pretty Garden!

2. In my Aunt's Garden there is a tree. Oh how pretty is the tree in my Aunt's Garden!

3. On the tree in my Aunt's Garden there is a branch. Oh how pretty is the branch on the tree in my Aunt's Garden!

4. On the branch on the tree in my Aunt's Garden there is a nest. Oh how pretty is the nest on the branch on the tree in my Aunt's Garden!

5. In the nest on the branch on the tree in my Aunt's Garden there is a bird. Oh how pretty is the bird in the nest, etc.

6. The bird in the nest on the branch on the tree in my Aunt's Garden bears in his beak a billet with the words, "I love you." Oh how pretty are the words " I love you" on the billet in the beak of the bird, etc.

III. The Key of the King's Garden,

1. I sell you the key of the King's Garden.

2. I sell you the string that holds the key of the King's Garden.

3. I sell you the nail where hangs the string, etc.

4. I sell you the beam, in which is the nail, etc.

5. I sell you the rat that gnawed the beam, etc.

6. I sell you the cat that killed the rat, etc.

This can be continued at the pleasure of the Leader.

IV. The Good Little Man.

1. I sell you my good little man.

2. I sell you the house of my good little man.

3. I sell you the door of the house, etc.

4. I sell you the lock of the door, etc.

And so on at pleasure.

V. One Old Ox.

1. One old ox, opening oysters.

2. Two toads, totally tired, trying to trot to Tewksbury.

3. Three tame tigers taking tea.

4. Four fat friars fanning the fainting fair.

5. Five fairies fending fireflies.

6. Six soldiers shooting snipes.

7. Seven salmon sailing in Solway.

8. Eight elegant engineers eating excellent eggs.

9. Nine nimble noblemen nibbling nonpareils.

10. Ten till-tinkers taking twopence.

11. Eleven electors eating early endive.

12. Twelve twittering titmice teetering on the tip-top of a tall tree.

VI. The Good Fat Hen.

1. A good fat hen.

2. Two ducks and one good fat hen.

3. Three squalling wild geese, two ducks, and one good fat hen.

4. Four plump partridges, three squalling wild geese, etc.

5. Five hundred Limerick oysters, four plump partridges, etc.

6. Six pairs of Don Alphonso's tweezers, five hundred Limerick oysters, etc.

7. Seven hundred Macedonia^ horsemen drawn up in line of bat tie, etc.

8. Eight cages of Heliogabalus sparrowkites, etc.

9. Nine sympathetic, epithetic, didactic propositions, etc.

10. Ten helioscopic, periscopic, pharmaceutical tubes, etc.

11. Eleven flat-bottomed fly-boats floating from Madagascar to Mount Prunello, etc.

12. Twelve European dancingmasters sent to Egypt to teach the Egyptian mummies to dance and sing, etc.

A kind of repeating game called Genteel Lady is told about in an article by itself. Queen Dido, and the games like it, are also repeating games, but the things repeated are motions of the head and limbs, instead of words.

RESEMBLANCES. See What IS My Thought Like.

REVIEWERS, THE. See Book Notices.

RIBBONS, a game played by any

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