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with the heel, pressing with the leg behind the girths and throwing the greater part of the weight of the body on the side opposite the one it is intended to have him "lead," and causing him to increase his speed, at the same time curbing him. If the rider wishes him to start off with the right leg, the left rein must be slightly tightened and the left flank touched, and viceversa. In cantering in a circle or on a short curve, the horse should always lead with the inside leg, that is, the leg toward the centre of the curve. The reins should be held firmly but gently.

Mr. E. L. Anderson, a modern authority, holds that "if the horse is lightened in front (that is, made to raise his legs by a ' play' of the bit) he maybe lightened more upon one side than upon the other by increased action of the bit upon that side." He therefore advocates that if we wish "to make the horse gallop by leading with the right side, we shall lighten that side by a 'play' of the right rein, and bend the croup by an application of the left spur."

In the canter and gallop the body should not be held stiffly from the waist upward, but move with the horse.

The Gallop is a natural pace, and consists of a succession of leaps, in which the legs of one side leave the ground after, but pass beyond, the legs of the other side. The horse " leads" or starts to gallop as in the canter, and may be made to "lead " as described above.

In riding the gallop, the rider's body is thrown slightly back, the knees hold the horse's sides firmly, but not too tightly, and the hands are held low. In fast galloping the rider sometimes stands in the stirrups, holding by the knees to the saddle flaps, and bending forward from the waist. The canter and gallop are easier for women, if the horse lead off with his right

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Holding the reins, Fig. 1.

Holding the Reins. If only one pair of reins is used, they should be held in the left hand, by placing all the fingers between them but the forefinger, and then turning the ends under that finger and grasping them between it and the thumb. If it is desired to shorten the hold, the grasp can be loosened, the end taken in the right hand, and the left hand pushed up. In holding the reins thus, the thumb should be pointed forward, the little finger near the pommel, and the elbow close at the side. The right rein is now the upper one, and either it or the left can be pulled at pleasure by simply turning the wrist, without lifting the hand.

When the rider has gained experience, and rides with two pairs of reins, different styles of holding them are adopted. The following is one of the most common:

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Holding the Reins, Fig. 3.
SS, Snaffle-reins; CC, Curb-reins.

be carried in the right hand in the same manner if desired. Some riders hold the reins as in figure 3. If it is desired to ride with both hands, the reins being in the left, the right hand (which holds the whip, butt uppermost) may be placed in front of the left hand and take the right snaffle rein between the first and second fingers, the thumb under it, not removing it from the left hand. Or both the right curb and right snaffle may be taken in the right hand as in Fig. I, removing them from the left hand or not, as desired. These methods may be practised with reins or pieces of tape before taking a riding lesson. After a little practice, the rider can pull on which ever rein he wishes.! Either the curb or snaffle may be the tight, or riding, rein at will; but it is not well to ride with both tight at the same time. The reins between the fingers should be held j

well up toward the knuckles and the hands firmly closed. As a rule, the hands should be held low and not far forward: about over the pommel of the saddle will give pull enough to control the average horse and yet not look awkward. The learner should avoid depending on his reins to hold himself on his horse, and should be able to keep his seat without their aid.

Leaping, A horse can be taught to leap by leading him over a bar, say, sixteen feet long, supported in any convenient manner. At first the bar should be held so low that he can step over it, and gradually raised until it will be necessary for him to jump. Care should be taken not to force or frighten him. Four or five leaps in a day are enough. When a horse is well trained he will jump moderate obstacles either from a stand still or a walk. After he has learned to jump with the leading rein, he may be mounted and put through the same course. He should not be punished for refusing unless he be a rogue. A nervous horse should be handled gently, and caressed and rewarded after his lesson, which should be ended after a jump, never after a refusal. In jumping from a standstill or walk, the rider first pulls lightly upward on the reins, speaking, and pressing his legs to the horse's sides to force him forward. As he rises, the rider bends slightly forward; but when the horse is in the air, he leans back, both to keep his balance and to receive the shock of landing without being pitched forward, resuming the erect position as the horse's hind legs reach the ground. This leaning back may be learned upon a gentle horse by raising the right hand and throwing it back as if to slap him on the hind quarter as he rises. The reins are held not too tightly till the horse's fore-feet strike the ground when they are tightened to give him support. In the leap from the trot or canter the rider takes nearly the same position as in the gallop, but not leaning forward as in the standing leap. The bit is used only to direct the horse to the object over which he is to jump, the tension being eased just before he rises, that he may extend his neck, and resumed, as he lands, to steady him. If sluggish, the horse may be touched with the whip or spur, behind the girths, before he comes to the jump, but not at the instant he takes it, nor should he be encouraged by a cry, or by doing anything that might cause him to swerve. A horse can make a flying high leap best when he approaches it in a slow gallop, and the rider should never attempt to make him jump at so great a speed that he cannot collect himself for the leap. A high speed also prevents the norse from deciding where he should begin the leap, and confuses him. Only very expert riders are warranted in interfering with a horse in taking his jumps; most horses jump best if allowed to "take off," or leave the ground, as they please, the rider only steadying them a little if they rush at the obstacle. There is a great deal of nonsense in the idea that a horse can be '• lifted " and " helped " over his jumps; and it is usually novices, or very young persons, who attempt these feats: one might as well try to " lift himself by his boot-straps,' as to " lift " a horse over a jump. If the horse is sluggish, he must be enlivened with whip or spur, or by moving the bit in his mouth; but not the instant he is to " take off" the ground. The rider must not pull his horse as he rises, nor whilst he is in the air—to do so shortens the jump: if the rider cannot sit the jump, after a few trials, without the support of the reins, he had better improve his seat before continuing the sport.

In training a horse to jump, he should be made to leap only a few times at first, as he uses muscles not usually put to a strain, and,

moreover, will learn to dislike it if made tired. Horses seem to like jumping in the field with the excitement attending the hunt, but some of the best judges say they never like it: they certainly dislike being "schooled,' and jumping in cold blood. Always save your horse in hunting: take the fewest jumps necessary, and go through a break in the fence, or through a gate, when you can. Ease your horse in going over plowed ground, or up hill. If waiting at a " check," dismount and loosen your girths, and shift your saddle an inch either way.

Balking. If a horse refuses to move, or balks, wait quietly for a minute and he will often go on. Sometimes he can be made to go by moving the reins gently, and urging him with voice or whip; sometimes by pulling him around in the direction which he least resists; or, often by turning him around,sharply andquickly, a numberof times (thus confusing him), and then starting in the desired direction. A little dirt from the road put into his mouth often so distracts a balky horse's attention from his obstinacy that he will move on.

Rearing. The young horse is apt to rear if pulled and excited. When he rises, loosen the reins, even if you must hold on by the mane or neck; press the legs closely to him, well back: this has a tendency to bring his hind legs forward, and experts often use spurs, applied well back, to bring him down. Try to keep him moving either forward or in a circle, and pull his head toward either side if he is about to rise. If he is about to fall backward, try to throw yourself off to one side. A confirmed rearer is too dangerous to ride.

Shying. Shying is sometimes caused by near-sightedness, or other defect in the eyes, but it is generally the result of habit arising from bad breaking. If from the latter cause it can usually be overcome; if from bad eyesight, never. In riding a shying horse, the first requisite is that "the rider shall not shy himself." He should not let the horse know that he is expecting him to shy, as he communicates his timidity to the animal, who loses confidence in both himself and his rider. Whilst the rider should be on his guard, he should not, by change of seat or reins, lead the animal to think something is about to happen as he approaches an object: he should ride straight ahead, apparently paying no attention to the object or the horse. If he shys or sheers from freshness, keep him in a straight line by pulling his head toward the object and giving him pressure with the leg on the opposite side. If he stops or turns around, make him go, even if you must whip him {Behind the girths), especially if his shying be a mere pretence. If the object be really frightful much kindness should be used, with firmness. A steady rein and plenty of "nerve" in the rider will usually overcome shying, as the horse gains confidence in himself through his confidence in his rider. He should not be forced to face an object which really frightens him. He may be gotten to pass it by turning hishead From it, and pressing him on the side towardwh\ch his head is turned. If the object is moving toward the horse it is best to turn his head from it and his side toward it, stopping him, or moving gradually, until the object has passed.

Horses will often pass an object and not shy at a similar one again, if given a chance to examine it and touch it with the nose after being gently gotten up to it. Never whip a horse for shying after he has passed the object, as he will soon acquire the habit of running after each shy, as he expects the whip.

A horse may often be made to pass an object without shying by quietly pulling his head away from

it as he begins to notice it, and thus attracting his attention to something else: he cannot think of two things at the same time.

If a horse is evidently confirmed in the habit, he is not fit to ride, and should be disposed of and put to work where he can do no harm.

Bolting. If a horse bolts, or rushes from control of the bit, loosen the reins a moment and give them a sudden jerk, or sharply "saw " him: that is, pull the reins alternately on either side quickly and sharply, keeping his head up.

Some authorities say that by gathering the reins so short in the left hand that it presses against the mane, and then passing the right hand down (on either side as close as possible to the bit and pulling the horse's head quite around to one side, any bolter may be stopped. It is best to stop the horse, if possible, so soon as he starts faster than the rider wishes him to go, before he has gotten into the running stride. But if he does run, try to keep your seat; -'' . : '' :Vr": -• '.":a.i.'»'t him g'. .• ' beu".i%' 're. a.-''

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The rider should seldom use his whip to punish his horse, and the spur should never be so used. But when the whip is used for punishment, it should be sharply applied two or three times. If used to make the horse go forward when backing, it should be taken in the right hand, and a sharp cut be given over to the left side, behind the saddle girths, and brought back very quickly on its rebound, and struck on the right side, behind the girths. To do this expertly requires some practice off the horse, but it is worth the time, as it does not give the pain on one side only, and cause the animal to swerve. Skilled riders advise that a contest between the horse and his rider always be avoided, if possible, by turning the horse's attention to something else. Never strike on the shoulder, as the horse naturally draws back, or swerves, from the blow.

A bad rider sometimes punishes his horse for not understanding what he is wanted to do, when the fault is with the rider himself, who either does not know how to make his desire known, or does not do so clearly. A well-trained horse is always willing to obey, and does so the moment he understands. To punish him for not understanding is usually one step toward making him vicious. Authorities differ much on the subject of training horses, but it is safest to err on the side of kindness. A rider who does not lose his temper has a great advantage. A nervous horse with high courage may be a perfect saddlehorse in the hands of a self-controlled rider, and useless in those of a cruel, loud-voiced one.

In country-road riding, always pick the softest paths; and if the road be macadamized, ride on the edges. Ride slowly on descents, with shoulders back, and walk your horse down hills.

Pulling. Many horses pull, when first leaving the stable, from lack of work, and soon calm down. Some horses of a nervous disposition pull through anxiety to go ahead: such animals can be ridden with comfort only through gentle treatment and light hands. Often they will not pull unless pulled by the rider. Easy bits, such as a snaffle, bar, either rubber covered, should be used alternately, every few days. Horses with low, heavy shoulders, carrying low heads, are apt to pull, and are not fit for saddle use. If a horse with a good mouth begins to pull and bear down upon the bit, it will often be found that his feet are becoming contracted or "sore," or that he is stiff in his front legs. This j

bearing upon the bit is an effort to transfer a part of his weight.

A good veterinary should be consulted in such a case.

Hands. A rider is said to have "bad hands" when he continually pulls at his horse's mouth. "Good hands," or "light hands," seem to be natural with some riders, and almost impossible to cultivate in others. Women oftener have good hands than men, perhaps because they are not as strong and are more sensitive. Often a woman can ride with ease a high-strung nervous horse, which may be a puller, or even a run-away, under a rough-riding man. The rider must learn to "give and take" with the reins. If the horse pulls, use force enough to bring him to the pace required, aided by a kindly and quietly spoken word, like "there," or "walk" (but not "whoa." which should always mean stop), and then gradually loosen the reins. Always hold the reins tightly in the hands, whether pulling or not.

Unless great force is required, hold the fore-arms at right angles to the body, with the hands downward at the wrist, as in playing a piano. It will be found that there is strength enough at the wrists for the control of most horses,—certainly for well broken ones,—and that the hands will grow "light" as they "give and take" from the wrist with the motion of the horse's head whilst in action. If a horse bears down upon the bit, his head may be brought up by raising the hands and moving the snaffle reins sharply and quickly from side to side; or, if he is persistent, by raising either hand with a sharp pull upwards, ten or twelve inches.

If the tendency of the horse is to carry his head too low, carry the hands somewhat high. If he has the opposite tendency, carry the hands low.

Spurs. No beginner should wear spurs: they are a source of danger

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